Ancient Herbalists Legend:Jin Dynasty(Feb.4th,266~420 CE):Western Jin Periods(265 CE~316 AD),Eastern Jin Periods(316~420 AD)Back.
Jin Dynasty(Feb.4th,266~420 CE):Western Jin Periods(265 CE~316 AD),Eastern Jin Periods(316~420 AD)
Famous herbalist of this period:Ge Hong(major works:Bao Pu Zi,Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang).
During Jin period,Taoism spread in personages and aristocrats,Immortal Taoism began to take shapes,appeared many Immortal Taoists.Wang Jia(王嘉) was considered as a Supreme Taoist at north area.Except Taoist Wang Jia,famous Taoists of Wei-Jin period are known as:Ge Hong(葛洪),Sun Deng(孙登),Dong Jing(董京),Zhang Zhong(张忠),Tao Dan(陶淡),Meng Qin(孟钦),Ren Dun(任敦),Wu Meng(吴猛),Xu Xun(许逊),all known by later generations.
The famous Taoist Wang Jia(王嘉,?~390 AD.),practice Taoism as a hermit at Dong Yang Valley(东阳谷,located at today's Tai An county,Xing Guo ancient town,Xing Feng Village秦安县兴国古城,兴丰乡),Year 348,Wang Jia move to Mount Zhongnan(终南山,located at part of Qinling Mountains) to avoid chaos caused of wars,his disciples followed him to Mount Zhongnan,Wang Jia then moved to Dao Shou Mount(倒兽山,located at today's Xin Feng county south,Lin Tong city临潼新丰镇南),Wang Jia good at control Six Qi,hold San Yi,forsee good or ill luck,ever trusted by FuJian(苻坚) and Yao Chang(姚苌).
- Famous Herbalists:
- Ge Hong
葛洪,famous physician and world-renowned alchemist(283-344),native to Dan Yang Ju Rong(丹阳句容,today's Ju Rong county of Jiang Su province),also a famous Taoist Priest at Jin period,popularly known as Ge Zhichuan or Bao Pu Zi,author of the Bao Pu Zi,a treatise on alchemy,dietetics and magical practices,and the Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang,or A Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies,which includes many valuable descriptions and records of diseases.Ge Zhichuan is another name of Ge Hong,Bao Pu Zi is alias of Ge Hong.
Ge Hong was a very important scholar in the development of ancient Taoism,his family belongs to Taoist Master Aristocratic Families,called Dan Yang Tao Shi,Ge Hong studied witchery since 16 years old,from wizard Zheng Yin,except his famus book Bao Pu Zi(70 volumes) and Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang(4 volumes),Ge Hong also written other ancient books,such liks Shen Xian Zhuan or Legend of Immortals(10 volumes),Yin Yi Zhuan or Legend of Hermits(10 vlumes),etc.
About the origin of theory,Ge Hong was a famous Taoist,representative of Jin Dan School Taoism,in his book Bao Pu Zi there is an article named Jin Dan Pian(Article about Golden-Pills),recorded some legend about the origin of previous classics which influenced him,according to some Taoism archeological book,it stated:"左慈曾以《太清丹经》三卷,《九鼎丹经》一卷,《金液丹经》一卷,传授给葛洪祖父葛玄,葛玄又传给其弟子郑隐,郑隐再传给葛洪。"(1)(in PinYin:"Zuo Ci Ceng Yi Tai Qing Dan Jing 3 Juan,Jiu Ding Dan Jing 1 Juan,Jin Ye Dan Jing 1 Juan,Chuan Shou Gei Ge Hong Zu Fu Ge Xuan,Ge Xuan You Chuan Gei Qi Di Zi Zheng Yin,Zheng Yin Zai Chuan Gei Ge Hong",which means "Zuo Ci ever passed his book Tai Qing Dan Jing(Tai Qing Alchemical Classics) 3 volumes,Jiu Ding Dan Jing(Nine-Cauldron Alchemical Classics) 1 volume,Jin Ye Dan Jing(Golden-Liquid Alchemical Classics) 1 volume,to Ge Xuan who was grandfather of Ge Hong,Ge Xuan passed on these books to his disciple Zheng Yin,Zheng Yin passed on these books to Ge Hong.")
According to comtemporary Taoism scholar,Ge Hong should be classified to Immortal Taoism(神仙道) at Wei Jin period(2),and Ge Hong is considered as the founder of Immortal Taoism,and wrote the famous Taoism classic Bao Pu Zi Nei Pian(《抱朴子内篇》),according to Taoism scholar Hu Fuchen,the thought origin of Ge Hong comes from classics inherited from Fang Xiandao(方仙道) and Huang-Lao(黄老道),books of External Alchemy Huang Baishu(外丹黄白术) of Han Dynasty,like Huang Di Jiu Ding Shen Dan Jing(《黄帝九鼎神丹经》),Tai Qing Jin Ye Shen Dan Jing(《太清金液神丹经》);books of Fu Lu(符箓)(4).,like San Huang Wen(《三皇文》),Wu Yue Zhen Xing Tu(《五岳真形图》);another source is Ling Bao Jing(《灵宝经》) which handed down from generations to generations(3).
Wu Yue Zhen Xing Tu(《五岳真形图》):Wu Yue Zhen Xing Tu (or Five-Mount True Shape Pictograph) is a graphic symbol system which graphically represented five mountains of China,they are geographical categories of Taoism,which represented Mount Taishan(泰山,elevation 1532 meters),Huashan Mountain(华山,elevation 1997 meters,),Heng Mountain(恒山,elevation 2017 meters),Hengshan Mountain(衡山,elevation1512 meters),Songshan Mountain(嵩山,elevation1440 meters);which also seen as a topographic map of five mountains.Modern scholars(5) concluded these pictograph is a kind of plan sketch of the five mountains,as a proof it showed that the ground mapping arts of ancient China already reached to high advanced level two thousand years ago.Yuan Shan(圆山) is a kind of journey method at mountain area,with remember and understood this practical experience of Yuan Shan,ancient Taoist indicated the position of same height mountain top with ink mark,which may convenient for Taosists walk and detour in the mountain.
According to Ge Hong,"道书之重者，莫过于《三皇内文》，《五岳真形图》也。古者仙官至人，尊秘此道，非有仙名者不可授也。"which means,"The most important Taoism books,no others can equal to San Huang Nei Wen,Wu Yue Zhen Xing Tu.For those ancient immortals,all respect it and kept as secret,other bear no names of immortals could not taught them.",these ancient books are book of magic figures to call ghosts and immortals,which belong to the Cave Spirits Classics of Dao Zang.Bao Qian got ancient classic named Da You San Huang Wen(《大有三皇文》) at Yuankang 2nd year(元康二年,Yuan Kang is the reign title of Jin King Sima Zhong,year 292 AD),and it transmited to Ge Hong later.Fu Lu craft origined from ancient worship of He Tu(河图) and Luo Shu(洛书),used to evoke ghosts and immortals.
1: see Dao Jao Shi,page 43,Published by Jiang Su Ren Min Chu Ban She.2009.ISBN 978-7-80648-482-1.Further Note:Zuo Ci(左慈) was also a famous alchemist at end Eastern Han Dynasty or Three-Kingdom period,alias name Yuan Fang,native to Lu Jiang(belong to Today's An Hui province),Hou Han Shu ever recorded several his uncanny cases,in the book Shen Xian Zhuan(Legend of Immortals) written by Ge Hong,noted that "Zuo Ci knows Five Classics,and master of horoscope casting,studied Taoism later,could borrow power from and drive Ghosts and Immortals do something,countless cases."
2: see 《道学通论》,written by 胡孚琛(Hu Fuchen),ISBN978-7-5097-0814-9.page 196~198;Prof.Hu Fuchen concluded Immortal Taoism(神仙道) of Wei Jin period comes and varied from combination of Fang Xiandao(方仙道) and Huang-Lao(黄老道) of Qin and Han period,for the worsed political environment and changed very quick,scholars and personages hard to protect themselves in vulgar society,many scholars hided in mountains and forests to be a hermit,practice Taoism,took disciples and taught classics,the number of Taoism hermit increased very soon,Immortal Taoism(神仙道) became the characteristic Taoism at Wei Jin period.
3: see Ibid,page 198.Books named got identified by Prof.Hu Fuchen.
4: Fu Lu(符箓,fú lù),Fu Lu craft origined from Wizard formed since Eastern Han period,is a kind of magic arts of Taoism.History classics Hou Han Shu Fang Shu Zhuan(《后汉书·方术传》)noted:“河南有麹圣卿，善为丹书符，劾厌杀鬼神而使命之。”又记:费长房 向卖药翁（被称为壶公）学道，卖药翁“为作一符，曰:‘以此主地上鬼神。’……遂能医疗众病，鞭笞百鬼，及驱使社公”。“后失其符，为众鬼所杀。”,which means "a wizard named Ju Shenqing at He Nan area,good to make Dan and magic figures,to frighten and kill ghost immortals and drive them."And noted:"Fei Changfang learn Taoism from Old herbalist(Hu Gong,or Old Flask),herbalist made a magic figures and gave it to him,and said:'this could be used to control ghost and immortals above ground'...thus (he) can treat folk diseases,and drive hundreds of ghosts....lost his magic figures later,then got killed by those ghosts.".The magic figures of Taoism,or Fu Lu used widely,some used to treat disease,some used to exorcise,some used to prevent disasters,deliverie dead souls,some used to kill ghosts,some used to practice Qi-Gong.
5: see “试论道教五岳真形图”("Shi Lun Dao Jiao Wu Yue Zhen Xing Tu",or thesis about taoism Five-Mount True Shape Pictograph),by scholar 曹婉如(Cao Wanru),郑锡煌(Zheng Xihuang),at year 1987.
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