Ancient Herbalists Legend:Ming Dynasty(1368~April 25th,1644 AD)Back.
Ming Dynasty(1368~April 25th,1644 AD)
Famous herbalist of this period:Lou Ying,Dai Sigong,Xiong Zongli,Kou Ping,Yu Tuan,Han Mao,Xue Kai,Wang Lun,Wang Ji,Xue Ji,Lu He,Shen Zhiwen,Sun Yikui,Xu Chunfu,Li Yan,Li Lian,Wan Quan,Li Shizhen,Ma Shi,Zhang Sanxi,Yang Jizhou,Wang Kentang,Li Zhongli,Gao Wu,Zhao Xianke,Chen Shigong,Miao Xiyong,Gong Tingxian,Zhang Jiebin,Wu Youxing,Yu Chang,Wu Zhiwang,Chen Sicheng,Li Zhongzi,Fu Renyu,Fu Shan.
- Famous Herbalists:
- 楼英Lou Ying
- 戴思恭Dai Sigong
- 熊宗立Xiong Zongli
- 寇平Kou Ping
- 虞抟Yu Tuan
- 韩懋Han Mao
- 薛凯Xue Kai
- 王伦Wang Lun
- 汪机Wang Ji
- 薛己Xue Ji
- 卢和Lu He
- 沈之问Shen Zhiwen
- 孙一奎Sun Yikui
- 徐春甫Xu Chunfu
- 李梴Li Yan
- 李濂Li Lian
- 万全Wan Quan
- 李时珍Li Shizhen
- 马莳Ma Shi
- 张三锡Zhang Sanxi
- 杨继洲Yang Jizhou
- 王肯堂Wang Kentang
- 李中立Li Zhongli
- 高武Gao Wu
- 赵献可Zhao Xianke
- 陈实功Chen Shigong
- 缪希雍Miao Xiyong
- 龚廷贤Gong Tingxian
- 张介宾Zhang Jiebin
- 吴有性Wu Youxing
- 喻昌Yu Chang
- 武之望Wu Zhiwang
- 陈司成Chen Sicheng
- 李中梓Li Zhongzi
- 傅仁宇Fu Renyu
- 傅山Fu Shan
- 兰茂Lan Mao
- 贾所学Jia SuoXue
楼英,also called Lou Gongshuang or Lou Quan-shan(1332-1402),author of the Yi Xue Gang Mu,or Compendium of Medicine, in which diseases were classified into various types and categories according to yin-yang and viscera.This system of classification was very helpful in diagnosis and treatment.Lou Gongshuang is another name of Lou Ying.
戴思恭,also called Dai Yuanli(1324-1405),a court physician of the Ming Dynasty and president of the Imperial College of Physicians,author of the Zheng Zhi Yao Jue,or Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment,and Zheng Zhi Yao Jue Lei Fang,or Classified Prescriptions According to the Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment.He well expounded his master Zhu Zhenheng's theory of nourishing yin.Dai Yuanli is another name of Dai Sigong.
熊宗立,physician of the Ming Dynasty,author of the Ming Fang Lei Zheng Yi Shu Da Quan,or Complete Medical Work of Proved Recipes,also called Yi Shu Da Quan,or Complete Work of Medical Books(1446).
·寇平,an outstanding pediatrician of the 15th century,the author of the Quan You Xin Jian,or Directions in Pediatrics(1451),in which indigestion or unsuitable food is held to be mainly responsible for children's illness.
韩懋,physician of the Ming Dynasty,author of the Han Shi Yi Tong,or Han's Book of Medicine(1522),in which the importance of diagnosis in the treatment of disease is stressed and improvements in case recording with more comprehensive regulations are shown.
薛凯also called Xue Liangwu,a distinguished imperial physician,especially well known in pediatrics,author of the 保婴撮要Bao Ying Cuo Yao,or Essentials for the Care of Infants(1556),in which he stresses the importance of giving the right dosage of drugs according to age and recommends the severing of the umbilical cord by cautery.Xue Liangwu is another name of Xue Kai.
汪机,also called Wang Xingzhi(1463-1539),author of several medical books,such as the Zhen Jiu Wen Da,or Catechism on Acupuncture and Moxibustion,which is clear,simple and keeps to essentials,and is very useful for beginners,the Wai Ke Li Li,or External Medicine with Illustrations,and Yi Xue Yuan Li,or Principles of Medicine etc.Wang Xingzhi is another name of Wang Ji.
薛己,also called Xue Xinfu(c1487-1559),son of Xue Kai.As a famous physician versed in various aspects of medicine,he compiled many medical works,such as Nu Ke Cuo Yao,or Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Wai Ke Shu Yao,or Essentials of External Medicine,His and his father's works were edited by Wu Guan and titled Xue Shi Yi An,or the Xues' Medical Records.
卢和,distinguished herbalist of the 16th century,author of the 食物本草Shi Wu Ben Cao,or Dietary Materia Medica,in which he gives explanations on the laxative value of vegetables and their good effect on health.He advocates a vegetable diet,advising that meat should be eaten sparingly.
沈之问,expert in the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in the 16th century,compiler of the 解围元薮Jie Wei Yuan Sou,or Source of Relief(1550),a monograph on leprosy.
孙一奎,also called Sun Wenyuan or Sun Dong-su(1520-1600),author of the Chi Shui Xuan Zhu,or Black Pearl of the Red River,Yi Zhi Xu Yu,or Supplement to the Principles of Medicine and Yi An,Medical Records,collected by his sons,in which he advocates the combination of various schools and maintains that a doctor should be conversant with all the theories in order to master the whole art of healing.
徐春甫,also called Xu Ru-yuan,the author of the Gu Jin Yi Tong Da Quan,or A Complete Work of Ancient and Modern Medicine(1556),in which rich and valuable materials in various fields of medicine are accumulated.Xu warns that healthy people should avoid patients with consumptive diseases,particularly pulmonary tuberculosis.
李梴,also called Li Jianzhai,a physician of the 16th century who summarized the prescriptions used at that period and divided them into 18 different kinds.Li was the author of the 医学入门Yi Xue Ru Men,or Introduction to Medicine and the Xi Yi Gui Ge,or Rules for Medical Study.
李濂,literary man of the Ming Dynasty,who had been an official in Shanxi Province and was famous for his command of ancient Chinese language and literature.He wrote the 《医史》Yi Shi,or History of Medicine(1513),which records the lives of distinguished physicians.Li was the earliest biographer of ancient medical professionals.
万全,also called Wan Mi-zhai(c1495-1585),a distinguished pediatrist from a family of physicians for three generations,who inherited their rich clinical experience,especially in pediatrics.He advocates that a child should be frequently exposed to sunlight and fresh air,trained to resist cold and protected from being frightened,and should not be overfed or given too much drug treatment.He was the author of the Dou Zhen Shi Yi Xin Fa,or Experience in the Treatment of Smallpox and Rashes Handed Down through Generations,the You Ke Fa Hui,or Expounding on Pediatrics and the Yu Ying Jia Mi,or Family Secrets in Child Care.Wan Mizhai is another name of Wan Quan.
李时珍,also called Li Dongbi or Li Bin-hu(1518-1593),a great physician and naturalist.His father Li Yan-wen was an accomplished medical practitioner.Carrying on his father's profession,Li concentrated on medical studies,and his medical skill gained wide recognition among his contemporaries.He wrote a dozen medical works,among which the Ben Cao Gang Mu,or Compendium of Materia Medica is the greatest.His other works include the Bin Hu Mai Xue,or Binhu's Sphygmology and Qi Jing Ba Mai Kao,or A Study of the Eight Extra Meridians. Li Binhu and Li Dongbi are other named of Li Shi-zhen.
马莳,physician of the Ming Dynasty,author of the Huangdi Nei Jing Su Wen Zhu Zheng Fa Wei,or An Elaboration on the Spiritual Pivot of Huangdi's Internal Classic and the Huangdi Nei Jing Ling Shu Zhu Zheng Fa Wei,or An Elaboration on the Spiritual Pivot of Huangdi's Internal Classics(1589).
张三锡,physician of the Ming Dynasty,who emphasized the six aspects of medical work,i.e.meridians,diagnostic methods,pathogenesis,principles and methods of treatment,materia medica,and qi circulation.He wrote the 医学六要Yi Xue Liu Yao,or Six Essentials of Medicine(1609),which exerted a great influence on medical professionals of later generations.
杨继洲,also called Yang Jishi(1522-1620).His grandfather had been an imperial physician.He succeeded his grandfather as a physician,being paticularly skillful in acupuncture.He compiled a very comprehensive and practical book,called the Zhen Jiu Da Cheng,or Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1601),a work serving as a link between the past and the future.
王肯堂also called Wang Yutai or Wang Sun-an(1549-1639).Having served as a court official for some years,Wang returned to his native place and devoted most of his time to studying medicine until he became a famous physician.He was the author of the Liu Ke Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng,or Standards of Diagnosis and Treatment in Six Branches of Medicine,which had the largest circulation of all medical books in the 17th century in China.Wang Kentang was the representative herbalist of Meng He School (孟河医派,which origin could be traced back to Dong Han Dynasty and Three Kingdom period,origined and related from with herbalist and Taoist Ge Hong.) during Ming Dynasty period.
李中立,also called Li Zhengyu,author of the 《本草原始》Ben Cao Yuan Shi,or Origin of Materia Medica(1612),a practical book for pharmacists.Li did the illustrations of the medical substances himself,with their properties and methods of preparation described in detail.His book may be considered as one of the earliest works in the field of pharmacognosy.
高武,also called Gao Mei-gu,a famous acupuncturist of the Ming Dynasty who compiled the 《针灸聚英》Zhen Jiu Jie Yao,or Extracts of the Principles of Acupuncture and Moxibustion,and the Zhen Jiu Ju Ying,or A Collection of Gems of Acupuncture and Moxibustion.To help locate the acupoints,he made three bronze figures as models- a man,a woman and a child.
赵献可,also called Zhao Yangkui,a physician of the Ming Dynasty and the author of the Yi Guan,or Key Link of Medicine.He developed the "life gate" theory,attaching special importance to the function of this organ,and stressed the significance of reinforcing the fire of the "life gate".
陈实功,also called Chen Yuren(1555-1636),a distinguished doctor of internal medicine,with 40 years practical experience summarized in his book Wai Ke Zheng Zong,or Orthodox Manual of External Medicine.
缪希雍,also called Miao Zhongchun(1556-1627?),a physician of the Ming Dynasty,who often treated the poor free of charge.As an expert on materia medica,Miao was the author of the Sheng Nong Ben Cao Jing Shu,or Annotation on Sheng Nong's Herba and the Xian Xing Zhai Yi Xue Guang Bi Ji,or Miao's Extensive Notes on Medicine,which impresses the readers with his rich knowledge and clinical experience in internal medicine,external medicine,gynecology and pediatrics.
龚廷贤,also called Gong Yunlin,a physician of the Ming Dynasty in the 16th century,author of Wan Bing Hui Chun,or Restoration from All Illnesses,and Shou Shi Bao Yuan,or Longevity and Life Preservation.gong was also a famous massotherapist and the author of the Xiao Er Tui Na Mi Zhi,or Secret Principles of Massotherapy for Children.
张介宾,also called Zhang Jingyue(c1563-1640),author of several books on subjects such as sphygmology,gynecology,pediatrics and external medicine.Being especially versed in the Internal Classic,Zhang was the author of the Lei Jing,or Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic.His complete works,known as the Jing Yue Quan Shu,or Jing Yue's Complete Works,appeared in 1624.
吴有性also called Wu Youke(1582-1652),name 有性(You Xing),alias 又可(You Ke),alternative name淡斋(Dan Zhai),native to ancient Wu County,JiangSu province(江苏吴县洞庭,today's Wujiang county,Suzhou,Jiang Su),belong to the Han Ethnic Nationality(汉族),a famous roving doctor,a pioneer epidemiologist,author of the 《瘟疫论》(Wen Yi Lun),or Treatise on Pestilence(1642),a book devoted to the special study of several kinds of epidemic diseases then prevalent in many parts of China,it is the first classics about the epidemic febrile disease of traditional Chinese medicine.Wu put forward the theory of pestilential factors,and made a great contribution to the development of knowledge about epidemic infectious diseases.
The period herbalist Wu Youke survived,is the late of Ming,war and chaos,famine and disasters spread,fulminating infectious disease spread frequently.Ming Dynasty plague epidemic repeatedly spread,according to history book 《明史》Ming Shi(History of Ming),from the 6th year of YongLe to the 16th year of Chongzhen(Year 1408~1643),only in the 235 years,wide range of plague happened 19 times,these serious facts became the drive for the promption of herbalist Wu Youke and his study of the epidemic diseases.At that epoch,many herbalists “守古法不合今病(loyal to those ancient methods which not consistent with today's disease)”、“以今病简古书(simplify ancient classics with today's disease)”,which brought supplement and receipes has no effects.Plagues spread,“时师误以伤寒法治之，未尝见其不殆也(at that time masters treat it reference to Shang Han,never seen result the patient not died)”,Herbalist Wu Youke,with his own experience as a roving doctor and self experience of the trembling scenes of the death from infectious disease in villages,raised out new etiology different from the traditional etiology.His classics 《瘟疫论》(Wen Yi Lun),created new etiology,new pathology and new therapeutics.
His terms like 戾气说([lì qì]Li Qi Shuo),or epidemic pathogenic factor,pestilential qi;pestilential pathogen,the pathogen that cause a virulent contagious or infectious disease,also named as "疠气,疫疠之气,疫毒(yi du),异气(yi qi),乖戾之气,杂气(za qi)",which is the main pathogen of the epidemic infectious diseases.Herbalist Wu Youke gave detailed descriptions about the characters of the propagation,and he discovered firstly that the disease spread via respiratory tract.
Interestingly,herbalist 吴有性 proposed in the begining of his classics 《瘟疫论》(Wen Yi Lun) about the relationship between the ancient classic by Zhang Ji and the later editor Wang Xi,as he proposed "或谓瘟疫之症，仲景原别有方论，历年即久，兵火湮没，即《伤寒论》乃称散亡之余，王叔和立方造论，谬称全书。",sounds funny.
Herbalist Wu Youke,also has classics named 《伤寒实录》(Shang Han Shi Lu),which already lost in ancient wars.
喻昌,also called Yu Jiayan(c1585-1664),a well-known skillful medical practitioner and the author of the Shang Lun Zhang Zhong Jing Shang Han Lun,A Critical study of Zhang Zhongjing's Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases(simply Shang Lun Pian),or Critical Study and the Yi Men Fa Lu,or Principles and Prohibitions of Medical Profession,in which Yu made a new categorization of cold-induced disease and expounded his original ideas on some subjects,such as autumn dryness.
武之望also called Wu Shuqing(?-1629 A.D.),a physician who compiled the Ji Yin Gang Mu,or Compendium of Therapies for Women's Diseases(1620),which was circulated far and wide.He also wrote the Ji Yang Gang Mu,or Compendium of Therapies for Men's Diseases.
陈司成,also called Chen Jiushao,a physician of the Ming Dynasty,specialized in treating syphilis,who wrote the 梅疮秘录Mei Chuang Mi Lu,or Secret Records of Syphilis(1632),which not only summed up the experiences of his physician ancestor but also provided new records of diagnosis and treatment of the disease as the first monograph on syphilology in China.
李中梓,also called Li Shicai(1588-1655),a physician who wrote and compiled many books,such as the Nei Jing Zhi Yao,or Essentials of Internal Classic,the Yi Zong Bi Du,or Essential Readings in Medicine on the basis of Internal Classic and the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases,with reference to works written by other distinguished physicians and without negelecting his own experience in clinical practice.
傅仁宇,also called Fu Yunke,a famous oculist in the Ming Dynasty and author of the Shen Shi Yao Han,or A Precious Work of Ophthamology,also known as the Yan Ke Da Quan,or A Complete Book of Ophthalmology(1644),which contains detailed descriptions of the symptoms,diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.
傅山,also called Fu Qingzhu(1607-1684),was a well-known poet,painter,calligrapher and distinguished physician.After the fall of the Ming Dynasty,he resigned his post to fight against the new Qing regime.In the field of medicine,he left such books as the Bian Zheng Lu,Notes on Diagnosis,the Shi Shi Mi Lu,or Secret Records in Stone House,the Dong Tian Ao Zhi,or Mysterious Teachings in Cave.Since the author was persecuted by the government,his real name was not made known.The above-mentioned books were rearranged and republished by Chen Shiduo under the name of Xian Shou,or God's Teaching.Certain parts of the book were extracted and published again in the middle of the 19th century,titled Fu Qing Zhu Nu Ke,Fu Qingzhu's Works on Women's Diseases or Fu Qing-zhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology and Fu Qing Zhu Nan Ke,Fu Qing-zhu's Works on Men's Diseases.Fu Qingzhu is another name of Fu Shan.
贾所学(Jia SuoXue,year of birth and death not quite clear,may possibly lived at late of the 16th century to early or middle of the 17th century),alias 九如,a legendary Fangshi(alchemist) and herbalist ever lived in the late period of Ming Dynasty,native to Jiaxing,ZheJiang Province.贾所学(Jia Suoxue) is a legendary herbalist who has only a few literature records left,the history book 《嘉兴县志》(Jia Xing Xian Zhi) recorded that "贾所学，号九如。研究方书，深明理趣。有《脉学指归》、《药品化义》等刻。远近称之。",which means "Jia Suoxue,alias Jiu Ru.Master craft books,knew theory and essential thought in depth.His classics 《脉学指归》(Mai Xue Zhi Gui)《药品化义》(Yao Pin Hua Yi) and others engravd and published.Praised by folks townsman and folks far away."his works,according to 《嘉兴县志》(Jia Xing Xian Zhi),except 《脉学指归》(Mai Xue Zhi Gui)《药品化义》(Yao Pin Hua Yi),there were another 2 works,like 《医源接引》(Yi Yuan Jie Yin) and 《脏腑性鉴》(Zang Fu Xing Jian).Jia Suoxue's survived work 《药品化义》(Yao Pin Hua Yi) is regarded as a miracle herbal classics by later generations,full of wisedom and new classification methods.
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