Ancient Herbalists Legend:The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)Back.
The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)
Before the Song Dynasty,clinical practice and herb medicine closely related togethor,medicine science separated from herbs till the 10th century,or end of Tang Dynasty and beginning of Song dynasty,the precipitating factor of the separation,mainly because a lot of alchemist turned their identity to herbal doctors and practice herb processing,prepared medicine turned in full flourish at the epoch of Song,government runned prepared medicine processing and marketing agency appeared,The Song Dynasty was an unprecedented epoch of herb medicine development in the world history,all other area of the world in the field all falled behind the Civilization of Song.
The government of Song Dynasty showed attention in prepared medicine,changed decoction into powder,process and prepare herb medicine according to government published pharmacia,sell by the appointed government runned Hui Min Yao Ju(惠民药局,Benefiting Folks Pharmacy Bureau) according to the prepared recipes and prescriptions.Those emperors and officials of Tang Dynasty all wanted immortality and laid hope on alchemy,but unfortunately there were no immortals could be turned from their circle,the emperors and officials of Song Dynasty learned lessons,they laid hope on herb medicine to drive away disease and extend longevity,the emperors of Song ever gave orders for medicine recipes compilation,and arranged the Imperial Doctors Bureau for clinical test to screen out effective recipes,famous official herb recipe classics came to birth during the Song Dynasty,they are known as the 《太平圣惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang) with orders of Song Taizu and Taizong(宋太祖赵匡胤Zhao Kuangyin,宋太宗赵匡义ZhaoGuangYi)compiled at year 978AD and published at year 992,《圣济总录》(Sheng Ji Zong Lu) during year 1111~1117 by orders of Song Huizong(宋徽宗赵佶Zhao Jí),《和剂局方》(He Ji Ju Fang) during years of 1078~1085,later classics《太平惠民和剂局方》(Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang) extended from it and published at year 1151 by orders of emperor Song Gaozong(宋高宗赵构,year 1107~1187AD).The herb medicine processing industry highly developed,could prepare huge volume prepared medicines in professional sites,but on the other side,clause composed classics requested herbal doctors treat patients with dogmas and memorize mechanically,which very different from traditional treatment according to syndrome differentiation ever since ancient epoch,and opposed challenged by herbalists with wisdom.
Famous herbalist of this period:Wang Weiyi,Su Song,Shen Kuo,Su Shi,Qian Yi,Pang Anshi,Kou Zongshi,Liu Fang,Tang Shenwei,Cheng Wuji,Xu Shu-wei,Chen Yan,Wang Zhizhong,Qi Zhongfu,Zhang Yuansu,Liu Wansu,Zhang Congzheng,Li Gao,Song Ci,Chen Ziming,Chen Wenzhong,Yan Yonghe.
The listed herbalists are the most representative herbalists of the epoch,and this is not a complete list of the famous herbalist at the epoch.Herbalist is a very old profession since ancient China,there are countless folk herbalists work hard to carry their bounden duty of healing the wounded and rescueing the dying,they may completely unknown or unrecognized in public,many of them living simple life in mountains,due to this tradition,actually many Taoist and Herbalists with very high treatment skills actually became hermit,due to this reason those life stories of many Taoist Herbalist not knowable in details,or even became unknown.
- Famous Herbalists:
- 王唯一(Wang Weiyi)
- 苏颂(Su Song)
- 沈括(Shen Kuo)
- 苏轼(Su Shi)
- 钱乙(Qian Yi)
- 庞安时(Pang Anshi)
- 寇宗时(Kou Zongshi)
- 刘方(Liu Fang)
- 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei)
- 成无己(Cheng Wuji)
- 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi)
- 许叔微(Xu Shu-wei)
- 陈言(Chen Yan)
- 王执中(Wang Zhizhong)
- 齐仲甫(Qi Zhongfu)
- 张元素(Zhang Yuansu)
- 刘完素(Liu Wansu)
- 张从正(Zhang Congzheng)
- 李杲(Li Gao)
- 宋慈(Song Ci)
- 陈自明(Chen Ziming)
- 陈文中(Chen Wenzhong)
- 严用和(Yan Yonghe)
- 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin)
王唯一(Wang Weiyi,date of birth and pass:year 987-1067AD):distinguished acupuncturist of the Northern Song Dynasty who sponsored by the casting of two life-sized,hollow bronze figures,on the surface of which were marked the courses of the meridians and the exact location of the acupuncture points.He also took charge of the compilation of a very important book entitled 《铜人腧穴针灸图经》Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing,or Illustrated Manual of Acupoints on Bronze Figures(published in 1027),which facilitated the locating of acupuncture points and the teaching of acupuncture.
王唯一(Wang Weiyi),also may name 惟德(WeiDe),Wang Weide is another name of Wang Wei-yi,herbalist of North Song Dynasty,native county unspecified.Herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) ever assigned as imperial doctors in the reign period of 宋仁宗(Song RenZong,name 赵祯Zhao Zhen,year 1010~1063AD,the fourth emperor of North Song Synasty,reign period 1023~1063) and 宋英宗(Song YingZong,name 赵曙Zhao Shu,year 1032~1067AD,the fifth emperor of North Song,reign period 1063~1067AD),ever assigned official title "翰林医官(Han Ling Yi Yuan,Doctor of Imperial Academy)"、"朝散大夫(Chao San Da Fu)"、"殿中尚药奉御骑都尉(Dian Zhong Shang Yao Feng Yu Ji Du Wei)",etc.
Acupuncture and moxibustion is one of the important component of Chinese Medicine System,with history several thousand years.Before Song Dynasty and in Tang Dynasty,doctors diagnose and treat disease according to those channel and point marked by acupuncture classics of Tang Dynasty titled《皇帝明堂经》(Huang Di Ming Tang Jing),but unfortunately the classics 《皇帝明堂经》(Huang Di Ming Tang Jing) lost in chaos during war period at end years of Tang Dynasty,which made the acupuncture point lost standard.
To set new standard for the acupuncture point reference,Tian Sheng Four Yeats of Song(宋天圣四年,or year 1023AD),emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) sent out imperial edict let agency 医官院(Yi Guan Yuan,or the Medical Officer Academy Agency)to edit new classics,the Medical Officer Academy Agency handed the task to herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi),followed with the imperial order,herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) tried detailed archeological study and made identifications with those records about acupuncture and acupuncture chart details in ancient literature,summarized experiences from generations acupuncture and moxibustion experts before Song Dynasty,with 3 years indefatigable efforts,he drew out front elevation and side elevation according to human body,exact acupoint position,also sourced and collected clinical experiences from ancient epoch,collected acupuncture theory from different schools,compiled the acupuncture works in 3 volumes,recorded total 657 acupoints,accepted arrangement method with combinative way including both meridian channels and acupoint,made it easy to understand meridian channel system,and convenient for acupoint selection in treatment,the works finished at Tian Sheng Four Years(天圣四年,or year 1026AD),titled 《新铸铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),and published by Song government later,for the convenience of reservation,its texts carved on 5 pieces of stone tablets.
The emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) hold a viewpoint that “古经训诂至精，学者执封多失，传心岂如会目，著辞不若案形，复令创铸铜人为式。”,which means "ancient classics text interpretation very fine,scholars hold viewpoints and possibly lost something,to understand in heart may not comparable with to see with eyes,presented in works may not comparable with put in shapes,thus send orders again to casting bronze acupuncture figure",so emperor Song Renzong sent out imperial orders again to casting bronze acupuncture figure according to the new classics 《新铸铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),and arranged herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) responsible for design the bronze acupuncture figure,the imperial court organize those a skillful craftsmen to casting it,at Tian Sheng 5 Years of Song(宋天圣五年,or year 1027AD) finished casting 2 human figure with refined copper,these two figured got named as “宋天圣针灸铜人”(Song Tian Sheng Zhen Jiu Tong Ren,or Bronze Acupuncture Figure of Song Dynasty) by later generations.The emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) sent out imperial edict to place one of them at the 医官院(Yi Guan Yuan,or the Medical Officer Academy Agency),another one placed in 大相国寺殿(the Daxiangguo Temple,Famous Buddahist temple first built in 555 A.D.),these two bronze acupuncture figure all casted miming adult man,its body composed of front and back two parts,zang-fu internal organs put inside,acupoint engraved outer surface,all those acupoints connect with body inside,with yellow wax(bee wax) coated outside,injected with water or mercury inside,engraved with acupoint name on surface,once the acupoint hit,then liquid spilled over,needle could not enter with hit if a bit difference,thus doctors can try acupuncture hit with this,for use in teaching and test.These two bronze acupuncture figure lost after song Dynasty,whereabouts unknown.
With his effort,herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) did great devotions to the development of acupuncture of Song and later generations,and respected as a generation of great acupuncturist.
苏颂(Su Song,1020-1101): official who compiled the Tu Jing Ben Cao,or Illustrated Herbal(1062) in 21 volumes, with the appended pictures collected from different provinces by the other of the emperor.This was the first complete herbal with detailed pictorial illustrations of each medicament.
苏颂(Su Song,or So Siōng in Southern Fujian Dialect,year of birth and pass:1020~1101),alias 子容(Zi Rong),native to HuLuShan,TongAn county,QuanZhou city,Fujian Province of Song(宋福建泉州同安县葫芦山,today's TongAn area,XiaMen city,FuJian,China),astronomer and pharmacologist of North Song Dynasty,his ancestor immigrated into FuJian area followed with 王潮(Wang Chao) at end of Tang Dynasty,generations respected and influential clan at Minnan region,his father 苏绅(Su Shen) ever selected as Jinshi,苏颂(Su Song) born at a literary family,smart and fond of learning since child,accepted strict family education.
At Huang You 5 Years of Song RengZong(仁宗皇祐五年,Huang You is the reign title of Song RengZong,or 1053AD),苏颂(Su Song) was assigned title Collate of Jixian Yuan(国史馆集贤院校理) for nine years,during these years,苏颂(Su Song) joined team with herbalists 掌禹锡(Zhang YuXi),林亿(Lin Yi) compiled and supplemented herbal classics 《嘉佑补注本草》(Jia You Bu Zhu Ben Cao),calibrated and published herbal classics 《急备千金方》(Bei Ji Qian Jin Fang) and 《神农本草》(Shen Nong Ben Cao),and followed with these compilations,herbalist 苏颂(Su Song)edited herbal classics 《本草图经》(Ben Cao Tu Jing) in 21 volumes on his own effort.
The herbal classics 《本草图经》(Ben Cao Tu Jing) is a monumental herbal work inherit the past and forge ahead into the future,the most perfect and scientific herbal works appeared in the Song Dynasty period,it works inherited ancient medicine legacy in past thousands of years,supplemented with his own research experience and new discoveries,added big number medicine graphs and figures with texts notes,gave exact records of those herb related data,including habitat origin,shape and morphology,characters,applications,collect seasons,prepare method,identification method,combinative guide and cautions etc,very easy and exact to use,but ancient emperors not lay very importance on scientific discoveries,this giant works lost and could not passed on after 苏颂(Su Song),its content only available from herbal classics of later generations,among them the herbal classics 《本草纲目》Ben Cao Gang Mu by herbalist 李时珍(Li Shizhen)kept more articles in reservations and reference,but not all.
At Yuan Feng 2 Year of Song ShenZong(宋神宗元丰二年,Yuan Feng is the reign title of the Emperor Shenzong of Song,赵顼Zhao Xu,1048~1085,the eldest son of Song YingZong,the six generation emperor of North Song Dynasty,Yuan Feng 2 Years is the year 1079AD),苏颂(Su Song) was put into prison for the Chen Shiru case(陈世儒案),and gor prinsoned neighbour to famous literary giant 苏东坡(Su DongPo) who got put into prison for the case of Wu Tai Shi(乌台诗案),苏颂(Su Song) wrote a poem to express his depression:"遥怜北户吴兴守，诟辱通宵不忍闻。",which means "take a pity on friend Wu Xingshou far at north,remember those disgrace whole night and hardly bear to hear that."
One biggest devotion in the life of 苏颂(Su Song) was the reproduce project of the ancient astronomical instruments Astronomical Clock Tower(水运仪象台),the instruments Astronomical Clock Tower was ever created by 张衡(Zhang Heng) of East Han Dynasty,but it lost later,later astronomer of Tang Dynasty 僧一行(Ceng Yixing) and 粱令瓒(Liang LingZan) ever tried reproduce,but it lost again.Year 1088AD,苏颂(Su Song) organize scientists 韩公廉(Han Gonglian)、周日严(Zhou Riyan) and others started to reproduce the astronomical instruments Astronomical Clock Tower,with his own rich experience in astronomy,mathematics and mechanics,also absorbed experiences of laboring people using waterwheel,scoop waterwheel,shaduf,with exact theory calculation and model development,successfully reproduced the Astronomical Clock Tower just in 2 years and finished at year 1090AD,extremely improved the crafts level and function level of the Astronomical Clock Tower which appeared in Han and Tang Dynasty.
苏颂(Su Song) was a brilliant scholar of wide learning,also a pure and upright officer,his achievements on science and technology passed over his achievements in official career,the ancient history classics 《宋史,苏颂传》(Song Shi.Legend of Su Song)recorded that “经史、九流百家之说，至于图纬、律吕、兴修、算法、山经、本草，无所不通，尤明典故。”,which means he master with "classics history,various schools,know well with book of prophecy and books about charms,tonality,construction,algorithm,the classic of Mountains and Rivers,herbal,and many others,especially literary quotations."
The major works scientist 苏颂(Su Song) left are known as:《本草图经》(Ben Cao Tu Jing),21 volumes,《新仪象法要》(Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao),3 volumes,《苏魏公文集》(Su Wei Gong Wen Ji),72 volumes.
芦山堂(Lu ShanTang Temple) located in the south side of Hu Lu Mountain,Da Tong town,Tong An county,Xia Men city,Fu Jian province of China(福建厦门同安大同镇葫芦山南侧),built since Kai Yun Years of the Five Dynasties(五代晋开运年间,year 944~946AD),ruined before Shao Xing 23 Years of Song(宋绍兴二十三年,or year 1152AD),but its homestead still existed,and later on it built the temple of Su family,later burnt during occupied years of mongolia barbarians(year 1308~1311AD),rebuilt at early years of Min Guo,and also rebuilt at Feb of year 1988 by government,and now there are sitting statue of 苏颂(Su Song) respected there.
沈括(Shen Kuo,1030-1095):also called Shen Cunzhong.Though more famous as a scientist, Shen was renowned in medical circles for a treatise on therapeutics and medicine titled Su Shen Liang Fang,or Best Formulas Collected by Su Shi and Shen Kuo.
沈括(Shen Kuo) ever had very deep interest in herbs and medicine,sourced many effective recipes,and ever cured many patient with serious disease,he has wide knowledge of herbs,and could identify true or fake herbs from reality,and correct errors in ancient classics,his herbal works known today survived titled as《沈存中良方》(Shen Cun Zhong Liang Fang),the present version titled 《苏沈良方》(Su Shen Liang Fang) is a compiled works by later generation which added those various theories of 苏轼(Su Shi),in his works 《梦溪笔谈》(Meng Xi Bi Tan),沈括(Shen Kuo) ever mentioned the method of Prepared Salt,also mentioned detailed descriptions of 44 kinds herbs including morphology,combination,collection,and growing environment.
钱乙,Qian Yi(c1032-1113),also called Qian Zhongyang,appointed court physicians in 1090,whose experience as a pediatrician for more than 40 years was summed up by his student Yan Xiaozhong in the book Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue,or Key to Therapeutics of Children's Diseases(1119) in 3 volumes.One of the earliest pediatric books in ancient China,it had a profound influence upon the development of this subject.Qian was the first to give valuable definitions of measles,scarlatina,fever,chickenpox and smallpox,and point out the peculiar features of pediatrics.He also forwarded new methods of diagnosis and treatment.Qian Zhongyang is another name of Qian Yi.
钱乙(Qian Yi),birth at Ming Dao 1st Year of Song(宋明道元年,year 1032AD),pass at Zheng He 3 Years of Song(政和三年,year 1113AD),alias 仲阳(Zhong Yang),famous pediatrician,belong to the Han Nationality,native to Qian Tang of ZheJiang,immigrate to north with his father.Years later after he passed away,his disciple 阎季忠(Yan Jizhong) collected and edited his clinical experience,compiled and edited into works 《小儿药证直诀》(Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue) at Xuan He First Year(宋宣和元年,year 1119AD),it recorded 23 cases and 114 herbal formula.The works gave out very creative opinion abou topics related with pediatric and infantile physiology,pathology,dialectical therapy and recipe and prescription preparation,this works publish year over 300 years earlier than the earliest pediatric works of europ,and it is the first pediatric works of China survived till today and reserved in original copy,except this,herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) has other works known in ancient epoch as 《伤寒指论微》(Shang Han Zhi Lun Wei) in 5 volumes,《婴孺论》(Yin Ru Lun) over 100 articles,unfortunately they all lost in ancient time.
Father of herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) named 钱颢(Qian Hao),good in acupuncture,and also addict to alcohol and travel around,someday he hided his name and travel to east seas,never came back,钱乙(Qian Yi) only 3 years old at that year,his mother already passed away before that,his aunt married with 吕医生(Doctor Lv),doctor Lv took sympathy with the orphan 钱乙(Qian Yi),adopted him,and later 钱乙(Qian Yi) followed doctor Lv to study medicine and crafts.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) hold some special viewpoint on the treatment of pediatric disease,that compare with adult,the child has own special character on psychology and pathology,for example in psychology child “五脏六腑，成而未全，全而未壮”,"five zang-internal organs and six fu-internal organs,turned into shape but not completed,completed but not strong",in pathology “脏腑柔弱，易虚易实，易寒易热”,"the zang-internal organs and fu-internal organs weak and tender,easy to turn deficiency or excessive syndrome,easy cold or easy heat".Thus,once the kid hit by pathogenic factor,their resistibility normally lower than adults,and easy hurt by pathogenic evil,so the syndrome cases more frequency to be excessive type.But on the other side,once the pathogenic factor invaded human body,for the reason child internal zang-fu-organs weak tender and not supplied with enough Qi-Blood,pathogenic evil factor exhauting Genuine-Qi,then easy to turn the problems to deficiency syndrome for the damage of Genuine-Qi(Zhen Qi).Their Yang-Qi not sufficient,exhausted and generate internal cold;their Yin-Essence not sufficient,exhausted and generate internal heat,thus on the pathology deficiency,excessive,cold,heat changed very quick.This theory of herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi),laid the theoretical basis to master the development and change rules of pediatric disease.Based on this,in the clinical applications and practice of specific pediatric disease,he hold a viewpoint against treat with aimless or obscure method,for the pediatric disease,except those unavoidable cases with limited method available,normally should treat with age,physique and cases of pathogenic or healthy factors,better not treat with abuse.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) master ancient classics like 《内经》(Nei JIng),《金匮要略》(Jin Kui Yao Lue),《中藏经》(Zhong Zang Jing),《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang),based on them,he applied the five-internal organ dialectic theory to pediatric disease treatment,raised out speficic dialectic method for clinical practice of pediatric disease,he hold a viewpoint that “心主惊”，“肝主风”，“脾主困”，“肺主喘”，“肾主虚”,"heart main for fright","liver main for pathogenic wind","spleen main for sleepy","lung main for breath","kidney main for deficiency",and Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) lay extreme importance on analysis and syndrome differentiation with the deficiency,excess,cold or heat of internal zang-fu organs,and provide a series of therapy method to different disease accordingly,his theory is a kind a syndrome differentiation system of zang-fu organs,although not very complete,but already has primary frames,made devotions to the birth of zang-fu dialectic theory of TCM.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) laid emphasis on five-zang internal organs syndrome differentiation,most of his formula preparation related with deficiency,excess,cold and heat of five-internal organs,like treat heart excess syndrome with 导赤散,treat heart deficiency syndrome with 生犀散,treat liver excess syndrome with 泻青丸,treat liver deficiency syndrome with 六味丸,treat spleen deficiency with 益黄散,treat spleen damp heat with 泻黄散,treat lung deficiency with 阿胶散,treat lung heat with 泻白散,treat kidney deficiency with 六味地黄丸,etc.His prescription method lay importance on select herbs with gentle characters,not support use herbs with strong characters,this herb application principle of 钱乙(Qian Yi) set up by him especially for the character of child.When prepare remedy and prescriptions,Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) normally combine experience of previous generations and his own clinical experience,add or deduce with flexiblity to creat new formula.For example the famous formula Rehmaniae Bolus created by him,turned from ancient formula Shenqi Wan without cassia twig and prepared common monkshood.Beside this,herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) frequently select pills,powder,or paste tincture forms for treatment according to the pediatric characteristic,those prepared recipes may fit for the characteristics of pediatric disease including urgent and fast change,convenient for timely application,easy to be accepted by child.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) did very careful study with ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing)、《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun)、《神农本草经》(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing)etc.He also collect and extract subject related with pediatric from ancient literature,then study with them,before the epoch of 钱乙(Qian Yi),there were not many literature about pediatric disease treatment.According to history classics 《史记》(Shi Ji),herbalist 扁鹊(Bian Que) ever been a pediatrian,herbalist 卫汛(Wei Xun) ever compiled works 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing),unfortunately it lost in ancient epoch,other classics like 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun) by herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang),《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang) by herbalist 孙思邈(Sun Simiao),also has records of pediatric disease.Till the epoch of Song Dynasty,anonymous herbalist compiled 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing) 2 volumes with pseudo author ancient wizard,its content discussed with the pulse-taking method in children,syndrome diagnose and treatment of frightened epilepsy,malnutrition dysentery,erysipelas, miscellaneous pathoconditions.Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) did over and over study with this new 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing),and got enligtened from it,apply with clinical practice and got effective results,钱乙(Qian Yi) also borrowed the theory about “小儿纯阳”"child has a pure Yang-body" from 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing),combined his own clinical practice,based on the syndrome differentiation treatment summarized by herbalist 张仲景(Zhang Zhongjing),groped out a set of five-organ syndrome differentiation method system which fit for child,thus his disciple 阎季忠(Yan Jizhong) commented that he “治小儿该括古今，又多自得”,"treat child with reference to ancient and today,also a lot of his own real experience".Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) also applied the four methods of diagnosis(望诊 observation,闻诊auscultation and olfaction,问诊interrogation,切诊pulse feeling and palpation) in clinical practice,and extremely attention with observation,normally gave detailed description and discuss the whole body conditions of patients,gave out diagnose and differentiation identification with common pediatric disease including fright convulsion,herpes,crystalli,smallpox,scarlatina(scarflet fever),and proposed many effective treatment method,also clearly identify several different type of jaundice(aurigo),including those disease in modern medicine terms like epidemic hepatitis,intestinal parasitic disease,and morbus haemolyticus neonatorum.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) ever assigned as Imperial Academy Doctor Officer(翰林医官) for some years,one day,the son of emperor Shenzong(宋神宗) suddenly caught disease,asked many famous herbalist to diagnose,no effective results achieved,the disease turned worse and worse,and the son started to cramp,the emperor felt very anxious,someone suggested 钱乙(Qian Yi) to emperor,then herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) was called to imperial court,the emperor saw him small and slim,appearance not outstanding,belittled him some degree,but already invited him,then let him diagnose with his son.钱乙(Qian Yi) tried diagnose with observation leisurely and unoppressively,ask for paper and writing brush,wrote out a prescription titled “黄土汤”(Huangtu Tang,or Terrae Flavae Decoction).The emperor with suspicion took a look at the prescriptions,and feel surprised that a kind of medicine in the recipe is loess,could not hold his own emotions and asked with anger:“how are you!could loess be used as medicine too?？”,herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) replied with confidence:“据我判断，太子的病在肾，肾属北方之水，按中医五行原理，土能克水，所以此症当用黄土。”,"according to my own judgement,the disease of prince caught in kidney,kidney belong to water at north in five element theory,earth can overcome water according to five element theory,thus to treat this disease loess should be used.",the emperor heard him say to perfect satisfaction,his own doubt already disappeared some,at the time the prince happened to cramp again,the queen urge to say: “钱乙在京城里颇有名气，他的诊断很准确，皇上勿虑。”,"钱乙(Qian Yi) enjoy a good fame in our Capital,his diagnose must be very exact,so your majest no worry about it."thus,the emperor order take out a piece of loess which burnt many years in the cooking stove,packed with cloth and put togethor with other herbs to prepare decoction.Once the prince took a dose of it,cramp sooner stopped,and completely recovered after 2 dose.Till this date,emperor Shenzong(宋神宗) started to trust the crafts level of 钱乙(Qian Yi) in real,and upgrade him from Imperial Academy Doctor Officer(翰林医官) to a higher rank officer titled Imperial Medical Officer(太医丞).
In his late days,one day,when Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) got up,took his own pulse,know something,then he told family members to notify all his relatives come,and have a dialogue with them one by one,ask family members prepare him clean clothes,changed it then told family members to go with their own things,he sit quietly in bed,looking at those kids playing happily in the yard,seems he himself back to childhood,slowly he closed eyes,and pass away at age 82.Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) saved countless child in his whole life,he did not ever have a happy childhood,but not lose a philanthropic heart！
庞安时(Pang Anshi,c1043-1100):physician noted for several medical works,among which the most widely read was a detailed and comprehensive treatise on various kinds of fever under the title of Shang Han Zong Bing Lun,or General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases(1100).
庞安时(Pang Anshi,year 1042～1099,or 1100AD),alias 安常(An Chang),self title 蕲水道人(Qi Shui Dao Ren,or Qi Shui Taoist),native to QiShui(蕲水,ancient toponym,todays XiShui county,HuBei province,China),he was titled as “北宋医王”(Bei Song Yi Wang,or the Herbalist King of North Song Dynasty).庞安时(Pang Anshi) born at family with doctor tradition,smart and lfond of learning since child,do not forget once read.Ever read the classics of Huang Di and Pulse classics of Bian Que,know well its theories sooner,then could gave new interpretations,he was 20 years age the time,caught disease and deaf later,went on with studying ancient herbal classics《灵枢》(Ling Shu)、《太素》(Tai Su)、《甲乙经》(Jia Yi Jing) etc,also studied with those classics related with medicine,and studied throughly and correlatively.Herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) mastered with and had excellent treatment crafts,treat and care with patient urgent conditions,not seek private benefit when treat people,often invite patients who came to seek treatment stay in his own house and took care of them by himself until they recovered health and said farewell with eachother,in his late years,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) combined theories from different schools and his own clinical experience,compiled and edited medicine classics 《伤寒总病论》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun) in 6 volumes,gave further supplement and interpretation elaboration with the thought of ancient herbalist Zhang Zhongjing.Its extreme characteristics is lay importance on interpretation of febrile disease,and hold a viewpoint to differentiate with and separate febrile disease from cold-induced disease,this new thought was regarded by later generation as a big devotion to the development of exogenous disease.
Herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) fond og recipes in his child hood,carefully studied with ancient classics《内经》(Nei Jing)、《难经》(Nan Jing)、《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun) and other professional medicine academic works,also knew well with different classics and history schools,think thoroughly and away from disruption of confucian school of idealist philosophy,thus he had many correct and penetrating views on medical theory and practice,extreme devotions on cold-induced disease,for his study with depth and brave clinical practice,made it easy for apply medicine,acupuncture or massage in treatment,and obvious effects achieved,but he was a classical person not bundled with previous theories,hold on his free will seek with audacity and mediated in depth,and achieved many new theories and creations.For example herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) set up 病坊(Patient Workshop),let patients stay with,this was a creation of the TCM system in the middle of North Song Dynasty,he also tried reduce the burden of patients and produce herbs for patients,hold on his own belief "(to be a doctor) not for benefit"(“为医不致于利”),his distingue medical ethics,really hard to reach for doctors of today's China.
On the academic thoughts,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) not only master with cold-induced disease,also good with epidemic febrile disease,knew well internal,pediatric and gynaecology,wide and rich experience of clinical practice,gave extreme elaboration with cold-induced disease and epidemic febrile disease.
Interpretation on theory of cold-induced disease:for the treatment of cold-induced disease,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) hold his theory major from pathogenic factors and pathogenesis,and combined other factors including physique,geography,climate factors to detect,he inherited previous theory and viewpoint that the pathogenic reason of cold-induced disease was severe pathogenic cold(寒毒),and it varies for the different cases suffered with difference of time,geography location,physique,and represented as different syndrome as 伤寒(cold-induced disease),中风(wind-stroke syndrome),风温(wind-warm syndrome),温病(febrile or warm disease),湿病(diseases caused by dampness),暑病(summer-heat disease),these different syndromes.He gave further elaboration on the basis of discussions from《伤寒例》(Shang Han Li),emphasised that the common shared pathogenic reason of all exogeneous febrile disease was toxic pathogen(毒),although the toxic pathogen has different properties like yin,yang,cold,heat etc,the clinical representation syndrome also varied multiply as wind-stroke,fibrile warm,summer dampness,type urgent not serious or serious,but as once caught the toxix pathogen,then caught the common characteristics of all exogeneous fibrile disease,which means the treatment of exogeneous disease should lay importance on method of detoxification.On the other side,he also pointed out that “凡人禀气各有盛衰”,“寒毒与营互相浑”,“当是之时，勇者气行则己，怯者则著而成病矣”。hold a viewpoint that although the severe pathogenic cold already invaded human body,but whether it could turned disease depend on factors like the physique strong or weak and the genuine Qi conditions excessive or deficiency,and on the tendency of the severe pathogenic cold transformed,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) also laid emphasis on the determination of physique reasons,hold viewpoints that “假令素有寒者，多变阳虚阴盛之疾，或变阴毒也；素有热者，多变阳盛阴虚之疾，或变阴毒也”。,the basic viewpoint about pathogenic factors based on internal reasons,he also recognized that exogeneous disease closely related with four seasons climate,geography and dwelling place,for the same hit with severe pathogenic cold,when it attack in winter turned into cold-induced disease,when it attack in spring induced by warmth turned into febrile disease,when it attack in summer induced by heat turned into summer-heat pyrexia disease,attack in summer induced by summer dampness turned into diseases caused by dampness,different syndromes occured for season climate changes.Not only this,patients living in mountain area more frequency caught wind-stroke syndrome and syncope due to pathogenic cold,patients living in plain area more frequency caught summer-heat disease and dampness-disease,which proved that disease attack has relations with living habitat too.庞安时(Pang Anshi) treat cold-induced disease both respect rules of Zhang Zhongjing,also change well with flexibility,oftenly treat with personal conditions and place conditions,got many rich experience on treatment and accumulated rich therapy method of cold-induced disease.
Interpretation on theory of epidemic febrile disease:for the epidemic febrile disease,basically herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) classified them as latent Qi(伏气,latent pathogen,or warm disease caused by latent pathogen) and 天行(epidemic disease,also called时行or时疫).The former(latent Qi) caused by cold pathogen hit in winter,then varies according to different seasons,including "febrile or warm disease" in spring,"heat disease" in summer,and wind-stroke syndrome(中风Zhong Feng),diseases caused by dampness(湿病Shi Bing),wind-warm syndrome(风温Feng Wen) etc,庞安时(Pang Anshi) hold a viewpoint that “其病本因冬时中寒，随时有变病之形态耳，故大医通谓之伤寒焉”。and the latent Qi(伏气,latent pathogen) also could be classified as insidious cold(伏寒Fu Han) and insidious heat(伏热Fu Re),but they all different from epidemic febrile disease(天行温病).Thus he pointed out:“天行之病，大则流毒天下，次则一方，次则一乡，次则偏着一家。”,which means the epidemic febrile disease was caused by the abnormal Qi(异气Yi Qi,also named pestilential pathogen疠气Li Qi) which display strong toxic,and with characteristics including epidemic,infectiousness,is a kind of syndromes with another kind of character among the exogeneous febrile disease,its treatment may different from the treatment of cold-induced disease,the treatment of cold-induced disease may "has theory to induce perspiration or purgative methods"(“有可汗可下之理”),but "for the epidemic febrile disease,if treatment like cold-induced disease with sweat or purgative methods then definitely death"(“温病若作伤寒行汗下必死”),so herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) hold a viewpoint that the epidemic febrile disease(温病) and cold-induced disease(伤寒) should be treated separately,this showed some influence on the form of seasonal febrile disease doctrine(温病学说) in later generations.庞安时(Pang Anshi) observed from his rich clinical practice that,among the epidemic febrile disease(温病) the epidemic heat syndrome(温毒) may be the most serious and dangerous type,he tried made syndrome differentiation of the epidemic heat 5 syndromes(温毒五大证) with theory of four seasons,five elements,meridians collaterals and Zang-Fu-organs,has some wise viewpponts,and pointed out different synptoms of the epidemic heat syndromes that “自受乖气而成脏腑阴阳温毒者，则春有青筋牵，夏有赤脉，秋有自气狸，各有黑骨温，四季有黄肉随，治疗各有各法”。For the treatment of the epidemic heat 5 syndromes(温毒五大证),he focused on the heat poison(“毒”),treat with large dose of herbs with toxic heat removing property,hot warm and poison diffusion,prescriptions normally used large dose of gypsum as main content,actually initiated a new way for later herbalist to treat pestilence.Except this,he also compiled works 《辟温疫论》(Pi Wen Yi Lun) and listed out recipes which could treat epidemic disease and prevent folks caught,including ":辟温粉，雄黄嚏法，千敷散" etc,which embodies his viewpoints on the importance of prevention for the epidemic disease treatment.
The legend also recorded the case of herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) with a Well titled "庞安时与杨井" happened at Xi Shui(浠水城郭乡杨家铺),and the story he saved a pregnant lady at Tong Cheng(舒州桐城)with acupuncture titled "庞安时一针救产妇".
Works and works survived:herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) gave very high recommend on ancient classics 《难经》(Nan Jing),ever compiled works known in ancient time including 《难经辨》(Nan Jing Bian),《主对集》(Zhu Dui Ji),《本草补遗》(Ben Cao Bu Yi),for the long years,most of the works lost till today,only survived one copy titled《伤寒总病论》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun) in 6 volumes.
寇宗时(Kou Zongshi):an expert on materia medica in the Song Dynasty,author of the 《本草衍义》(Ben Cao Yan Yi),or Applied Materia Medica(1116),which lists 460 commonly used medicines with valuable records of identification,pharmacology,and process of preparation.
寇宗奭(Kou Zongshi,year ?~?),herbalist of Song Dynasty,year of birth and pass unknown,legend and life story unknown.Assigned as official title 通直郎(Tong Zhi Lang) during Zheng He Years(政和,year 1111-1117AD).Good study with herbalism and extremely attention with herb characters.With over ten years,collect and gathor good reference,diagnose and treat patients suffering,and hold a viewpoint:"疾病所可凭者医也，医可据者方也，方可恃者药也。”,"the only help for suffering is herbalist,the accordance for herbalist as reference is recipes,the recipes depend on herbs",herbalist should identify the effective or poison of herbs,differentiate with recipes,could not mixed real with fake,mixed new with old.Herbalist 寇宗奭(Kou Zongsh) ever compiled herbal works titled 《本草衍义》(Ben Cao Yan Yi) in 20 voilumes,finished at Zheng He Six Years(政和六年,year 1116AD).Later herbalists 李时珍(Li Shizhen) commented that:“参考事实，核其情理，援引辨证，发明良多，东垣、丹溪诸公，亦尊倍之。”,"quoted and reference to facts and events,identified the conditions and reasons,quoted and made syndrome differentiations,inventions good and many,later herbalist 东垣、丹溪 all respect him.",also pointed out a mistake:“以兰花为兰草、卷丹为百合，是其误也。”,"identified orchid as Chinese Hemp Agrimony,tiger lily as bulb lily,are his mistake."
刘方(刘昉,Liu Fang,c1080-1150): official of the Southern Song Dynasty,interested in the art of healing,especially pediatrics,and researcher into old prescriptions and remedies.Togethor with Wang Li,compiled the 《幼幼新书》(You You Xin Shu),or A New Book of Pediatrics(1132),one of the earliest monographs of its kind,with substantial content.
刘昉(Liu Fang,year 1080-1150AD),official of Song Dynasty,know medicine.Passed test as selected as Jinshi at Song Xuan He Six Years(宣和六年,or year 1124AD),ever assigned as official title 礼部员外郎(Li Bu Yuan Wai Lang)、太常寺少卿(Tai Chang Si Shao Qin)、夔州(今四川奉节)知州(Kui Zhou Zhi Zhou)、荆湖转远副使(Jin Hu Zhuan Yuan Fu Shi)、潭州（今湖南长沙）知州兼荆湖南路经略安抚使(Tan Zhou Zhi Zhou Jian Jin Hu Nan Lu Jing Luo An Fu Shi) etc,also ever assigned title 龙图阁学士(Long Tu Ge Xue Shi),thus folks called him Liu Long Tu(刘龙图),officer at Tan Zhou(潭州).
For he saw child suffering with disease,and there were no pediatric medicine classics to save them,thus extracted discussions and articles about pediatric subject from previous classics,ordered officer 干办公事王历(Wang Li,official title Gan Ban Gong Shi) and 乡贡进士王湜(Wang Shi,official title Xiang Gong Jin Shi)edit and compile togethor,and accumulated into great works,titled 《幼幼新书》(You You Xin Shu),total 40 volumes,for caught disease the last 2 volumes and preface togethor edited by disciple 李庚(Li Geng).This pediatric works quoted extreme rich ancient classics and literature contents before Song Dynasty,among them including works lost later or other literature known in ancient epoch,and it has certain value in literature,a epitomizer work of the pediatrics subjects before Song Dynasty.
唐慎微,Tang Shenwei,also called Tang Shenyuan,a physician especially proficient in therapeutics,who declined the offer of an official post to devote his life to medical practice and collecting folk recipes.He wrote the Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,or Classic Classified Materia Medica for Emergencies(1108),a work in 31 volumes,and submitted it to the emperor who changed the title to Da Guan Ben Cao,or Daguan Herbal.
唐慎微(Táng Shènwēi,Tang Shenwei),alias 审元(Shen Yuan),native to Jin Yuan of ShuZhou(蜀州晋原or蜀州晉陽,四川崇庆,today's Chong Qin of SiChuan),immigrated to Cheng Du later,herbalist of Song Dynasty,practice meidine generations,know herbs since child,study in depth with ancient classics.
Herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) harsh-looks,acts and speech honest and slow-witted,but wise and clever,excellent in treatment,high morality.During Song Yuan You Years(元佑年間,year 1086～1094AD) ever followed 李端伯(Li Duan Bo) as teacher,with invitations of 李端伯(Li Duan Bo),Herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) immigrated to Chengdu and lived at 華陽(Hua Yang,east south suburb of Chengdu).His treatment for folks,whatever they rich or poor,wind or rainy days,help when needed,and he never charge any money when treat intellectuals,only ask them wrote a famous or secret formula as reward,so scholars like to be friend with him,greatly enriched his experience of classics and recipes.
With many years literature collection and editing,herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) combined two herbal classics appeared since early of Song Dynasty named 《补注神农本草》(Bu Zhu Shen Nong Ben Cao) and 《图经本草》(Tu Jing Ben Cao),widely collecting recipes recorded in different schools literature and medicine experience from folks,finally edited and compiled herbal classics《经史证类备急本草》(《經史證類備急本草》Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,briefly called 《證類本草》《证类本草》Zheng Lei Ben Cao)in 31 volumes,table of contents in 1 volumes,totally 32 volumes,this works summarized medicine achievements before Song Dynasty,collected all different schools of history and classics,including medicine records from Taoism classics and Buddism books,collected article totally 1746 pieces.The book primarily edited and finished at around Yuan Feng Five Years(元丰五年,year 1082AD),唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) continued editing it and finalized the manuscript at around Yuan Fu 1st Year to Da Guang 2 Years(元符元年至大观二年,or year 1098-1108AD),published by 艾晟(Ai Sheng) with collation,titled 《大观经史证类备急本草》(Da Guan Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao《大觀經史證類備急本草》) in 31 volumes.At Zheng He Six Years(政和六年,or year 1116AD) medical officer 曹孝忠(Cao Xiao Zhong) revised according to it,and retitled as 《政和新修经史证类备用本草》(Zheng He Xin Xiu Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Yong Ben Cao) in 30 volumes.The classics spread widely before Ming Dynasty,prompt the development of the Science of Chinese materia medica,reflected the development level of the materia medica of Song.The works total 32 volumes,total more than 600,000 words,an agglomeration of herbal classics till Song Dynasty of China.Herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) finished such a great and exact medicine monumental work with personal energy,it is really a legend,once it published the classics generated huge influence both in domestic and oversea,got published by every later dynasty,and published as national legal herbal classics several times,followed by for over 500 years,when herbalist 李时珍(Li ShiZhen) of Ming Dynasty compiled herbal classics《本草纲目》(Ben Cao Gang Mu),also used the classics《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) as blue print and he commented that:“自陶弘景以下，唐、宋本草引用医书，凡八十四家，而唐慎微居多。”,"ever since Tao Hongjing,the classics quoted during Tang and Song dynasty,for those 48 schools,the works from Tang Shenwei quoted a lot."
The huge works herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) by herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) did great devotion to the Chinese materia medica development,except collected complete herbs and medicines,it also recorded detailed knowledge about functions properties of herbs,application method,herb origins,cultivation techniques,herb identification.preparation etc,besides,the classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) collected discourse on prescription ever since herbalist Zhang Zhongjing till North Song Dynasty,traditional popular prescriptions,and his own clinical verified prescriptions,total more than 3000 pieces,supplemented to sections of different herbs and medicine notes accordingly,convenient for doctors and herbalists use and learning.Herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) collect prescriptions with such supplement method,initiated the analysis mode of the "prescription-herb contrast",became a paradigm of later generation herbal classics compilations.
The herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) has very rich detailed contents,many herbs collected,listed both herbs and prescriptions,as a great achievement works summarized Chinese materia medica before Song Dynasty,was regarded as a very important history literature for the study of TCM,it also displayed very far and deep influence on health preservation for later generations till today.
The herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) quoted many ancient herbal classics as references and extracts,like ancient classics 《神农本草经》(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing) etc,it also widely collected medicine and herb records from ancient different school of classics and history,notes and collected works,thus many ancient classics lost in later epoch,sometime could be read from the quoted section or articles in the herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao).
When editing the herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao),herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) not only combined the whole complete content from the classic 《嘉祐本草》Jia You Ben Cao by herbalist 掌禹锡(Zhang Yuxi) and 《图经本草》Tu Jing Ben Cao by 苏颂(Su Song),he also quoted and cited extensively by way of corroboration,identify with fine criteria,use the form figure-text in contrast,compiled and collected herbal classics from different schools before Song Dynasty,and reserved kept great volume of medicine literature for later generations.When editing the great works 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao),herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) checked and read great number of works and literature,those classics quoted by him totally 247 kinds,among them the works related with herbal and recipes are known as 《神农本草经》(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing)、《雷公炮炙论》(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun)、《本经集注》(Ben Jing Ji Zhu)、《本草拾遗》(Ben Cao Shi Yi)、《新修本草》(Xin Xiu Ben Cao)、《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao)、《开宝本草》(Kai Bao Ben Cao)、《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang)、《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao)、《圣惠方》(Sheng Hui Fang)、《灵苑方》(Ling Yuan Fang)、《肘后方》(Zhou Hou Fang)、《海药本草》(Hai Yao Ben Cao),etc.
For later epoch,those main contents of many precious herbal classics literature lost in later epoch,all reserved and kept in the huge works 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao),which brought big convenience for re-compilation and recover by later generation.The most precious thing is,herbalist editor 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) pay great attention to keep the original appearance and content of literature,and edited with collecting original text as main method,thus reserved huge volume precious literature lost in later epoch.For example the herbal classics《雷公炮炙論》(Lei Gong Pao Zhi Lun),it is a famous works about herb preparation,and it was 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) almost collect all its contents first time into the huge works 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao),also other important herbal works which lost in later period such like《食療本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao)、《本草拾遺》(Ben Cao Shi Yi)、《海藥本草》(Hai Yao Ben Cao)、《食醫心鏡》(Shi Yi Xin Jing) etc,their main contents still survived till today major attributed to the hard efforts and reservation from herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) and his huge works 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao).
Except widely sourcing and collecting herbal classics and recipe works before Song Dynasty,herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) also collected thos content related with medicine and recipes from different ancient classics and schools,hilosophy and literature,recipe content from the Taoist patrology and Buddhist works,such like those 《毛诗注疏》(Mao Shi Zhu Shu)、《尚书注疏》(Shang Shu Zhu Shu)、《礼记注疏》(Li Ji Zhu Shu)、《周礼注疏》(Zhou Li Zhu Shu)、《春秋左传注疏》(Chun Qiu Zuo Zhuan Zhu Shu)、《尔雅注疏》(Er Ya Zhu Shu)、《史记》(Shi Ji)、《淮南子》(Huai Nan Zi)、《抱朴子》(Bao Pu Zi)、《山海经》(Shan Hai Jing)、《青霞子》(Qing Xia Zi)、《神仙秘旨》(Shen Xian Mi Zhi)、《宝藏论》(Bao Zang Lun)、《房室经》(Fang Shi Jing)、《孙真人枕中记》(Sun Zhen Ren Zhen Zhong Ji)、《太平广记》(Tai Ping Guang Ji)、《野人闲话》(Ye Ren Xian Hua)、《北梦琐言》(Bei Meng Suo Yan) etc,all in his reference.
The herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) recorded herb and medicine total 1580kinds,among them the newly added herb and medicine totally 476 kinds,got big break through than herbal classics before Song Dynasty.This huge works incorporated knowledges of diverse nature including herb and medicine morphology,true of fake,preparation and specific applications etc,compile and edited togethor,easy for reading and understanding.
The herbal classics before Song Dynasty,normally only recorded the main functions and applications of herbs and medicine,without any recipe or prescriptions attached,herbalists need recheck recipes and herbs when study and use them,which means inconvenience.The huge works 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) collected ancient classics works and discourse on prescription of ancient famous herbalists,sourced and collected big volume single herb recipes and effective recipes,total more than 3000 pieces,recorded and attached under subject of related herb medicine,which brought convenience for doctors and scholars know their uses and applications with a glance.It made many innovations in stylistic rules and layout,such like compiled medicine theory and herb figure togethor as one works,made many text identification and collation,supplement etc to ancient classics.Ever since it published until the publish of 《本草纲目》(Ben Cao Gang Mu),in the epoch over five hundred years,there never appear another herbal classics could compared favourably with it in contents.
The herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) embraced all those literature essence of ancient herbal classics upto 《神农本草经》(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing) and down to 《嘉祐本草》(Jia You Ben Cao) of Song,it is one of the survived earliest epoch-making herbal huge works with most complete-contents of China,it has very rich content,its material and literature detailed and accurate,reliable,attached with detailed notes,rigorous stylistic rules and layout,contents well arranged,a very precious shining pearl with great splendor in the TCM history,also a very important literature origin for later scholars to identify herbology and materia medica development history,compiling lost ancient herbal classics,and ancient medicine recipes classics.
The herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) compiled with rigorous stylistic rules and layout,contents well arranged.Except kept the stylistic rules and layout inherited from herbal classics 《嘉祐本草》(Jia You Ben Cao),it created supplemental new content marking forms named Mo Gaizi(墨盖子,marking with ink) as the marking of those newly added content by herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei).
The herbal classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) is the herbal classics with great achievement of ancient classics before Song Dynasty,once it published,republished by all later dynasties,and also used as national legal pharmacia several times,followed by over 500 years,for its rich contents the classics 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) also bacame a basis of all later herbal classics.The british scholar Dr.Joseph Needham commented it in one of his history classics about science and technology of ancient China,“十二三世紀的《大觀經史證類本草》(即《證類本草》在宋大觀年間的刊行本)的某些版本要比十五和十六世紀早期歐洲的植物學著作高明得多”,"the classics《大觀經史證類本草》(Da Guan Jing Shi Zheng Lei Ben Cao) published in the 12th and 13th century much wise than herbal works appeared in 15th and early 16th century in Europe. ",as the outstanding herbal works of North Song Dynasty,“達到了空前未有的高水平”,"it achieved the unprecedented high academic level".And herbalist 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei) as a folk doctor,compiled and finished such a great and excellent herbal works on his own energy independently,it is really a miracle in the history of medicine.
成无己,Cheng Wuji(1063-1156?):leading physician of the Jin Dynasty,known for his assiduous study of and commentary on Zhang Zhongjing's classical work Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases.His Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases(1142 or 1144),is considered the earliest of its kind in Chinese medical literature.
成无己(Cheng Wuji,about year 1063～1156AD),year of birth and death unknown,according to author 张孝忠 noted in postscript of 《注解伤寒论·跋》(Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,or Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Disease),at year 1156AD herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) already over 90 years age,still alive and healthy,so his birth year could be concluded early to Jia You Zhi Ping Years of North Song(北宋嘉祐治平年间,Jia You is the last reign title of emperor Song Renzong Zhao Zhen,宋仁宗赵祯,or year 1056~1067AD),the time dated around end of North Song dynasty and early of Jin,lived at Liao She(聊摄,today's YangGu County,Shan Dong),after the invasion event of 靖康之耻(Jin Kang Zhi Nan,1126~1127),Liao She became apanage of Jin,Herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) born at family with generations medical history,later folks knew little about his life stories.
Herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) had three works survived and known till today,they are:《注解伤寒论》(《註解傷寒論》,Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,or Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases,in 10 volumes,finished at around year 1144AD)、《伤寒明理论》(《傷寒明理論》Shang Han Ming Li Lun,in 3 volumes,finished at around year 1142AD)、《伤寒明理药方论》(《傷寒明理藥方論》,Shang Han Ming Li Yao Fang Lun,in 1 volumes).
《注解伤寒论》(《註解傷寒論》,Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,or Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases,in 10 volumes,finished at around year 1144AD),gave out theoretical interpretation in depth on the cause, onset and process of different syndromes,pathological changes and prescriptions,gave interpretation of the spiritual essence of the syndrome differentiation and treatment,disclosed the hidden secret of ancient classics《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),enforced its theoretical meanings.Herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) tried interpret the ancient classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun) with reference to ancient theory of《内经》(Nei Jing)and 《难经》(Nan Jing),to analysis the pathogenesis,rules of treatment,prescriptions,created his own literature analysis method of the ancient classics《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun).
《伤寒明理论》(《傷寒明理論》Shang Han Ming Li Lun,in 3 volumes,finished at around year 1142AD),total 50 articles,start from fervescence(发热) and end with recurrence caused by overexertion(劳复),analysis the 50 main symptoms recorded in the ancient classics《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),each discussion for one symptoms,including meaning interpretation,cause of disease,pathology,type classification,identification and different treatment etc,analysis one by one in details for its pathogenesis,disease location and character,identification of the different pathogen and different symptoms accordingly,provided very helpful experience for clinical identification and diagnosis,and it actually could be counted as the earliest academic works on subject of symptoms identification diagnosis with the classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun).
《伤寒明理药方论》(《傷寒明理藥方論》,Shang Han Ming Li Yao Fang Lun,in 1 volumes),selected commonly used 20 prescriptions,content including prescription meanings,preparation,pharmacology,plus or reduce and precautions,etc.This classics made some inventions on the prescriptions preparation,based on theory from previous generation he clearly proposed the concept of Shi Ji(十剂),also followed theory from ancient classics《内经》(Nei Jing),《本草》(Ben Cao),and proposed the name of Qi Fang(七方),and declared that “制方之用，大、小、缓、急、奇、偶、复七方是也。是以制方之体，欲成七方之用者，必本于气味生成，而制方成焉”,and respect the prescriptions of Herbalist Zhang Zhongjing as the ancestors of later prescriptions,“惟仲景方一部，最为众方之祖”，“处方之制，无逾是也”,the herbal classics 《伤寒明理药方论》(Shang Han Ming Li Yao Fang Lun) was the first academic works which content devoted to the analysis of the prescription principles with the rule of 君臣佐使(rule of chief,associate,assistant and guide),although its analysis only covered to those 20 prescriptions in 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),but it initiated the thesis discourse on prescription of later generations,and pushed the pharmacology of TCM formulae to a new epoch,great meanings in history.
The ancient herbal classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun) by herbalist 张仲景(Zhang Zhongjing) of the East Han Dynasty,could be counted as ancestor of later herbal prescriptions,but its content really abstruse with depth,lack of interpretations,not spread widel,before herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji),although many herbalist did study with the classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),such like herbalist 孙思邈(Sun Simiao) of Tang Dynasty,and herbalist 朱肱(Zhu Gong,year 1050~1125AD),庞安时(Pang Anshi),but they all never made any annotations with the original texts of 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),Herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) did very fine study and self experience with depth,tried interpret the ancient classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun) with reference to ancient theory of《内经》(Nei Jing)and 《难经》(Nan Jing),to analysis the pathogenesis,rules of treatment,prescriptions,in his interpretation theory system,the ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing),《难经》(Nan Jing)and 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun)were brought together and understood thoroughly,combined classics and thesis,and prove classics with discussions.For the cause such a new interpretation annotation has no any forefathers for reference as mirror,its difficulty level very high,which cost herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) 40 years,and when the works came into shape he already over 80 years age,the annotation did help and devotions for the widely spread of ancient classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),and attentioned more and more by later herbalists,and prompt the form and development of the Schools of Cold-induced Febrile Diseases.
His hard effort detection spirit,and great achievements in interpretation works,enlightened all later herbalists,and praised by later generations,the herbalist 嚴器之(Yán QìZhī) of Song Dynasty commented that:"聊攝成公，議論賅博，朮業精通，而有家學，注成傷寒十卷，出以示仆，其三百九十七法之內，分析異同，彰明隱奧，調陳脈理，區別陰陽，使表裡以昭然，傅汗下而灼見；百一十二方之後，通明名號之由，彰顯藥性之主，十劑輕重之攸分，七情制用之斯見，別氣味之所宣，明補瀉之所適，又皆引《內經》，旁牽眾說，方法之辨，莫不允當，實前賢所未言，後學所未識，是得仲景之深意者也。"
Herbalist 成无己(Cheng Wuji) achieved academic attainments in great depth,very rich in clinical experience,the first herbalist gave ancient classics 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun)complete annotations,also combined clinical applications and clearly identified common symptoms recorded in Shang Han Lun for clinical diagnosis reference,his theory and devotions has prominent role in the history of theory on exogenous febrile disease,generated great influence on later Schools of Cold-induced Febrile Diseases.
骆龙吉(Luò Lóng jí),year of birth and death unknown in details,native county unknown,herbalist live in the epoch of Song Dynasty,life story unknown in details.
According to legend,herbalist 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi) mastered with ancient Taoism,know very depth with the things of Sky,Human,Yin Yang,and things,excellent diagnose skills with the crucial reason of the internal zang-fu organs,turn white bone into flesh and skills revive dead folks,crafts and creation skills,big fame at the epoch,but unknown reason his life stories not recorded in details,the legend only recorded that "宋骆龙吉先生学古之道，深究于天人阴阳五事之理。洞见五脏症结，肉白骨而生死人，功补造化，名于当时。所著《拾遗》书六十二条，皆可传习其功，非浅鲜矣。......所以活亿万不足计矣。".
Herbalist 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi) left posthumous works,many of them lost,only one of them survived till today and known as 《内经拾遗方论》(Nei Jing Shi Yi Fang Lun),a very abstruse and mysterious works derived from 《内经》(Nei Jing),its academic level like a footsteps in a deserted valley,which means One and the Only One.
许叔微,Xu Shu-wei(1079-1154AD):leading physician of the Song Dynasty and a disciple of Zhang Zhongjing.He prepared graphic illustrations of 36 varieties of the pulse based on Zhang Zhongjing's work,and propounded the theory of using drugs in relation to the intensity of the disease.Xu was the author of several medical works,among which the Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang,or Classified Effective Prescriptions for Universal Relief(1132?) in 10 volumes has been one of his most widely read.Xu Shu-wei was the representative herbalist of Meng He School (孟河医派,which origin could be traced back to Dong Han Dynasty and Three Kingdom period,origined and related from with herbalist and Taoist Ge Hong.) during Song Dynasty period.
许叔微(Xu Shuwei,year 1079~1154AD),alias 知可(Zhi Ke),alternative name 近泉(Jin Quan),native to Zhen Zhou BaiSha of Song(宋代真州白沙,today's YiZheng county,Jiang Su province,China),famous herbalist of South Song Dynasty.
Herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) born at a poor family,at Yuan You Five Year(元祐五年,Yuan You was the reign title of emperor Song Zhezong,or year 1090AD) his father and mother all died at his 11 years age,tried several times but failed in imperial examination,gave up study with confucianism and started to learn medicine,well studied with ancient classics,and very good at medical science.At year Jian Yuan 1st year of South Song(南宋建炎元年,Jian Yuan was the first reign title of Song Gaozong ZhaoGou,or year l127AD),epidemic disease spread widely at ZhenZhou area,herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) tried diagnosis with folks to their home,saved eight to nine among ten patients,his reputation rised up soon and well known by others for saved a lot patients.
At Shao Xing 2 Years or 3 Years(绍兴二年或三年,Shao Xing was the second reign title of Song Gaozong ZhaoGou,or year l132 or 1133AD) herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) passed the imperial examinations and selected as Jinshi,got assgined as official titles HuiZhou,HangZhouFu Jiao Shou and Scholar of JiXianGaun,folks called him Scholar Xu(许学士),later for unsatisfied with emperor Song Gaozong content with temporary ease and comfort at south of Yangtze river,and big traitor Qin Hui framed good officials,he resignated back to countryside,practice medicine and saving people.
Herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) was regarded as one big scholar in the academic field of Shang Han Lun during Song Dynasty,he proposed many detailed interpretation,supplement with the syndrome differentiation and treatment theory,he said that:“伤寒治法，先要明表里虚实。能明此四字，则仲景三百九十七法，可坐而定也。”
Herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) often help treat strange and hard diease,and say farewell for thanks,ever made excellent study with theory of exogenous febrile disease,emphasis that the important for treatment of exogenous febrile disease is identification of deficiency,excessive,cold and heat.And later he compiled related works like《伤寒百证歌》(Shang Han Bai Zheng Ge),《伤寒发微论》(Shang Han Fa Wei Lun),《伤寒九十论》(Shang Han Jiu Shi Lun) etc,devoted to the development of the exogenous febrile disease study,not only inherited the thought of ancient herbalist Zhang Zhongjing,also gave further interpretations.And also compiled herbal classics 《类证普济本事方》(Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang in 10 volumes) in his late,published.The herbal classics 《普济本事方》(Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang) recorded herbal recipes over than 390 pieces,provided comparatively reliable identification and differentiation method for many syndromes with similarity,in specific theory,herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) proposed his special viewpoint for the relationship of spleen and kidney,that it is necessary to tonify kidney before tonify spleen,as if the kidney Qi deficiency,the Genuine Qi weak and deficient,food could not be digested,this theory showed important influence on visceral manifestation theory of later generation.He hold very importance on the relationship between spleen and kidney,and considered spleen as the root of the body,and spleen stomach closely related with life/death,among the two kidney should be regarded as chief,to tonify spleen “常须暖补肾气”,this viewpoint showed it enligntenment to later generation for further study with spleen-kidney relationship and clinical practice.
Herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) compiled many works in his life,his works known as 《本事方》(Ben Shi Fang,also known as 《类证普济本事方》Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang) 10volumes,《续本事方》(Xu Ben Shi Fang )10volumes,《伤寒百证歌》(Shang Han Bai Zheng Ge) 5 volumes,《伤寒发微论》(Shang Han Fa Wei Lun) 2 volumes,《伤寒九十论》(Shang Han Jiu Shi Lun),《治法》(Zhi Fa),《辩类》(Bian Lei),《翼伤寒论》(Yi Shang Han Lun),《仲景脉法三十六图》(Zhong Jing Mai Fa San Shi Liu Tu) etc.Among them,the works 《伤寒百证歌》(Shang Han Bai Zheng Ge) content in the form of rhymes style to present the theory of Zhang Zhongjing in 100 syndromes,for the convenience to study,in the case "syndrome without prescriptions"(有证无方者),then supplemented with other prescriptions from classics like《千金》(Qian Jin Yi Fang) etc;in the cases discussion not sufficient,supplemented with theory and discussions from 《巢氏病源》(Chao Shi Bing Yuan) and herbalist 朱弘(Zhu Hong)、孙尚(Sun Shang)、孙用和(Sun Yonghe)etc.The classics 《伤寒发微论》(Shang Han Fa Wei Lun) totally recorded 22 discourse on prescription,the first discourse listed the 72 syndromes of the exogenous febrile disease,gave detailed interpretations,the second discourse and following gave records of the author's viewpoints.《伤寒九十论》(Shang Han Jiu Shi Lun) content start with the syndrome symptoms,treatment procedure,and comments,similar as later medical records.《类证普济本事方》(Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang) is an academic works recorded the clinical experience from herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei)himself for passing on,it classified according to disease into 23 parts,collected over 300 prescriptions,listed with main indications,prescription name and herbal doses the first,then recorded treatment method,instructions,attached with 1 to 2 patient cases,added comments in the end.Many of his specific viewpoint are insightful,such like Qi syncope(气撅) should not be treat as symptoms of apoplexia,to tonify kidney better use nourishing herbs,differentiation with hemorrhoidal hamorrhage(肠风),bloody stool(脏毒),blood haemorrhoids(血痔) etc.Later wise herbalist commented very highly of his achievement,such like herbalist 叶桂(Ye Gui) commented that herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei):“盖士而精于医者也。观其用药制方，穷源悉委，深得古人三昧。苟非三折肱，良不易辨。盖其心存普济，于以阐发前人之秘，以嘉惠后人者，厥功伟矣”,his theory and prescriptions showed great influence on generation herbalists of Song Dynasty and later.
Among his works,《伤寒百证歌》(Shang Han Bai Zheng Ge),《伤寒发微论》(Shang Han Fa Wei Lun),《伤寒九十论》(Shang Han Jiu Shi Lun),《类证普济本事方》(Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang) survived,other works lost in ancient time,they are known as 《仲景脉法三十六图》(Zhong Jing Mai Fa San Shi Liu Tu)、《翼伤寒论》(Yi Shang Han Lun)，《伤寒类论》(Shang Han Lei Lun)、《治法》(Zhi Fa)、《辩类》(Bian Lei),etc.
There was a legendary story about herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) for self treatment,when he was young study very hard,and hold a habit drink alcohol before rest,years later,he often felt sounding in stomach,hypochondriac pain,diet reduced,vomit out some gastric juice every 10 days or half month,when summer comes,his left side body do not sweat,only the right side body sweat.He made a careful analysis of his own disease,and hold a viewpoint that the disease caused by dampness obstacle stomach(“湿阻胃”),spleen and stomach hurt,spleen deficiency and water could not be turned,spleen and stomach mutually exterior and interior and caused dampness obstacle stomach,thus caught the internal dampness syndrome which appear with symptoms like sounding in stomach and sweat only on right body side,vomit gastric juice etc.Thus,herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) tried treated himself and followed his own academic thought "medication in essence"(用药在精),selected the herb CangZhu(苍术) as main conponents,use powder of CangZhu 1jin,Dazao(大枣)15 pieces,raw sesame oil ban liang(半两) to prepare small pills,took 50 pills daily,and increased to 100 to 200 pills daily gradually in later days,his strange disease relieved months later,and finally recovered.The herb CangZhu(苍术) flavor fragrance,character hot,warm and taste bitter,enter spleen and stomach meridians,as a fragrant herb,it could wake up spleen and turn dampness,damp pathogen and Yin Qi turned when warm.许叔微(Xu Shuwei) made a correct syndrome identification himself,selected exact herbs,and only one herb got miracle effects,he knew in depth that dampness pathogen character sticky and stagnating,not easy to drive off in short time,only hold on taken the herbs and gradually increase dosage,then the recipe power could accumulated in body and finally drived the dampness pathogen out.
Herbalist 许叔微(Xu Shuwei) passed away at Shao Xing 24 Years(绍兴二十四年,1154AD),at age 74,buried at Ma Ji Shan mountain(马迹山,today's Mountain Ma of Wuxi city,JiangSu province),east side of Tan Xi Village(檀溪村东麓),today's folks built his former home at Ma Ji Shan mountain titled Mei Liang Xiao Yin(梅梁小隐),and Yin Ju Quan(隐居泉,Spring of Hermit)etc.
陈言(Chen Yan):leading physician of the Song Dynasty,also called Chen Wuze,author of the San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on the Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors and Prescriptions,a work in 18 volumes published in 1174,in which causes of diseases are grouped under three headings in accordance with Zhang Zhongjing's theory.
陈言(Chen Yan,year 1121~1190AD),famous physician of South Song Dynasty.Native to Qing Tian(青田,today's He Xi,Jing Ning county,Zhejiang province,浙江景宁县鹤溪),alias 无择(WuZe),self title 鹤西道人(He Xi Dao Ren,or Taoist of Crane West),smart wise and hobby learning,good at prescriptions and pulse taken,treatment effect very soon,other life story unknown in details.Herbalist 陈言(Chen Yan) good at medical theory and simplifying sophisticated conditions.Created theory of San Yin Ji Yi(The Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors,三因极一),it classifies the cause of disease into external,internal and miscellaneous regarded as neither internal nor external,and gave discussions of internal,external,gynaecology,pediatric disease,made syndrome differentiation according to pathogenic factors,listed with main indications in details,selected prescriptions,and compiled works《三因极一病症方论》(San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on the Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors and Prescriptions),total 18 volumes,and almost 240,000 words,recorded medical prescriptions 1050 pieces,published at year 1174AD,and this classics ever recorded in the history classics 《宋史》(Song Shi,or History of Song),other works of 陈言(Chen Yan) known as 《依源指治》(Yi Yuan Zhi Zhi),commentary works《脉精》(Mai Jing,or Essence of Pulse Taken).
王执中(Wang Zhizhong):physician of the Song Dynasty skilled in acupuncture and moxibustion,author of the Zhen Jiu Zhi Sheng Jing,or Classic of Nourishing Life with Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1220).
王执中(Wang ZhiZhong,about year 1140~1207AD),alias 叔权(Shu Quan),native to Rui An of Zhejiang(瑞安人),passed imperial examination and selected as JinShi at Qian Dao Five Years of South Song(南宋乾道五年,or year 1169AD),assigned as official title Cong Zheng Lang(从政郎),ever assisnged as official Jiang Zuocheng(将作丞),Jiang Zuojian(将作监),etc,and Zhou Xue Jiao Shou of Li Zhou and Xia Zhou(湖南澧州,湖北峡州州学教授).
王执中(Wang ZhiZhong) caught many disease in his middle age,continued learning medical knowledge,seek treatment method on self help when he caught disease,and also paid attention with effective folk therapy method with modesty,communicate with farmers,herbalists,herb sellers and herbal shop,kept record with every recipe and herbs as long as it effective even those are indigenous methods,incorporated things of diverse nature,accumulated rich experiences,with repeated trials and applications,kept record of those with effective therapeutical results,and compiled a herbal classics titled 《既效方》(Ji Xiao Fang).
In his career as Zhou Xue Jiao Shou of Li Zhou,herbalist 王执中(Wang ZhiZhong) tried recompiled classics of acupuncture with clinical experience,corect errors,and finally compiled acupuncture classics 《针灸资生经》(Zhen Jiu Zi Sheng Jing) in 7 volumes,and published as Jia Ding Geng Cheng Year(嘉定庚辰年,year 1220AD),the classics recorded many clinical effective acupoints and very rich moxibustion therapy methods too,with recipes attached,regarded as one of the important acupuncture literature of China.In the classics herbalist 王执中(Wang ZhiZhong) proposed his specific therapy viewpoint that“针而不灸，灸而不针，非良医也。针灸而不药，药而不针灸，亦非良医也。”,to compile such a good classics,he referenced to related contents from those ancient classics including《甲乙经》(Jia Yi Jing),《千金方》(Qian Jing Fang),《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao),《铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),《明堂经》(Ming Tang Jing) etc,and the new classics also additionally recorded many effective acupoint,the academic devotion from 王执中(Wang ZhiZhong) mainly represented in this acupuncture classics,it is an academic works in the acupuncture subjects with high value in both literature and clinical value,its influence on later acupuncture development even exceeded the acupuncture classics 《铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing).
The classics 《针灸资生经》(Zhen Jiu Zi Sheng Jing) with its content list and acupoint order recorded directly reference to the acupuncture classics 《铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing) by herbalist 王惟一(Wang Weiyi),added 11 acupoints according to literature records from the 99th and 100th volume of《太平圣惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang),totally recorded acupoints 365,not 360 as folks understood normally.The second volume actually the collected papers of herbalist 王执中(Wang ZhiZhong) about his specific viewpoints of acupuncture,relationships between acupuncture and herbs,acupoint selection,moxibustion,nursing care after moxibustion,acupuncture cautions,he hold viewpoints that acupuncture should be practiced with herbs and medicine,and against the popular viewpoint to separate them,in the clinical practice,he hold viewpoint against taboos of year,month,date,time,folks or god etc.The 3rd volume to the 7th volume content with those acupoint related disease ever recorded in ancient classics 《铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing)、《太平圣惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang)、《千金要方》(Qian Jin Yao Fang),also recorded some part of those acupuncture methods from classics 《千金要方》(Qian Jin Yao Fang) and 《千金翼方》(Qian Jin Yi Fang),this classics got regarded more as a copy of academic works of acupoints than a copy of acupuncture therapy works.
In the acupoint selection methods of herbalist 王执中(Wang ZhiZhong),he hold a viewpoint to set the middle finger flexor stripes as identical unit,he suggested that ancient herbalist 岐伯(Qi Bo) set eight fen as identical unit,扁鹊(Bian Que) middle finger first section as identical unit,孙真人(Immortal Sun) set thumb section stripes as identical unit，these acupoint selection method all not exact,later folks followed his method.
The classics 《针灸资生经》(Zhen Jiu Zi Sheng Jing) gave very rich records with acupuncture and moxibustion,and it reflected the actual moxibustion fashion during South Song Dynasty,it served link between past and future,works of later generations extracted from it many moxibustion experience,those works known as 《针灸聚英》(Zhen Jiu Ju Ying)、《针灸大成》(Zhen Jiu Da Cheng)of Ming Dynasty,and 《针灸集成》(Zhen Jiu Ji Cheng) of tsing occupied period.
齐仲甫(Qi Zhongfu):physician of the Song Dynasty with rich experience in treating women's diseases,author of the very popular medical work Nü Ke Bai Wen,or Hundred Questions on Women's Diseases(1220.A.D.).
Herbalist 齐仲甫(Qi Zhongfu),famous gynaecologists of Song Dynasty,native country unknown,life story and legend unknown in details,compiled herbal classics 《女科百问》(Nü Ke Bai Wen,or Hundred Questions on Women's Diseases),finished at Jia Ding Thirteen Years of Song(嘉定十三年,or year 1220AD),total 2 volumes,summarized gynecology and obstetrics disorder into 100 questions with answers one by one,and attached with treatment method and prescriptions.The first volume included 50 questions and answers,content with syndromes differentiation and treatment of Tiangui(天癸,sex-stimulating essence)、meridian syndrome(经候)、blood system(血分)、menstrual disorders and leukorrheal disease(经带诸病,including gravid troubles and parturition problems);the second volume content with 50 questions and answers related with syndromes differentiation and treatment of Pregnancy and birth.This classics gave system discussions of common disease related with gynaecology and obstetrics,detailed method reason and prescriptions attached with each accordingly,coherence,content simple and clear,with verified cases attached to prove clinical practice,its prescriptions effective in most cases,got regarded as a system literature of women's disease,and was also praised as the first ancient serious popular books of gynaecology and obstetrics.
张元素(Zhang Yuansu):physician of the 12th century,also called Zhang Jiegu.He made the bold announcement that in view of the different conditions between ancient and modern times it was impossible to treat new diseases with old methods,discarded obsolete traditional formulas and devised a system of his own.Most of the doctors of the Jin-Yuan period(1115-1368) were influenced by his teahcings.He was the author of the Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag and other medical works.Among his disciples were such eminent doctors as Li Gao and Wang Hao-gu.Zhang Jiegu is another name of Zhang Yuansu.
张元素(zhāng Yuánsù,Zhang Yuansu,1131/1140/1151~1234?AD),alias 洁古(Jie Gu),self title 洁古老人(Jie Gu Lao Ren,or Jie Gu Old Man) in his late,native to Yi Zhou of Jin(金代易州,today's Shui Kou village,Yi county,He Bei),folks called him Yi Shui Xian Sheng(易水先生),herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) smart when kids and got taught confufianism in his childhood,passed imperial examination of childhood at 8 years old,joined JinShi test of confucian classics argumentation at his 27 years age,failed the examination for the cause of miaohui(庙讳),gave up confucianism and started to learn treatment.His year of birth and death unknown in details as there were no available literature or records reference,his life epoch may similar or a little later than herbalist 劉完素(Liu Wansu),张元素(Zhang Yuansu) was a famous herbalist,know pharmaceuticals in depth,good at treatment of exogenous febrile disease,good at changing and transform ancient prescriptions,good at creation.The history classics 《金史》(Jin Shi,or History of Jin) recorded a story about his learning:“梦人柯斧长錾，錾心开窍，纳书数卷于其中，见其题为《内经主治备要》。骇然惊悟，觉心疼，以为凶事，不敢语人，自是心目洞彻，便为传道轩岐指秦越也。”,the story told that 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) had a dream at night,in the dream a man opened his chest and heart holes with a big axe,and put several volumes of books inside,and the book titled 《内经主治备要》(Nei Zheng Zhu Zhi Bei Yao),thus he knows the medical crafts in the books thouroughly.Herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) lived at the same epoch with another herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) who already enjoyed a big fame,since the beginning 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) not very excellent in treatment skills,with depth study with ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing) and others,his medical skills improved big steps,once the famous herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) caught exogeneous febrile disease for several days,not recovered till the 8th day,headache and pulse tense,vomiting and could not eat,self treated but got no positive effects,so he did not know how to handle with.Herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) had a visit to him,since the start 刘完素(Liu Wansu) with his own fame looked down upon on him,treated him coldly,turned his face to wall in diagnosis and did not treat well with herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu),with the diagnosis,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) not only identified his disease exactly,also pointed out the he used some herbs improper,which made herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) convinced,one dose taken then recovered,after this case,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) rised to fame.
Herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) made depth study with ancient herbal classics including 《内经》(Nei Jing),and also studied theories from ancient herbalist 张仲景(Zhang Zhongjing),王叔和(Wang Shuhe),孙思邈(Sun Simiao),钱乙(Qian Yi) and others,complete the herbal theory of ADFS(abbr of Ascending,Descending,floating and Sinking theory of traditional chinese herbs,the theory is about the direction of the herbs actions:The ascending and floating herbs have an upward and outward effect,and used for activating vitality,inducing sweating and dispelling cold,while the descending and sinking herbs have downward and inward effects,used for tranquillizing,causing contraction,relieving cough,arresting emesis,and prompting diuresis or purgation),he hold own specific viewppoints with the herbal ascending and descending property,with the channel or meridian tropism of herbs,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) has innovative spirit and proposed his specific viewpoints about ancient recipes and new disease,“运气不齐，古今异轨，古方新病，不相能也。”,and he good at transform and change ancient prescriptions,detecting new treatment method,composed a new school of thought,and made many creative opinions.His application of herbs also own specific points,identified and differentiated with the herb characters thick,thin,yin and yang,ascending and descending,proposed that herbs has property of channel or meridian tropism,need channel conduction,also work out protocols “脏腑虚实标本用药式” with his own specific characteristics,influence deep and far,and later famous herbalist 李时珍(Li Shizhen)commented about his medical crafts very high that “大相医理”,"greatly master with medical theory".
The academic thoughts of herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu),mainly represented subject of zang-fu organ syndrome differentiation,herb application and prescription preparation,spleen and stomach disease treatment etc,on the academic theory of zang-fu organ syndrome differentiation,he combined contents and theory from ancient classics 《中藏經》(Zhong Zang Jing),《小兒藥證直訣》(Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue),《內經》(Nei Jing) etc,systemly gave detailed introduction of syndromes of different zang-fu organs,pulse manifestation,with accordingly combination principles,tonify or purgative herbs,prescriptions,has very high guiding values on academic or clinical field,on the subject of herb application and prescription preparation,he got enlightened from the viewpoint of herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) about affects of human body from changes of Qi,made in depth study with those Qi movement and ADFS tendency,Qi property Yin Yang Thick or Think,and four character and five tastes of herbs which presented with the ancient classics 《內經》(Nei Jing) and its seven big thesis,widely used them to functions and applications of herb medicine and special applications development,created a system pharmaceutics including theory of property and flavor,theory of yin yang thick think,theory of ADFS,theory of channel tropism,and theory of directing to the affected meridian or sites.
Treatment Method:what kind of viewpoint herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) hold for prescriptions in clinical practice?The herbal classics preface of 《医学启源·序》(Yi Xue Qi Yuan) recorded that he “每自从病取方，刻期见效，当时目之曰神医”,"for each case set up specific prescriptions,effective till the administration date,folks at that time witness and praised him miracle herbalist.",and herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) gave repeated explaination with this that:“前人方法，即当时对证之药也。后人用之，当体指下脉气，从而加减，否则不效。余非鄙乎前人而自用也。盖五行相制相兼，生化承制之体，一时之间，变乱无常，验脉处方，亦前人之法也。厥后通乎理者，当以余言为然。”,and he also explained that “识其病之标本脏腑、寒热虚实、微甚缓急，而用其药之气味，随其证而制其方也。”,his disciple herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) ever commented in thesis 《临病制方》(Lin Bing Zhi Fang) that:“易水张先生曰：仲景为万世法，群方之祖，治杂病若神，后之医家，宗《内经》法，学仲景心，可以为师矣。”,also herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) reminded in classics 《用药宜禁论》(Yong Yao Yi Jin Lun) that:“察其时，辨其经，审其病而后用药，四者不失其宜则善矣。”
Spleen and stomach disease:herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) has system and complete treatment for spleen and stomach disease.He summarized treatment tips of spleen and stomach disease as "土实泻之，土虚补之，本湿除之，标湿渗之，胃实泻之，胃虚补之，本热寒之，标热解之" and other related detailed treatment principles.土实泻之，包含泻子、涌吐、泻下。土虚补之，包含补母、补气、补血。本湿除之，包含燥中宫、洁净府。标湿渗之，包含开鬼门。胃实泻之，包含泻湿热，消饮食。胃虚补之，包含补胃气以化湿热、散寒湿。本热寒之，主要是降火。标热解之，主要是解肌等。According to spleen prefer warmth,stomach prefer moisten and descending,isolated and made spleen treatment principles "治脾宜守、宜补、宜升，治胃宜和、宜攻、宜降" etc,established important theoretical basis for spleen stomach disease syndrome differentiation and treatment for later generations.In the section titled 《脾胃虚弱随时为病随病制方》(Pi Wei Xu Ruo Sui Shi Wei Bing Sui Bing Zhi Fang) he reminded that:“有病，当临时制宜，暂用大寒大热治法而取效，此从权也。不可以得效之故而久用之，必致难治也。”,in the classics section 《医学发明·医学之源》(Yi Xue Fa Ming·Yi Xue Zhi Yuan) he also reminded and warned:“医者必须先读《内经》《本草》，辨十二经、十二脏、十二时之阴阳，以合天地四时之阴阳，了然于心，次及诸家方论，然后施之于用，有余者损之，不足者补之，治而平之，务得其中，庶无误也。”,in the treatment procedure of spleen and stomach disease,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) emphasis and hold viewpoint that "扶養胃氣"(support and replenish stomach Qi),hold high attention with application of method supporting the healthy,for the common spleen-stomach disease,he suggested better replenish and tonify with sweet taste herbs or herbs warm property,created many famous prescriptions benefit spleen and stomach including 加減沖和湯,枳朮丸,白朮散,etc,and directly influenced the Genuine Qi supportinf belief of the Yi Shui Schools(易水學派).
Prescriptions creation:herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) created representative recipes 枳术丸,which has strong property and effects to treat lump,help digestion,strong stomach.用白术二两，枳实麸炒黄色去穰一两。同为极细末，用荷叶裹烧饭为丸，如梧桐子大，每服五十丸。多用白汤下，不拘时日。This recipes transformed from famous 枳术汤 of 《金匮要略》(Jin Kui Yao Lue).Herbalist changed its decoction into pills,and used more BaiShu than ZhiShi,main for nourishing spleen and stomach,good for lump relief and digestion aid.配荷叶芳香升清，以之裹烧。又用米饭为丸，与术协力，则更能增强其养胃气的效果。From the preparation,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu)'s viewpoints about spleen stomach disease treatment,may gave priority on supporting of aquired Qi and essence,assitant with digestion aid and lump relief,this is the basic treatment opinion of his viewpoint “养正积自除”,the emphasis on zang-fu organs syndrome differentiation and supporting stomach Qi viewpoints of herbalist 张洁古(Zhang Yuansu) displayed important influence on his disciples Li Gao(李杲) 's specific spleen stomach theory characteristics with "补土”,and finally turned into an extrme theoretical characteristics of the Yi Shui School.
Theory Research:benefit and enlightened from the zang-fu organ theory of the ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing),combined his own decades years of clinical experience,summarized and concluded the theory of pathogenesis which interpretation based on cold and heat of zang-fo organs,systemized the physiology,pathology,syndrome differentiation and treatment,got some progress than previous generations,with his efforts the theory syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera gradually got attentioned by many herbalists,and the pathogenesis of Zang-Fu disease theory also studied by many herbalists too,till later epoch the theory syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera gradually developed into complete state,and now became one of the important content in the TCM syndrome differentiations system.So,the theory syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera developed by herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) did important devotions to the TCM development.
Besides the theory syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) also did some promption on the theory of herbal pharmaceutics,especially prominent devotions on the theory of pharmaceutics and zang-fi clinical applications.With accordance to those theory from ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing),lay emphasis on the thickness or thinness of herb Four property and Five flavor,which regarded as the important aspects of the herbal effects.Just for the reason the herbs has different property in Four property and Five flavor,thus the effects of herb medicine show differences on ADFS.so,for the explain and interpretation on effects and functions of each herb,he hold viewpoints that firstly should clear with its property and flavor,then its functions and effects could be analyzed,which connect the theory of TCM and its clinical effects closely,and pushed forward the development of the Chinese materia medica science.The devotion to materia medica science from herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) great importance,his academic works 《脏腑标本寒热虚实用药式》(Zang Fu Biao Ben Han Re Xu Shi Yong Yao Shi),which detected the funbctions effects and clinical applications of herb medicine,got collected into later herbal classics《本草纲目》(Ben Cao Gang Mu) by herbalist 李时珍Li Shizhen,so can prove its great academic influence.
Study of Meridian Tropism:herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) showed great attention with meridian tropism theory of herbs,he hold viewpoints that different herbs and medicine show different effects when enter into different zang-fo organs,such difference is due to the herb may enter certain meridians.So,know the meridian tropism of the herb,then could master its pharmaceutical characteristics.For example for the fire-purgative medicines,Huang Lian property discharge fire of the heart,Huang Qin may discharge fire of the lung,Bai Shao may discharge fire of anger,Zhi Mu may discharge fire of the kidney,Mu Gong Li(木公例) may discharge fire of the small intestine,Huang Qin also discharge fire of the large intestine,Shi Gao may discharge fire of the stomach.Use herb Chai Hu to discharge fire of the Triple Energizer Meridian,should assisted with Huang Qin,to discharge fire of anger with Chai Hu,should assisted with Huang Lian,and same in case to discharge fire of gallbladder.The reason that all of them are herbs for fire-discharge but show different pharmaceutical effects,the reasons is that they enter into different meridians.So if use the herbs to treat a problems located at a meridian which different with the herb meridian tropism,then estimated therapeutic effects hardly got.The creation of meridian tropism is a big development of the materia medica science,it gave clear explainations on why different herbs application may got different therapeutical treatment effects,it not only a good summary from clinical experience,also provided theoretical basis for the treatment based on syndrome differentiation and prescriptions prepare etc.And,with the enlightenment of the meridian tropism theory,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) further proposed theory of channel conduction(引经报使),for example the herb Qiang Huo was regarded as the channel conductor herb of Hand or Food Tai Yang Meridias,the herb Sheng Ma was regarded as the channel conductor of Hand or Foot Yang Ming meridians,the herb Chai Hu was regarded as the channel conductor of Shao Yang,Jue Yin,the herb Du Huo was regarded as the channel conductor herb of Foot Shao Yin Kidney Meridian,etc.And the theory of channel conduction suggested combined above herbs into prescriptions,may direct and conduct other herbs to certain zang-fu meridian,and the effects and resultf of the prescriptions could be enhances.The theory of channel conduction by herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu),already widely used in the theory of prescription development,and showed its great meanings for clinical applications.As modern TCM scholar Prof.叶显纯(Prof.Ye Xianchun) pointed out that:"the theory of channel tropism represented in clinical practice,firstly recorded in ancient classics 《伤寒论》Shang Han Lun and its theory of six meridians treatment,but herbalist Zhang Zhongjing did not interpreted it clearly in texts,......till classics Zhen Zhu Nang of Jin epoch,Zhang Yuansu created 'Zang Fu Biao Ben Xu Shi Yong Yao Shi',and 'theory of channel conduction',then achieved completed and perfected the channel tropism theory of TCM."(1),as what modern TCM scholar Prof.Ye Xianchun pointed out,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) really played a key and very creative figure in the development and achivement of the channel tropism theory of TCM,due to the importance and big meanings of the channel tropism theory in the clinical practice of TCM,his Creation and Genius could not be forget!!!
Ancient classics recorded some legend of herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu):《金史》稱：張元素，字潔古，易州人。八歲試童子擧。二十七試經義進士，犯廟諱下第。乃去學醫，無所知名，夜夢有人用大斧長鑿鑿心開竅，納書數卷於其中，自是洞徹其術。河間劉完素病傷寒八日，頭痛脈緊，嘔逆不食，不和所爲。元素往候，完素面壁不顧，元素曰：“何見待之卑如此哉。”既爲診脈，謂之曰脈病雲雲，曰：“然。”“初服某藥，用某味乎？”曰：“然。”元素曰：“子誤矣。某味性寒，下降走太陰，陽亡汗不能出。今脈如此，當服某藥則效矣。”完素大服，如其言遂愈，元素自此顯名。平素治病不用古方，其說曰：“運氣不齊，古今異軌，古方新病不相能也。”自爲家法雲。
The representative works of herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) known as:《医学启源》(《醫學啟源》,Yi Xue Qi Yuan,or Origin Detection of Medicine)in 3 volumes,《珍珠囊》(Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag)in 1 volume,《臟腑標本寒熱虛實用藥式》(Zang Fu Biao Ben Han Re Xu Shi Yong Yao Shi)、《洁古刺诸痛法》(《潔古刺諸痛法》Jie Gu Ci Zhu Tong Fa),《洁古家珍》(Jie Gu Jia Zhen),etc,according to legend herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) also wrote other works《洁古叔和脉诀》(Jie Gu Shu He Mai Jue)、《医方》(《醫方》,Yi Fang),《产育保生方》(Chan Yu Bao Sheng Fang),《药注难经》(《藥注難經》Yao Zhu Nan Jing),《洁古本草》(《潔古本草》Jie Gu Ben Cao),etc,but these works already lost in ancient epoch or suspected forge ancient literary works author,also not published.His works 《医学启源》(Yi Xue Qi Yuan),《脏腑标本寒热虚实用药式》(Zang Fu Biao Ben Han Re Xu Shi Yong Yao Shi)、《洁古家珍》(Jie Gu Jia Zhen)、《洁古本草》(Jie Gu Ben Cao)、《珍珠囊》(Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag) etc,all collected in compiled works 《张元素医学全书》(Zhang Yuan Su Yi Xue Quan Shu,or Collected Works of Zhang Yuansu),among them,the works 《医学启源》(Yi Xue Qi Yuan),《脏腑标本寒热虚实用药式》(Zang Fu Biao Ben Han Re Xu Shi Yong Yao Shi) may represented his academic viewpoints in details.
The herbal classics 《珍珠囊》(Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag),also named 《潔古珍珠囊》(Jie Gu Zhen Zhu Nang),may compiled and finished at early beginning of the 13th century.This herbal works firstly listed with “藥象陰陽”(Yao Xiang Yin Yang,or Yin Yang of Herb Phase),combined characters of date,hexagram,seasons,and herb applications,next listed with Yin Yang theory of the herb characters and properties(諸品藥性陰陽論),the replenish or purgative method of ADFS(藥性升降浮沉補瀉法),five desires,five sufferings,five flavors,five elements,five colors,five routings of different zang organs(諸髒五欲、五苦、五臭、五行、五色、五走),cases of five organs forbidden(五髒主禁例),cases of channel conduction treatment(引經主治例),cases of herbs discharge fires of meridians(諸藥瀉諸經之火邪),cases of herbs counterreaction(諸藥相反例),cases of five organs tonify or purgative(五髒補瀉主治例),cases of prescription applications(用藥凡例) etc.This works evolved with the development viewpoints of herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) himself on the basis of ancient classics《黄帝内經素問》(Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen),gave comprehensive discussion and interpretation of herb property and flavor,Yin Yang,Thickness and Thinness,etc,connected character,flavor,smells,color with zang-fu organs,and classified medicine property according to the twelve meridians,firstly made the meridian tropism theory into system and embodiment.This works recorded 90 kinds of herbs and medicines,gave brief description of herb property flacor,effects functions etc,it firstly combined the theoretical principles from classics 《黄帝内經》(Huang Di Nei Jing) with specific herbs and medicine,enriched and systemized the theory of chinese materia medica,generated huge and great influence on herbalists of late Song and Jin Yuan epoch and development of materia medica in later generations.The works 《珍珠囊》(Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag) survived copy from the classics 《醫要集覽》(Yi Yao Ji Lan) of Ming Dynasty,combined issued with herbal works《藥性賦》(Yao Xing Fu) by herbalist Zhen Quan of Tang Dynasty.
Herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) got well known fame in his late,ans he set the thoughts of zang-fu organ syndrome differentiation as core idea,used herbal classics 《医学启源》(Yi Xue Qi Yuan) as teaching material,gathored disciples widely,later herbalists 李东垣(Li DongYuan),王好古(Wang HaoGu),罗天益(Luo Tianyi) etc all his disciples,for his hometown native to Yi Zhou,so history classics named this school as Yi Shui Xue Pai,or School of Yi Shui(易水学派),once the academic thoughts of herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) formed,passed on and developed by disciples and later herbalists,formed a different school of medicine which different from the school of He Jian(河间学派),they contended with eachother and prompted with eachother,brought prosperous scenes during the whole period of Jin and Yuan.The thoughts of herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) with syndrome differentiation and replenish stomach Qi,showed important influence to his disciple 李杲(Li Gao) and the system theory of spleen stomach which characterized with tonify earth(補土),herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) worshiped as ancestor of the Yi Shui School and based on his pathogenesis of zang-fu organs,his treatment method of spleen and stomach became the inherited method of disciples,his disciple 李東垣(Li DongYuan),王好古(Wang HaoGu) all became scholars with a niche in the history of Chinese Medicine.
According to history records,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) has two brothers,eldest brother named 元泰(Yuan Tai),elder brother named 元和(Yuan He),and 元素(Yuan Su) was the youngest one,after creation of the Yi Shui School,herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) was recommended as Zhuo Zhou Xue Zheng(涿州学正),his son named 张璧(Zhang Bi),alias 云岐(Yun Qi),inherited treatment skills,and enjoyed fame too.Herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) passed his efforts and deeds to later generations,and recorded in both history of Jin and local chronicles,buried in ancestral grave of Zhang in native county,till the year of mongolia occupied epoch,his offsprings immigrated to other area.Herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) not only hold a miraculous medical crafts,his medical ethics also highly respected by folks,and his story still praised by folks till today in the kou shui village of Yi Shui county,and respected by many folks and herbalists of China.
刘完素(Liu Wansu):also called Liu Shouzhen,He propounded the theory that diseases were caused by excessive heat in the body,and advocated the use of medicines of cold nature,thus starting the Cold School of Medicine.He was the author of the Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing,or Etiology Based on Plain Questions and other medical works,and had much influence on the School of Epidemic Febrile Diseases in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.Liu Shouzhen is another name of Liu Wansu.
刘完素(Liu Wansu,about 1110 or 1120～1200AD),alias 守真(Shou Zhen),a wise guy since kids,born at Bian Yang village of He Jian(today's Shi Su village,Su Ning county,He Jian,今肃宁县师素村),hobby of herbal classics,father passed away in his childhood,family fortune turned poor,at Zheng He Seven Years of North Song(北宋政和七年,or year 1117AD),flee from calamity of flood with his mother,habitat at Shi Ba Li Ying village of He Jian county(河间县十八里营村),folks called him Liu He Jian(刘河间).Later his mother caught disease treated with doctors triple times,not cured and unluck passed away,so he aiming study of medicine.He studied ancient classics《内经·素问》(Nei Jing·SuWen)since age 25,and never stopped till age 60,widely learned,self titled 通玄处士(Tong Xuan Chu Shi).Herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) travelled across the land in the most part of his life,live on treat patients at all corners of the country.
Herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) ever took herbalist 陈师夷(Chen Shiyi)as teacher,practice medicine on himself once learned crafts,and his fame gradually rised up.The epoch herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) lived just the end of North Song Synasty and beginning of Jin,the chinese medicine development from brilliant achievements of Tang Dynasty and popularization during Song epoch,formed many academic schools.As a herbalist,刘完素(Liu Wansu) fond of ancient classics 《素问》(Su Wen),read and studied with from dawn to sunset,always with it in his hands,and got kep points finally,with reference to these theories,combined other factors including the climate characteristics in North China,eat and drink habit of folks,strong and tough physical conditions,core with the pathogenesis 19 pieces from 《内经》(Nei Jing),proposed Fire-Heat Pathogenesis theory of exogenous febrile disease,applied it theory to treat cold and pathogens,master and good with application of specific prescriptions he created,like 防风通圣散(Fang Feng Tong Sheng San)、双解散(Shuang Jie San) etc,his fame rise up big during years of Da Ding and Ming Chang Years of Jin(大定,明昌年间,or year 1161~1195AD).Emperor 金彦宗(Jin Yanzong) ever invited him triple times,all refused,emperor 章宗(Zhang Zong) appreciate his character honest,sincerity and simple,gifted him title Gao Shang Xian Sheng(高尚先生,Sir of Nobility).With the spread of his creative theory,many disciples took him as teacher,they were known in time orders as 荆山浮屠(Jin Shan Fu Tu)、葛雍(Ge Yong)、穆子昭(Mu Zizhao)、马宗素(Ma Zongsu)、镏洪(Liu Hong)、常德(Chang De)、董系(Dong Xi)、刘荣甫(Liu Rongfu),and other also took him as private teacher,known as 张从正(Zhang Congzheng)、程辉(Cheng Hui)、刘吉甫(Liu Jifu)、潘田坡(Fan Tianpo) etc,finally formed obvious treatment style with cold and pathogen as characteristics,and later they known as an important academic school He Jian School(河间学派).
The habitat area of herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) was the area of He Jian,it was one of the main battlefields the Jin(1115~1234AD) launched wars on the middle earth of Song,the time full of disasters,epidemic disease spread everywhere,and folks at the time still followed the medicine application customs formed since Song,and still use herbs recorded in classics《太平惠民和剂局方》(Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang),most of herbalists at the epoch also hold habit to use herbs recorded in works,seldom made syndrome differentiations and prescriptions,and those herbs showed very bad treatment effects for the disease at the time.Herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) excellent in treatment crafts,with careful study of the febrile disease disucssion details recorded in ancient classics 《黄帝内经》(Huang Di Nei Jing),he proposed viewpoints to treat the epidemic febrile disease with those herbs own cold chilling characters,therapy effects results surprising,many patients cured with this method,and for this reason the school also called as cold medical school(寒凉派).The epoch of herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) lived,South Song and Jin in wars,uprisings of war everywhere,suffering folks everywhere,hundreds of disease spread,the rules propose doctrine on yunqi to anaesthetize folks,they founded rules that doctors and herbalists should pass test of Yunqi doctrine,the so called Yunqi theory,content in brief declare that the sky has six qi(天有六气,风wind、寒winter cold、暑summer hot、湿dampness、燥dryness、火fire),and the land has five Yun(地有五运,水water、火fire、土soil、金gold、木wood),combine Ten Heavenly Stems(甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、己、庚、辛、壬、癸)with the five Yun,combine Twelve Earthly Branches(十二支,子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戌、亥) with six Qi,deduce yearly Qi with the calendar system terms Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches,then deduce disease definitely caught with yearly Qi,and offer related treatment method defined.Most of herbalists and doctors would not like to accept such theory in the beginning,but with examination and test force,later it turned as their viewpoints.Related classics titled《素问入式运气论奥》(Su Wen Ru Shi Yun Qi Lun Ao) and 《本草衍义》(Ben Cao Yan Yi) were works on these subjects and prompted the doctrine of yunqi theory,common doctors prefer use herbs character bitter and dry which required by 《局方》(Ju Fang),but treatment results not good.Herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) was a wise and straight man,view scenes folks suffering conditions,would not like to follow with those doctors,and would not like be with rulers too and refuse official invitations.
For the indications of herbs and prescriptions,herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) hold viewpoints that it may varies according to different person,and see physical conditions,living circumstance and actual conditions of disease,so can select herbs and medicine for treatment,could not fixed no change.He also very unsatisfied with the official requirement of definite use pharmacia 《局方》(Ju Fang) without add or reduce,hold his own viewpoint treat with syndrome differentiation and in cases.His family gate crowded with people and vehicles,and crowded with patients suffering with febrile disease,with several dose of recipes and acupuncture treatment,they recovered miraculously,and he also gift herbs and medicine to suffering patients without much money.He enlarged those 21 kinds of disease and syndromes to 181kinds,and proposed that 56 kinds among them caused by fire heat,and raised a pathological mechanism theory based on fire heat,which became the basis of the seasonal febrile disease doctrine developed by later generation.
Herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) left rich works,and which survived still known today as《素问玄机原病式》(Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing Shi),《黄帝素问宣明论方》(Huang Di Su Wen Xuan Ming Lun Fang,briefly as《宣明论方》Xuan Ming Lun Fang),《素问病机气宜保命集》(Su Wen Bing Ji Qi Yi Bao Ming Ji),all his representative works.Other works survived till today with authorship attributed to him known as:《伤寒直格》(Shang Han Zhi Ge),《素问要旨论》(Su Wen Yao Zhi Lun),《伤寒标本心法类萃》(Shang Han Biao Ben Xin Fa Lei Cui),《三消论》(San Xiao Lun),《运气要旨论》(Yun Qi Yao Zhi Lun),《治病心印》(Zhi Bing Xin Yin) etc,some of these works still unknown whether authorship really from herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) or not,among them the most famous works is 《宣明论方》(Xuan Ming Lun Fang,or Clear Synopsis on Recipes),its content gave interpretation of pathogenesis according to ancient classics《内经》(Nei Jing),has its specific characters.He also created a specific recipes named Fang Feng Tong Shen San which combined 17 kinds of herbs,a very effective herb recipes which works resolve both the exterior and interior,and still applied in clinical practice till recent periods.
Herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) famous for fire-Heat Pathogenesis theory,and this theory later bacame a classics theory of the School of He Jian,very famous after Song Dynasty till recent periods,a lot herbalists believe in it,but there still herbalists hold suspicions on it,for example herbalist 张景岳(Zhang Jingyue) of Ming Dynasty proposed that "刘河间《原病式》所列病机，原出自《内经·至真要大论》，盖本论详言五运六气盛衰胜复之理，而以病机一十九条总于篇末，且曰：有者求之，无者求之，盛者泻之，虚者补之，令其调达，而致和平。......《内经》不偏不倚之道，固已详明若是。奈河间不能通察本经全旨，遂单采十九条中一百七十六字，演为二百七十七字，不辨虚实，不察盛衰，悉以实火言病，著为《原病式》以讫于今。......历观唐宋以前，原未尝偏僻若此，继自《原病式》出，而丹溪得之定城，遂目为至宝，因续著《局方发挥》及‘阳常有余’等论,......则祖述相传，遍及海内。凡今之医流，则无非刘朱之徒，动辄言火，......即间有一二特达，明知其非而惜人阳气，则必有引河间之说而群吠之者矣，何从辨哉？"，张景岳又言：“河间曰：虚妄者，以心火热甚，则肾水衰而志不精一，故神志失常，如见鬼神。或以鬼神为阴，而见之则为阴极脱阳而无阳气者，此妄意之言也。据此一说，则凡以神魂失守而妄见妄言者俱是火证，亦不然也。夫邪火盛而阳狂见鬼者固然有之，又岂无阳气大虚而阴邪为鬼者乎？《难经》曰：脱阴者目盲，脱阳者见鬼。华元化曰：得其阳者生，得其阴者死。岂皆妄意之言乎？何自信之如此也。",although herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu)'s theory fire-heat pathogenesis and other theory got criticized by some later herbalists,but as a creative herbalist lived in a chaotic war epoch and cold climate area,his viewpoints has relative truthfulness.
After his life,village around construct temples to memorialize him,and some close village changed their name as LiuShou village(刘守村) and ShiSu village(师素村),to memorialize him with the village name,Zheng De 2 Years of Ming(明正德二年,year 1507AD) herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu) was respected and titled as Liu Shou Zhen Jun(刘守真君),the old temple got expanded as Liu Shou Zhen Jun Temple during Wang Li Years of Ming(around year 1600AD),Festival temple fair hold at date fifteen of the first month of lunar year,and march the fifteenth every year till today,and became materials market place in the county area.
张从正(Zhang Congzheng,year 1151-1231AD),name 从正(Congzheng),alias 子和(Zi He),practise medicine since last generations,academic followed 刘完素(Liu Wansu),master of healing art.Birth Tian De 3 years of Jin(金天德三年,about year 1151AD),passed away at Zheng Da 8 years of Jin(金正大八年,or year 1231AD),passed away at age 80,native to Diao Zhou Kao Cheng of Jin(金雕州考城,today's Lan Kao county,He Nan province).张从正(Zhang Congzheng) is a big physician during the epoch,had many creative ideas on medical theory,and some big influence on later generations,he was respected as the ancestor of the Attack Pathogen School.
Once a court physician,with rich experience in various branches of medicine,he compared a disease to a foreign substance in the organism which should be attacked and driven out by drastic drugs,such as diaphoretics,emetics and purgatives and thus started the Attack or Purgation School.He was the author of the Ru Men Shi Qin,or The Scholars' Care of Their Parents,which was completed by his disciple Ma Zhiji.Zhang Zihe is another name of Zhang Congzheng.
张从正(Zhang Congzheng,year 1156~1228/1231),alias 子和(Zi He),self title 戴人(Dai Ren),native to Sui Zhou Kao Cheng County Bu Cheng(金睢州考城县部城,today's Wang Zhuang Zhai,Wu Tun,Min Quan county,Shang Qiu city,He Nan),famous herbalist of Jin,fond of books since childhood,followed his father to study medicine since childhood,working hard and became a scholar since weak coronal age(age 20 around),and became a famous herbalist in his middle age,he read various schools of classics and history,bold and uninhibited character,no head for detail,born at a herbalist family,has in depth academic accomplishments,inherited some academic viewpoints of herbalist 刘完素(Liu Wansu),hold specific viewpoint and applications on the diaphoresis method,emetic method and purgative method,accumulated rich experience,extended the application fields of the three methods,formed a special treatment characteristics with pathogen factors,got respected as representative of the purgationist school(攻下派)”,the ancient history classics《金史·本传》(Jin Shi·Ben Zhuan)recorded that:“张从正，精于医，贯穿《素》《难》之学，其法宗刘守真，用药多寒凉，然起疾救死多取效。”,"Zhang Congzheng,excellent in with treatment,master with academic theory of classics Su Wen,Nan Jing,his method followed Liu Shouzhen,most herbs applied character cold,but most cases of patients he treated with got positive effects.",herbalist 张从正(Zhang Congzheng) mastered with ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing)、《难经》(Nan Jing)、《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),ever serve as imperial physician in the court of Jin,but resigned sooner,his crafts passed on to disciples 麻知几(Ma Zhiji)、常仲明(Chang Zhongming)、张伯全(Zhang BoQuan),the three method diaphoresis method,emetic method and purgative method not only means sweat,vomit,purgative method,but also means three routing way driving the pathogen factors out of the body.He hold a viewpoint that “治病重在驱邪，邪去则正安”,"the treatment key point may lay on driving out the pathogen factors,once pathogen factors drived out then healthy energy strenthened.",sometime he also applied psychological treatment,he practice medicine and treatment,save folks at area Chen Zhou(陈州),Xu Zhou(徐州),Kai Feng(开封),Gui De(归德) and several dozens of Fu,Zhou,County,saving the suffering patients and remarks supreme,highly respected by local folks,during the Xing Ding Years of emperor Jin Xuanzong(金宣宗兴定年间,or year September,1217~August,1222),herbalist accepted the imperial decree and played as an imperial doctor,for the position not to his own will,resignated soon and returned back to hometown,and gave lectures and study of medical theory with disciple herbalists 麻知几(Ma Zhiji),常仲明(Chang Zhongming)etc,compiling works,his works known as 《张氏经验方》(Zhang Shi Jing Yan Fang,or Zhang's Proved Prescription)、《伤寒心镜》(Shang Han Xin Jing,Heart Mirror of the Exogenous Febrile Disease)、《儒门事亲》(Ru Men Shi Qin,at around year 1220AD),《三复指迷》(San Fu Zhi Mi)、《子和心法》(Zi He Xin Fa)、《汗吐下法》(Han Tu Xia Fa)、《秘传奇方》(Mi Chuan Qi Fang) etc,and among them only 《儒门事亲》(Ru Men Shi Qin,or The Scholars' Care of Their Parents) in 15 volumes survived till today.
Herbalist 张从正(Zhang Congzheng) attributed the cause of disease to attack from the external pathogenic factor,and hold a viewpoint that the disease may mainly caused by pathogenic factor,if tonify vital-qi,then the pathogenic factor may strengthened before the reviving of the vital-qi,also the vital-qi may harmed,and result the vital-qi hard to recover,like in the ancient story 鲧(Gun,the name of emperor Yu's father) used embankment method to prevent flood,not dredge the streamway,the flood could not be controled.The method eliminating pathogenic factors similar as dredge the streamway,result may drive off the pathogenic factors,and vital-qi may recover.So herbalist 张子和(Zhang Zihe) proposed the dialectics relations between attacking pathogenic factors means strengthening healthy energy,and hold a viewpoint that “不补之中，真补存焉”,"without the replenishing method(applied first),real tonifying exist.",so actually herbalist 张从正(Zhang Congzheng) hold a dialectic viewpoint of treatment via supporting the healthy and eliminating the evil(扶正祛邪),his theory of eliminating the evil principle emphasized that the Qi and Blood should flow smoothly in healthy conditions,as he proposed that,“《内经》一书，唯以血气流通为贵。”,in his viewpoints,wind and cold etc are evil or pathogenic factors of the sky,rain and dew are evil pathogenic factors of the land,these factors may cause folks sick very easy,and the sour bitter sweet and salty of food and drink are evil pathogenic factors of water,they are cause of disease too,these disease cause should not existed in the human body,once they caused disease,should be drived out of the body.Thus,from this basic viewpoints,herbalist 张子和(Zhang Zihe) proposed treatment viewpoints that “陈莝去而肠胃洁，症瘕尽而营卫昌”,with the attacking evil method,Qi-movement could be adjusted,Qi-blood circulation could be smoothed,“使上下无碍，气血宣通，并无壅滞”，so can reach the purpose healthy reservation.
The diaphoresis method,means use herbs to induce perspiration,and also other method to eliminate exogenous pathogens,including acupuncture,fumigating-washing,moxibustion,massage,gymnastics,Qigong etc;The emetic method,not only means prompt vomiting,other method including sweep phlegm,sputum induction,tear induction,sternutation etc;the Purgative Method,not only means discharging,other methods including promoting the Qi circulation,free the meridian and channels,removing qi stagnation(消积),using diuretic of hydragogue to alleviate water retention(利水) etc which could drive off internal evil pathogenic factors all could be counted as this category.Thus,the eliminating the evil method of herbalist 张子和(Zhang Zihe) with content "diaphoresis,emetic and purgative method",actually part content of the TCM theory supporting the healthy and eliminating the evil,and his viewpoints that eliminating the evil first,then vital-Qi could turn easy,which proved very effective for excess syndrome and yang syndrome.
Just for the cause herbalist 张从正(Zhang Congzheng) attached importance to the evil pathogenic factors pathogenesis and theory of qi-blood circulation,so he applied with tonifying method with discretions,he emphasized that the replenish method should be applied with disease conditions,and could not be abused,and he also against folks with no disease taking tonics abusively,for folks caught disease,he hold a viewpoint that if taken tonics without drive off evil pathogenic factors,result normally supporting evil pathogens and hurt vital-Qi and healthy energy,so replenishing method could only be applied to those patients suffering only deficiency and no excess syndrome.For the specific method of vital-Qi tonifying,herbalist 张子和(Zhang Zihe) hold viewpoints that dietetic invigoration(食补) should be attached importance,in his own famous viewpoints “养生当论食补”,based on this,he also stress the importance of the stomach-Qi,and considered it directly affected the result of dietetic invigoration,protect the stomach-Qi,and prompt the digestion of water and food grains,the vital-Qi and healthy energy could recover,with insisting the dietetic invigoration method or replenishing with food method,he also gainst the method of tonifying with warm herbs.The theory of herbalist 张从正(Zhang Congzheng) may based on and evolved from the fire-heat theory of herbalist 刘河间(Liu Hejian),the evil pathogenic factors in human body all easy transformed into fire heat,replenishing with warm herbs may easy cause phlegm-heat and excessive pathogen accumulated and block up,which result caused more disease,this viewpoint may focused on those bad medical practice.Herbalist 张子和(Zhang Zihe) also good at syndrome differentiation treatment,see specifici conditions of different patients,to select a proper treatment method,especially for folks with high age,and child with weak physical conditions,he suggested should not use those mild tonifying method.
李杲,Li Gao:also called Li Mingzhi,or Li Dongyuan(1180-1251),a disciple of Zhang Yuansu,who held that diseases,apart from external changes,were mainly caused by internal injury to the spleen and stomach(i.e. by intemperance in drinking and eating or overwork) and advocated cure by regulating the spleen and the stomach and nourishing the original qi.He was considered to be the founder of the School for Strengthening the Spleen and Stomach.His masterpiece was the Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach.Li Dongyuan,Li Mingzhi is other names of Li Gao.
李杲(Lǐ Gǎo,year 1180~1251AD),alias 明之(Ming Zhi),self title 东垣老人(Dong Yuan Lao Ren) in his late,later folks called him 李东垣(Li DongYuan),he born at Da Ding Twenty Years of emperor Jin Shizong(金世宗大定二十年,or year 1180AD),passed away at year 1251AD,native to Zhen Dong of JIn(真定,today's Zheng Ding of He Bei province),ancestor of the school of invigorating the earth(school of invigorating the spleen),astronomically wealthy,李杲(Li Gao) followed herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) and took him as master,belongs to the School of Yi Shui,once creator of the TCM theory of spleen and stomach,proposed importance of the spleen and stomach in the human body,and for the cause in the five element theory spleen and stomach normally seen sited same as earth in the middle,so his theory also named as the school of invigorating the earth,his major works known as 《脾胃论》(Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach) in 3 volumes,《内外伤辩惑论》(Nei Wai Shang Bian Huo Lun),《用药法象》(Yong Yao Xiang Fa),《医学发明》(Yi Xue Fa Ming),《兰室秘藏》(Lan Shi Mi Cang,or Secret Book of Orchid Chamber) in 3 volumes,《活发机要》(Huo Fa Ji Yao),etc.
李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) ever followed famous Hanlin Academician confucian 王若虚(Wang Ruoxu),冯叔献(Feng Shuxian) to study with confucian classics 《论语》(Lun Yu),《孟子》(Meng Zi) and 《春秋》(Chun Qiu),but later his mother caught serious disease,consulted many herbalist and doctors,gave different diagnosis and treatment method,taken various herbal recipes,but disease never turn better and passed away finally,for not knowing treatment but only confucianism 李杲(Lǐ Gǎo)had to see parent died and felt very sorrow,and swear to take a good herbalist as teacher when met,when he heard herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) then went there 400 miles a way and took him as teacher with a lot of money,spent many years hard working learning,李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) learnt a lot from herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) and basically mastered with the academic thoughts and diagnosis treat techniques,so said farewell with herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) and retuened back to hometown to help patient folks,all the patients treated by him,although a lot of them are difficulty miscellaneous disease,but treatment normally got miraculous effects.From his youth age,李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) formed character honest and keep promise,treat folks with manner and polite,and cautious with friendship,never tease others,also beared with molest from prostitutes lady.
李杲(Lǐ Gǎo)'s father got him arranged as an official in the court of Jin with his own relationship,in his 30s,he devoted money and bought an official position at Ji Yuan(济原,located in today's HeNan province),during this period,there were a kind of epidemic disease folks called "Da Tou Tian Xing"(大头天行) spread here there,its symptoms represented as red swollen on face and head,and throat inhibited.Many doctors that epoch looked up in ancient herbal classics and never found descriptions of this kind disease,they normally use purgative prescription for treatment but could not get positive result,and diarrhea again and again normaly led patients die one by one.Althoug this conditions continued,but doctors did not tell its fault of treatment,and relatives of patients had no objection with this.But herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) considered the patients may died unjustly,so he started to study this kind of disease repeatedly from the symptoms to pathogenesis,finally detected and found the pathogenesis and also found a prescription,once patients taken the recipes positive results achieved,then he engraved this prescription on wood board and hang it at place where crowds gathered,and those patients who took this prescriptions all recovered,so the folks there misunderstood the recipe was given by some immortals,so engraved it on stone tablet.Sooner or later,to avoid the invasion of mongolia barbarians,herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) had to immigrated to Bian Liang(汴梁),when stay in the city Bian Liang,he treated many official patients and result very good,rised to fame,once he returned from the middle earth(中原,Zhong Yuan),habitat at area 东平(Dong Ping) and 聊城(Liao Cheng),practice medicine as career for 6 years.Year 1244,李杲(Li Gao) returned to hometown ZhenDing when he was 64 years old,except clinical practice and saving people,he put clinical experience of many years into writing and created the theory in which disorder of the spleen and stomach caused by internal damage(内伤脾胃) as a main part.
Herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) how his specific viewpoint about the treatment values of the spleen pertaining to earth at the middle energizer,and inherited viewpoints about spleen-stomach from his master teacher herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu),part of his patients are those officials who eat a lot of greasy and surfeit flavour which may harm spleen stomach easily,part of his patients are suffering folks eating disorder and suffering with hunger,anxiety,sorrow in the war epoch,which easy to hurt spleen-stomach too,so he hold a viewpoint that new social reality need new analysis beased on characteristics of patients instead of refer to ancient recipes,all these conditions became the starting point and drive for him to creat the spleen and stomach theory,the core opinion of his spleen stomach theory is that:“脾胃内伤，百病由生。”,"the spleen and stomach internal injury,disease generated.",this viewpoint may similar as some other points recorded in ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing),“有胃气则生，无胃气则死”,"Stomach-Qi support life,dying without Stomach-Qi",the shareness between then can be seen as emphasis on the function of stomach-Qi.Also,herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) classified internal diseases into 2 big classes as exogeneous and internal injury,this has strong meanings for clinical diagnosis and treatment,for internal injury disease,he hold a viewpoints that internal injury of spleen and stomach are most common,and there are three reasons:one is eating and drinking without temperance(饮食不节),another is Overwork and over-rest(劳逸过度),a third is mental stimulation.Besides,the spleen-stomach sited at the middle of the body and position as earth in the five element theory,related closely with other four zang-organs,whichever zang-organs harmed with internal injury or caught pathogenic factors,may all harm with spleen-stomach.Also,the disease of other zang-organs could be treated and adjusted through spleen-stomach.And herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) did not hold a viewpoint to replenish with warm herbs and powerful tonification,but proposed better according to four-season principles,and treat excess syndromes with different method including diaphoresis method,emetic method and purgative method,also he extremely lay emphasis on the treatment principle of syndrome differentiation,and proposed to treat deficiency syndrome with tonifying method,and treat excess syndrome with purgative methods,which make his theory more complete and mere coincidence with the related viewpoint "攻中求补，攻中兼补" of herbalist 张子和(Zhang Zihe),the theory of herbalist 李杲(Li Gao) inherited and developed by his disciples 王好古(Wang Haogu) and 罗天益(Luo Tianyi),disciple herbalist 王好古(Wang Haogu) absorbed the pharmaceutics theory of herbalist 李杲(Li Gao),took its clinical applications seriously,on the other side enlightened with his internal injury spleen-stomach pathogenesis theory,and created the theory of Yin Syndrome(阴证论),another disciple herbalist 罗天益(Luo Tianyi) may inherited the spleen-stomach theory in completeness of 李杲(Li Gao),enriched this theory on the aspectes of classification of the outline of the internal injury of spleen and stomach,and clinical application experience.His academic thoughts generated big influence on later herbalists,expecially for the Warm-recuperation school(温补学派).
Academic thought of gynaecology from herbalist 李杲(Li Gao),for the treatment of amenorrhoea,uterine bleeding,morbid leucorrhea,he hold a viewpoints that it caused by reasons including spleen stomach deficiency,sinking of qi of middle-jiao(中气下陷),hyperactive Yin-fire(阴火亢盛),damp invasion of lower energizer(湿热下注),so the treatment of lady amenorrhoea,his viewpoints suggested should better tonify blood and discharge fire;treat uterine bleeding with method replenish Qi and nourishing the blood,elevating and cure drooping(升提举陷),discharge yin-fire;to treat morbid leucorrhea with method of replenish qi and nourishing the blood(益气补血),warmly invigorating spleen yang(温补脾阳),dispellieg cold and dampness of the lower energizer(祛下焦寒湿),and formed the gynaecology treatment mode with specific therapy characteristics.Modern herbalists and doctors did statistics with the herbs applied in gynaecology of herbalist 李杲(Li Gao),and found the herbs used with higher frequency all from the herbs of Buzhong Yiqi Decoction,among them those herbs enter into spleen meridians are known as Dang Gui(当归),Zhi Gancao(炙甘草),Ren Cen(人参),Bai Shu(白术),Sheng Ma(升麻),Huang Qi(黄芪),Gan Cao(甘草),to replenish spleen tonify Qi and elevating Yang;herbs Chai Hu(柴胡),Chuan Xiong(川芎) enter into the liver and gallbladder meridian,may replenish stomach and elevating yang;herbs Huang Bo(黄柏),Huang Qin(黄芩),Huang Lian(黄连) may separately discharge fire of kidney,lung,heart accordingly,functions discharging yin-fire.So there seems close relationships of his viewpoints on gynaecology and his theory of stomach vital-Qi Yin-fire theory.
Herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) hold specific viewpoints on women's disease and rich experience,most recorded in his herbal classics 《兰室秘藏》(Lan Shi Mi Cang,or Secret Book of Orchid Chamber).The major and important achievement of him on gynaecology,is established the therapy mode of womens disease with method based on pathogenesis including sinking of QI due to deficiency of the spleen(脾虚气陷),Yin-fire plus earth(阴火乘土),damp invasion of lower energizer(湿热下注);and the main pathogensis is that Qi deficiency due to fire(气虚有火),for the cause Qi deficiency of spleen and stomach then the spleen transport and tranform function not sufficient,affect the origin of zang-fu organ Qi-blood generating function;for the cause Qi-deficiency of spleen-stomach,out of functions transport and transform,affect the food essence(水谷精微) transport sufficiently to five zang-organs and six fu-organs,which may cause the metabolism of zang-fo organs turn dysfunction,then cause different kinds of women's disease due to different pathogen.
For the menstrual disease and birth abortion hemorrhage bleeding,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) suggested and hold viewpoints it mostly related with deficiency of spleen-stomach and Yin-fire,treatment way could mainly routing with methods of Qi-tonifying and elevating,or nourishing blood and dircharging fire.For the formation of amenorrhea(menostasis),herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) pointed out that,the two-yang(meridian) disease may due to "妇人脾胃久虚，或形嬴，气血俱衰，而致经水断绝不行。或病中消，胃热，善食渐瘦，津液不生。夫经者，血脉津液所化，津液既绝，为热所烁，肌肉消瘦，时见渴燥，血海枯竭，病名曰血枯经绝";mass in the large intestine(伏瘕fú jiǎ,2)caused for the problems the small intestine transform heat to large intestine(小肠移热于大肠),synptoms observed that "心包脉洪数躁作时见，大便秘涩，小便虽清不利，而经水闭绝不行";vessels of the uterus closed(胞脉闭) for the cause "……因劳心，心火上行，月事不来"。In brief,the disease amenorrhea(menostasis) caused by different reasons,one from the stomach heat burning body fluid(胃热灼津) which caused the reservoir of blood dried-up,another from the fire of the uterine collateral(胞络之火) accumulated in the Vital Channel and the Ren channel(冲任) then caused the blood less and menses stopped;a third from the work and exhausting mind and heart,heart-fire go up and suppress the lung,the Qi of heart could not go downward and the uterine vessels(胞脉) closed.In short,the amenorrhea mostly caused by fire burning blood exhaustion.
For the uterine bleeding,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) proposed that the pathogenesis in general for the cause Qi-deficiency and fire(气虚有火),which same as descriptions in classics 《内经》(Nei Jing) that "阴虚阳搏谓之崩""hyperactivity of YANG due to deficiency of YIN resulting in met-rorrhagia",and the detailed pathological change of the hyperactivity of Yang due to Yin deficiency,he explained as internal injury of spleen-stomach,Qi-deficiency and could not control blood(气虚不能摄血),and dampness heat ministerial fire(湿热相火,or Yin-fire) excess,suppress blood to collapse or leakage.Herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) classified the uterine bleeding disease he treated into five type of syndromes:(1).improper diet and overtiredness,heart-qi deficiency(饮食劳倦,心气不足);(2).kidney water(Yin) deficiency,ministerial fire move frenetically(肾水阴虚,相火妄行);(3).long prostration of lower energizer,dampness and coldness victory(下焦久脱，寒湿大胜);(4).deficiency and injury of spleen stomach,sinking of QI due to blood exhaustion(脾胃虚损，血脱气陷);(5).decline of the life-gate fire,Yin restlessness due to Yang collapse(命门火衰，阴躁阳脱),these five type syndromes represented symptoms all related with Yin-fire of spleen deficiency,on has difference on level.
For the morbid leucorrhea,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) proposed it mostly related with Qi deficiency of spleen-stomach and Yin-fire,the clinical synptoms represented in the forms of damp invasion of lower energizer and lasting long periods.The main pathogenesis caused damp invasion of lower energizer,was the Qi-deficiency of spleen stomach,water dampness transform out of control,dampness pathogen crossed with Yin-fire,enter into liver and kidney organs of lower energizer.Those morbid leucorrhea cases herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) treated with,for the cause Qi-dropping for long period,Yin-fire tranformed into cold syndrome,so the morbid leucorrhea in cases most transformed into syndrome of deficiency,deficiency-cold,or exhaustion.The syndrome leucorrhea of deficiency caused by chronic and long period metrorrhagia,spleen yang dropping;the syndrome leucorrhea of deficiency-cold caused by Yang-deficiency of triple energizer ;the syndrome leucorrhea of exhaustion caused by the spleen Yang-Qi dropping to the lower energizer,which cause the cold and dampness of uterus.The syndrome uterine bleeding and morbid leucorrhea,its pathogenesis normally all from deficiency and injury of spleen-stomach,middle Qi(of the middle energizer) dropping,ministerial fire dampness heat force blood(or leucorrhea) to move frenetically.
In clinical practice of women's disease,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) proposed to elevating Yang and discharging fire,has his own specific characteristics of herb and recipes applications,and never reached by previous generations of herbalists,disclosed those truth the predecessors never proposed.His treatment theory on amenorrhea of women,viewpoint hold on the pathogenesis from fire burning and blood exhaustion,suggested tonifying middle-Jiao and Qi,to growth Yang and growth Yin,simutaneously discharge its Yin-fire,once fire discharged then blood generated,then menstruation could turn regular itself.To treat the amenorrhea caused by long weakness or deficiency of spleen stomach,body physical weak,Qi and blood all decline,he proposed to tonify Qi and replenish blood to prompt menstrual blood generated automatically;for treatment of the amenorrhea caused by long deficiency of spleen stomach,Qi and blood all decline,middle Qi dropping,hyperactivity fire of the uterine collateral,except replenish Qi and tonify blood to adjust blood vessels,better discharge fire pathogen in uterine collateral to let menstrual blood generated automatically.
For the treatment of uterine bleeding,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) set main treatment principles including tonifying Qi and blood,elevating Yang to cure dropping(升阳举陷),discharging fire and eliminating dampness(泻火除湿),varied formula in accordance with signs.For those cases caused by exuberant dampness he treated with decoction which can elevating Yang and cure dropping(升阳除湿汤),the recipes used 黄芪(Huang Qi),炙甘草(Zhi Gancao)and combined with 防风(Fang Feng),升麻(Sheng Ma),柴胡(Chai Hu),藁本(Gao Ben),蔓荆子(Man Jinzi) to tonify the middle energizer,elevating Yang and cure dropping,herbs 当归(Dang Gui) could tonify Qi and blood,herbs 独活(Du Huo),羌活(Qiang Huo),苍术(Cang Zhu) may strenthening spleen and eliminating dampness.For those cases caused by blood deficiency and domination of cold(血虚寒胜) treated with Ding Xiang Jiao Ai Decoction(丁香胶艾汤),in which herbs 熟地黄(Shu Di Huang),白芍(Bai Shao),当归(Dang Gui),川芎(Chuan Xiong),阿胶(E Jiao) used to tonify blood,herbs 丁香(Ding Xiang),生艾叶(Sheng Ai Ye) used to warm channel and meridians for dispelling cold(温经散寒).For those cases caused by extra uterine bleeding without stop and excessive hemorrhage(经水暴崩不止、失血过多者) treated with Huang Qi Dang Gui Ren Cen Tang(治以黄芪当归人参汤),which used herbs 黄芪(Huang Qi),人参(Ren Cen),当归(Dang Gui) to tonify Qi and blood,tranquilizing by nourishing the heart(养心安神),used herb 黄连(Huang Lian),生地黄(Sheng Di Huang) to discharge Yin-fire.For those cases caused by sinking of the middle Qi and QI prostration(中气下陷而气脱者) treated with Dang Gui Shao Yao Tang(当归芍药汤),which used herbs 当归(Dang Gui),白芍(Bai Shao),熟地(Shu Di),黄芪(Huang Qi),炙甘草(Zhi Gan Cao) to tonify blood and Qi,combined with 苍术(Cang Zhu),白术(Bai Shu),柴胡(Chai Hu),橘皮(Ju Pi) to elevating splenic yang,strengthen and protect the middle-Qi(固护中气),combined with 白芍(Bai Shao),生地(Sheng Di) with property sweet and cold to discharge fire.For those cases caused by sinking of the middle Qi and Blood prostration(中气下陷而血脱者) treated with Yi Wei Sheng Yang Tang(益胃升阳汤),which used 当归身(Dang Gui Shen),黄芪(Huang Qi),人参(Ren Cen),白术(Bai Shu),炙甘草(Zhi GanCao),炒神曲(Chao ShenQu) to tonify Qi and blood,combined 柴胡(Chai Hu),升麻(Sheng Ma),陈皮(Chen Pi) to elevating Yang to cure dropping(升阳举陷),used 生黄芩(Sheng Huang Qin) to discharg fire.If the disease caused injury of Kidney Yin deficiency of water(肾水阴虚),could not hold ministerial fire of the uterine collateral(包络相火),forces the blood to move frenetically and uterine bleeding without stop,then treated with Liang Xue Di Huang Tang(凉血地黄汤),except used herbs 黄芪(Huang Qi),甘草(Gan Cao) combined with 柴胡(Chai Hu),升麻(Sheng Ma) etc wind herbs to elevating spleen-stomach Yang,also combined herbs 当归(Dang Gui),红花(Hong Hua) etc to nourish Qi and tonify blood,combine herbs 黄连(Huang Lian),生地(Sheng Di) to nourish Yin and discharge fire;If the disease caused injury of Kidney Yang,and decline of vital gate fire(命门火衰) lead to deficiency-cold and Qi dropping of the spleen and stomach(脾胃虚寒下陷),uterine bleeding without stopping,then treated with Sheng Yang Ju Jing Tang(升阳举经汤),which recipe used 附子(Fu Zi),肉桂(Rou Gui) to warm and tonify the life-gate fire,use herbs 当归(Dang Gui),川芎(Chuan Xiong),白芍(Bai Shao),熟地(Shu Di),人参(Ren Cen),黄芪(Huang Qi),炙甘草(Zhi Gan Cao) to tonify Qi and Blood to treat Qi and Blood exhaustion(气血俱脱),used with importance the herbs 柴胡(Chai Hu),防风(Fang Feng),羌活(Qiang Huo),独活(Du Huo),藁本(Gao Ben),细辛(Xi Xin) to elevating the dropping exhausting Yang,combined a little herbs 桃仁(Tao Ren)、红花(Hong Hua) to eliminating the blood stagnation;If the middle-Qi dropping for long days,which caused the cold and dampness win in the lower energizer(下焦寒湿大胜),and the Qi-Blood prostration in the lower energizer(气血下脱),symptoms metrostaxis without stopping,then treat with Chai Hu Tiao Jing Tang(柴胡调经汤),which used herbs 升麻(Sheng Ma),柴胡(Chai Hu),葛根(Ge Gen),藁本(Gao Ben) these wind herbs with elevating property to elevating spleen-stomach Yang,combine herbs 苍术(Cang Shu),羌活(Qiang Huo),独活(Du Huo) to dry its dampness and elevating spleen-stomach Yang Qi,use herbs 当归(Dang Gui),红花(Hong Hua) to tonify blood,then the Qi-blood dropping conditions could be cured,and uterine bleeding and metrostaxis could be stopped.
For the treatment of morbid leukorrhea,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) treated with methods including tonify Qi and blood,warm middle energizer and eliminating cold,discharge cold and eliminating dampness as main principles.For the treatment of cases morbid leukorrhea of deficiency(虚损带下) with method tonifying and moistening dryness(补益润燥),exciting spleen Yang(振奋脾阳),treated with recipes Bu Jing Gu Zhen Tang(补经固真汤),and set principle as tonify Qi and blood,nourishing dryness and yin,used herbs 人参(Ren Cen),炙甘草(Zhi Gan Cao),郁李仁(Yu Li Ren),白葵花(Bai Kui Hua) etc to tonify Qi and Blood,moistening dryness and nourishing yin(润燥滋液),used 干姜(Gan Jiang) exciting Spleen Yang,used 柴胡(Chai Hu) for elevating,陈皮(Chen Pi) to assist Promordial Qi(元气),use herb 黄芩(Huang Qin) to discharge yin-fire.For the treatment of cases morbid leukorrhea of coldness deficiency(虚寒带下) used Jiu Zhu Dang Gui Wan(酒煮当归丸) to warm and tonify the triple energizer,to regulating Qi and elevating(理气升提),used big dose of 4 herbs 茴香(Hui Xiang),黑附子(Hei Fu Zi),高良姜(Gao Liang Jiang),当归(Dang Gui),to warm and tonify Yang Qi of the triple energizer,and combined herbs 炙甘草(Zhi Gan Cao),丁香(Ding Xiang),升麻(Sheng Ma),柴胡(Chai Hu) with property warming the middle-jiao and regulating Qi elevating,to eliminating cold and dampness of the lower energizer,use herbs 炒黄盐(Chao Huang Yan),苦楝子(Ku Ji Zi),全蝎(Quan Xie),延胡索(Yan Hu Suo) etc to treat decadent hernia beriberi(颓疝脚气).For the treatment of cases morbid leucorrhea with sliding,herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) prepared Gu Zhen Wan(固真丸) to warm spleen Yang and astringent,discharge cold and dampness,use herbs 酒制白石脂(Jiu Zhi Bai Shi Zhi),白龙骨(Bai Long Gu) securing and astriction to treat morbid leucorrhea,use herb 炮干姜(Pao Gan Jiang) to warm spleen Yang,herb 柴胡(Chai Hu) to elevate and discharge cold dampness,use herb 当归(Dang Gui) with property bitter and warm to harmonize blood,use 黄柏(Huang Bo) to discharge insidious fire of Yang Ming Meridian,use herb 芍药(Shao Yao) to nourish Yin and slightly discharge Yin-fire of the liver meridian.
In summary,the academic thought of herbalist 李东垣(Li Dongyuan) for treatment of gynecological diseases has close relations with his theory of Primordial Qi and Yin-fire,in his proposations those women's disease amenorrhoea,uterine bleeding,morbid leucorrhea,most cases caused by deficiency injury of spleen and stomach,middle Qi dropping,hyperactive Yin-fire,dampness heat enter into lower energizer,for treatment of amenorrhoea,he proposed to treat with principle tonifying blood and discharge fire;for treatment of uterine bleeding,treat with tonify Qi and Blood,elevating Qi dropping,discharge yin-fire;for treatment of morbid leucorrhea,treat with tonifying Qi and blood,warm and replenish spleen Yang,eleminating cold and dampness of lower energizer.
After his death,buried at hiw hometown Huang Lin County(黄陵县),and his tomb reserved and stand at the west corner of the A Dang village,A Dang township,Huang Lin county(黄陵县阿党乡阿党村),stone tablet stand infront of the tomb,it engraved markings:“精歧黄之业起死回生德泽被土庶名医，建之戒护国保民声名播东西南北” to memorize and praise his achievements.
The School of He Jian and the School of Yi Shui were regarded as two big schools inherited past traditions and broke new grounds for the later in the TCM history,herbalist 李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) was respected as the tower of strength of the Yi Shui School,he learnt from herbalist 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) but show more influence on later generations,later herbalist 朱丹溪(Zhu Danxi) as the third generation disciples of He Jian School,but some aspects of his academic thought also enlightened with the academic thought of 李杲(Lǐ Gǎo),ever since Ming Dynasty,later famous herbalist including 薛立斋(Xue Lizhai),张景岳(Zhang Jingyue),李中梓(Li Zhongzi),叶天士(Ye Tianshi) etc all showed respect for the academic thoughts of herbalist 李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) and developed some of his academic thoughts,other herbalist 龚廷贤(Gong Tingxian),龚居中(Gong Juzhong),张志聪(Zhang Zhicong) etc affected by the academic thoughts of 李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) too.Although the inheritors all know clearly that put undue emphasis on spleen-stomach may biased,but his academic theory still was respected as a milestone in the history of TCM,and herbalist 李杲(Lǐ Gǎo) was recorded in the TCM history as a great herbalist.
宋慈,Song Ci:also called Song Huifu(1186-1249 A.D.),author of the Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners,a treatise on forensic medicine written on the basis of his personal experience as a judge and his profound knowledge of previous works on the subject,which exerted a great influence on Chinese jurisprudence.
宋慈(Song Ci,year 1186~1249AD),alias 惠父(Hui Fu),native to Jiang Ning Fu Jian Yang of South Song Dynasty(南宋建宁府建阳,today's Jian Yan zone,Nan Ping city,Fu Jian),ever assigned as official title 朝议大夫(Chao Yi Da Fu),直焕章阁(Zhi Huan Zhang Ge) etc,author of known works 《洗冤集录》(Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners),famous medicolegist,and in the field of medical jurispurdence,consensus shared that 宋慈(Song Ci) created "medicolegal expertise" at year 1235AD,so he was respected as the father of the medical jurispurdence.
The works 《洗冤集录》(Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners) was regarded as the earliest academic works of medicolegal expertise subject,and was translated into many foreign languages published later,the works came into birth earlier almost 350 years than the similar works written by Fortunato Fidly at year 1602AD.
陈自明,Chen Ziming: also called Chen Liangfu(c1190-1270),a distinguished gynecologist from a family of medical practitioners for many generations and the author of two important books--Fu Ren Da Quang Liang Fang,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women and Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine.Cheng Liangfu is another name of Chen Ziming.
陈自明(Chen Ziming,year 1190~1270AD),herbalist of South Song Dynasty,alias 良甫(Liang Fu),or 良父(Liang Fu),self titled 药隐老人(Yao Yin Lao Ren,or Old Herbal Hermit),native to Fuzhou Linchuan of Song(抚州临川,today's JiangXi Province),belong to Han nationality,got respected as one of the 10 famous herbalists of JiangXi,and other nine famous herbalists known as 崔嘉彦(Cui Jiayan,year 1111~1191AD)、严用和(Yan Yonghe,year 1200～1268AD),危亦林(Wei Yilin,year 1277-1347AD)、龚廷贤(Gong Tingxian,year 1522～1619AD)、李梴(Li Chan)、龚居中(Gong Juzhong)、喻昌(Yu Chang)、黄宫绣(Huang Gongxiu)、谢星焕(Xie Xinghuan),ever compiled works 《管见大全良方》(Guan Jian Da Quan Liang Fang),《妇人大全良方》(Fu Ren Da Quan Liang Fang),《外科精要》(Wai Ke Jing Yao),etc.
Herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) born in a family of generation herbalist,followed his father to learn medicine since childhood.Know well with ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing),《神农本草经》(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing),《伤寒杂病论》(Shang Han Za Bing Lun) when he was only 14 years old,combined medical theory of famous herbalists with inherited clinical experience from previous generations,applied them in his own clinical practice.A case he met a county pregnant women caught disease,suffering a lot at noon,tearing without stopping,many doctors could not treat her.Once herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) heard this case then send message to her relatives that it disease may caused by heat of internal organs,should treat with Da Zao decoction,the relatives of patients did not believe in him and ask someone to check with herbal classics,and as what he said once recipe taken the disease recovered.Once he grew up,treatment skills improve very fast and fine,his fame spread to far area.
Herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) not only excellent in clinical practice,but also gave important devotion to the theory development of TCM,especially in the field of gynaecology and obstetrics,established solid basis for the gynaecology of TCM.During the period he was assigned as Yi Xue Jiao Shou(医学教授,Teacher of Medicine) in the Ming Dao Academy(明道书院) at Jian Kang(建康,today's Nan Jing) during Jia Xi Years(嘉熙年间,year 1237-1240AD),the gynaecology of TCM still not complete and also has no academic works.Ancient classics 《大方脉》(Da Fang Mai) has some related content,but in brief and not details,medical treatise without recipes,or recipes without treatise,hardly to be evidence for herbalists.He hold viewpoints that “医之术难，医妇人尤难，医产中数症，则又险而难”,not sure what reasons herbalist Chen has favor and interest in women's disease,so he did careful study with the women's disease,checked with ancient medical classics thoroughly,adopt good points from others,combined inherited proved recipe for compiling,and finally finished compiling one earliest academic works on gynaecology at Jia Xi 1st Year(嘉熙元年,or year 1237AD),titled 《妇人大全良方》(Fu Ren Da Quan Liang Fang) in 24 volumes.This works classified disease of gynaecology into 8 categories including"调经、众疾、求嗣、胎教、妊娠、难产、产后",total treatise more than 260 articles.Listed with pathogenesis analysis and treatment acts for each category,rich contents and article lists clear,discussion simple brief,recipes refined and proper.Among them he has especially and excellent with treatment of women's nipple disease,including "乳悬、乳疠、乳硬、带乳、乳位、吹乳" etc,especially good comments on breast cancer,this disease still not arosed attention from folks,and he pointed out that this disease “早期治疗或可内消；若不予治疗，乳将巉岩而崩烈如热瘤，或内溃深洞，血水滴沥，则后果险恶”,the observation and study advanced than all other nations.The medical classics 《妇人大全良方》(Fu Ren Da Quang Liang Fang,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women),summarized achievements of gynaecology before Song,a very important reference for the treatment of related disease.
Herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) also excellent with surgery,and ever compiled an academic works titled 《外科精要》(Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine) in 3 volumes finished at year 1263AD and published.This academic works showed creative viewpoints for the treatment of ulcer,and proposed that the skin and external diseases(外科疮疡) was not simple local patholoic changes,but results reflected those changes happened to zang-fu internal organs and Qi-blood heat-cold deficiency-excess,so the treatment better not satisfied with partial conteracting toxic substances,but also should focused on internal and external combinative method,better combine oral and topical application,treating symptoms and the root cause togethor.This kind of viewpoints which attach importance to the whole body,and syndrome differentiation method,displayed its far and indepeth ioonfluence on the surgery of TCM.Except this works,herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) also compiled works 《备急管见大全良方》(Bei Ji Guan Jian Da Quan Liang Fang) in 10 volumes,and 《诊脉要诀》(Mai Zhen Yao Jue) in 1 volume.
The medical thoughts of herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) showed active characteristics,he hold a viewpoint that “世无难治之病，有不善治之医；药无难代之品，有不善代之人”,and hold a very good medical morality,treat folks same attitude without discrimination of their rich or poor,diagnose the same time they seek help,and charge no fee for those suffering with special difficulties,and he also scold those barber-surgeon who trick money as with vicious intention(用心不良).At that epoch some doctors got one or two proved recipes,then kept secret and not let others know it,some of them also changed title of commonly used proved recipes and named them as secret recipe handed down from generations(祖传秘方) to show off.Herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) against this,and he also combined many recipes he inherited into above titled works,and published them,so deeply appraised by folks.In the preface of the classics 《外科精要》(Wai Ke Jing Yao) he proposed that:“仆三世学医，家藏医书若干卷，既又遍行东南，所至必尽索方书以观，暇时闭关静室，翻阅涵泳，究及末合”,"our family learn medicine for three generations till me,collected medical works some volumes,ever traveled to east and south,everywhere traveled to then seek for local recipe books to study,make refined stuy of them in quiet room in leisure to seek final truth.",he made in depth detection in the medical theory and gave refined study and comprehensive study with the gynaecology and surgery,as an excellent obstetrician and gynaecologist,he compiled works 《管见大全良方》(Guan Jian Da Quan Liang Fang,already lost,its contents scattered in later works 《医方类聚》Yi Fang Lei Ju),《妇人大全良方》(Fu Ren Da Quang Liang Fang,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women),《外科精要》(Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine),etc.
The summary of women's disease:herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) gave summary with subjects including the physiological characteristics of women,and the pathogeny,pathogeneis and treatment of women,which can be evident of its basic facts.He laid emphasis on the congenital origin of women's lunaria(menses),disclosed relations between TV(thoroughfare vessel,Chong Mai) and CV(conception vessel,Ren Mai),Tian Gui(sex-stimulating essence) and menses,simutaneously should not ignore the important functions of the pleen and stomach transport and transform water grain essence,besides,he also divided the physiogenesis and pathogenesis of women into three categories,and named as unmarried girl(室女),married women(已婚) and women terminated with Tain Gui(七七天癸尽之女人),or can be simply understood as unmarried youth period,married period,menopause period,to summarize and analysis different syndromes and symptoms.For unmarried girl period,for the cause changes from youth period,and accumulated emotional change of think anxiety etc,so the disease more frequency happened with heart and spleen.For the uterus bleeding for menopause women,it mainly related with deficiency heat of liver and kidney.For the common menstrual disorder,his viewpoints suggested it more frequency related with factors of TV(thoroughfare vessel,Chong Mai) and CV(conception vessel,Ren Mai),liver,spleen etc.For the pathogenesis of women's disease,herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) good at master with the main pathogenic changes,pay attention with factors including Qi-blood turn chaotic,channels and meridians go in wrong directions,abnormal functions of five internal organs,generating and transforming terminated etc,so it called treatment with root cause.
Treatise on surgery of women:for the topic discuss of surgery,herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) emphasis on heat-fire as main pathogenic factors,summarized the pathogen of ulcer as “一天行，二瘦弱气滞，三怒气，四肾气虚，五饮冷酒，食炙煿，服丹药。”,which means summary of the pathogen of ulcer from both healthy and pathogenic factors,or for the cause of physical weakness,kidney Yang deficiency,exhaustion injury due to sexual indulgence,or for the cause of the seven emotions stasis,greasy and surfeit flavour,exogenous six climate pathogenic factors,these viewpoints has in depth thoughts.For the syndrome differentiation of ulcer,he emphasis not only syndrome five internal organs differentiations,also emphasis exterior and interior,Yin Yang shallow depth greater or lesser urgency,also made differentiation with healthy pathogenic,sequence or reverse,good or ill luck,life and death.He proposed viewpoints principle "differentiation with five good luck and seven ill luck",followed by herbalists of later generations,and known as “饮食如常，一善也；实热而大小便涩，二善也；内外病相应，三善也；肌肉好恶分明，四善也；用药如所料，五善也。渴而发喘，眼角向鼻，大小便反滑，一恶也；气绵绵而脉涩，与病相反，二恶也；目不了了，睛明内陷，三恶也；未溃肉黑而陷，四恶也；已溃青黑，腐筋骨黑，五恶也；发痰，六恶也；呕吐，七恶也。”,and he also hold a viewpoint of judgement that "五善见三则瘥，七恶则四则危".
Special treatment principle of herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming):herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) hold his specific viewpoint and principles about the treatment of women disease.For the amenorrhea caused by emotional factors and trauma,he proposed against treat aimlessly with abuse of recipes property cooling and directing blood,and proposed that patients should change will and aim first,then support with medicine at same time,recipes like Bai Zi Ren Wan(柏子仁丸:柏子仁,牛膝,卷柏,泽兰叶),Ze Lan Tang(泽兰汤:泽兰叶,当归,芍药,甘草) etc to treat deficiency-fire,and nourish yin-blood;for the cases wind and coldness hosted with collaterals of the uterus(风冷客于胞络),and inhibited menstruation,he proposed treated with Niu Xi San(牛膝散:牛膝,桂心,炒赤芍药,桃仁,玄胡索,当归,牡丹皮,木香);For cases suffering with dysmenorrhea or abdominal pain during menstruation(经行腹痛),better treat with Wen Jing Tang(温经汤:当归,川芎,芍药,桂心,牡丹皮,莪术,人参,甘草,牛膝),or Gui Zhi Tao Ren Tang(桂枝桃仁汤:桂枝,芍药,生地黄,桃仁,甘草).For cases suffering pregnancy diseases,herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) also treated with its characteristics,for cases of pregnancy of lower abdominal pain(妊娠小腹痛),treated with Zi Su Yin(紫苏饮:紫苏,当归,灸甘草,大腹皮,人参,川芎,橘皮,炒白芍药,姜,葱),or Ba Zhen Tang(八珍汤:当归,川芎,白芍药,熟地,人参,白术,茯苓,甘草).For cases of pregnancy abdominal flatulence(妊娠心腹胀满),treat with Xia Qi Tang(下气汤:羌活,炒赤芍药,炙甘草,槟榔,青皮,大腹皮,陈皮,赤茯苓,姜半夏,炒桑白皮,桂心,紫苏梗) etc.Although treatment method varies,but one basic point herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) hold that based on blood,so he proposed to treat women's disease should pay attention with blood system.
For the treatment of ulcer,herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) emphasis treatment both internal and external,and attention with spleen stomach.He hold a viewpoint that in the surgery,extreme attention should be paid to the prosperity and decline of the spleen and stomach,not only focused on partial affected points and treat with recipes clearing heat and detoxifying,but should treat based on entirety and whole body.For some clinical syndromes types during the ulcer disease,he also summarized many beneficial experience,and they are known as for examples,when syndrome appear symptoms great thirst(大渴),it caused by accumulation and flourish of toxic pathogen(毒气炽盛),proposed to treat urgently with Shen Xian Zhui Du Wan(神仙追毒丸,Immortal Chasing Toxin Pill:玉枢丹，由山慈姑、文蛤、千金子、红芽大戟、麝香等组成) to detoxifying and clear toxic heat,if cases opening of a sore cold and hard to heal,its case flesh white and purulence less(肉白而脓少),may due to deficiency of Qi and Blood,can be treated with wash hot decoction of mugwort leaf,or fumigate with colophony smoke,stick with Shen Yi Gao(神异膏,or Immortal Alien Paste:蜂房,玄参,蛇蜕,黄丹,麻油,杏仁,乱发),to support health and drain pus well(removing the abscess).For the cases ulcer show effect,better follow principle “须脏腑坚而不秘，通而不泄，则真气不耗，邪无所留，如秘结，神效麻仁丸(火麻仁、煨大黄、人参、煨诃子肉)。”,"the internal zang-fu organs should hold and not constipation,thoroughly and not discharge,then primordial Qi may not exhausted,pathogenic factors no stayed,if constipation occurs,miracle effects achievable with Shen Xiao Ma Ren Wan(神效麻仁丸:火麻仁,煨大黄,人参,煨诃子肉).",these are all experiences from clinical practice,has its pratical values.
Influence for later generations:herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming) sumnmarized those academic achievements of gynaecology(women's disease) till Song Dynasty,with combination his own clinical practice,interpreted the pathogenesis and pathogenic factors of the women's disease,has its own speficic characteristics,showed great influence on the gynaecology development of later generations.Later related works 《女科准绳》(Nv Ke Zhun Shen) by herbalist 王肯堂(Wang Kentang) and 《济阴纲目》(Ji Yin Gang Mu) by herbalist 武之望(Wu Zhiwang) of Ming Dynasty all got influence from herbalist Chen Ziming.For the surgery and ulcer treatment,he gave systematic discussion with aspects including pathogenesis,pathogenic factors,syndrome differentiation,treatment and prognosis.Among which,emphasis on holistic treatment,syndrome differentiation with Yin and Yang,attention to protect spleen stomach,proposation combinative treatment interior and exterior,these are his main achievements,and appreciated appraised by later generation herbalists.For example the theory of Chen got quoted in big number pieces by later works 《外科理例》(Wai Ke Tiao Li) by herbalist 汪机(Wang Ji),and 《疡医准绳》(Yang Yi Zhun Shen) by herbalist 王肯堂(Wang Kentang),which could be evident to see the big influence of herbalist 陈自明(Chen Ziming).
陈文中(Chen Wenzhong),noted pediatrist in the 13th century,and author of the 《陈氏小儿痘疹方论》(Chen Shi Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang,or Chen's Prescriptions for Smallpox and Measles in Children)(1241),and 《小儿病源方论》(Xiao Er Bing Yuan Fang Lun,or Treatise on Etiology of Children's Diseases)(1253).
陈文中(Chen Wenzhong),alias 文秀(Wen Xiu),year of birth and death unknown in details,native to Suzhou FuLi of Song(宿州符篱,today's Suzhou city,Anhui province),fleed back to South Song area at the years homeland occupied by Jin.Ever assigned official title 和安郎判太医(He An Lang Pan TaiYi) and 翰林良医(Han Lin Liang Yi) etc.Master with and excellent at internal medicine and pediatrics,practice with treatment for 15 years at area of JiangSu LianShui(江苏涟水),saved many patients.Accumulated family inherited proved recipes,and compiled finished works 《小儿痘疹方论》(Xiao Er Bing Yuan Fang Lun,or Treatise on Etiology of Children's Diseases) at year 1254,gave academic discussion with exanthema variolosum,except this works,herbalist 陈文中(Chen Wenzhong) also ever compiled classics 《小儿病证方论》(Xiao Er Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on Children's Disease) in 4 volumes,discuss maintain health and growth of infantile,fingerprint and visual examination of infantile,also discussed syndrome and treatment of infantile convulsion(fright wind) and exanthema variolosum,with recipes attached.Year 1958 the Commercial Press combined issue of the two works and published again under title 《小儿病源痘疹方论》(Xiao Er Bing Yuan Dou Zhen Fang Lun),the academic thought of herbalist 陈文中(Chen Wenzhong) characteristics with attach importance to spleen stomach,and good at warm tonic.
严用和,Yan Yonghe:physician(c1206-1268),author of the Yan's Ji Shen Fang,or Yan's Prescriptions for Succouring the Sick or Ji Sheng Fang,Prescriptions for Succouring the Sick for short.
严用和(Yan Yonghe,about year 1200~1268AD),alias 子礼(Zi Li),native to Lu Ling of Nan Song(南宋庐陵,today's Ji An of JiangXi province),严用和(Yan Yonghe) took famous herbalist 刘开(Liu Kai) as master at his 12 years age,started clinical practice since his 17 years age,he practiced treatment over 50 years,and hold viewpoints that cases changed today and not same as ancient epoch,natural conditions and social customs of a place show difference in dryness or dampness,physical conditions of folks not equal same strong or weak,if treat disease today all with ancient recipes,result normally not positive and not optimal.So he hold viewpoints that “师传济生之实意”,put theory into clinical practice and combined ancient theory,with observations and experience over 30 years,finally compiled works 《济生方》(Ji Sheng Fang) in 10 volumes at year 1253AD,this classic works collected theories from ancient classics and schools,and quoted part recipes from classics 《和剂局方》(He Ji Ju Fang),《三因方》(San Yin Fang),also collected some other clinical experience and method including moxibustion treatment of fatigue from prime minister Cui(崔丞相灸劳法),and treatment method for swelling and ulcer,furunculosis etc,also widely collected proved recipes.With 15 years more practice,he compiled a new works《济世续方》(Ji Shi Xu Fang) in 8 volumes and finished at year 1267AD.Herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) accumulated clinical experience for long years,attention with practice and serious academic attitute,really good.
The academic thoughts of herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe),mainly represented in his works 《济生方》(Ji Sheng Fang),this works has rich content,represented with both treatise and recipes,content classified into categories exogeneous and internal injuries,external,gynaecology,the five sense organs,but set important tips on miscellaneous diseases.
Emphasis syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera,herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) started base from the zang-fu theory,and analysis the pathogenesis and pathogenic factors from the aspects of human physiological and pathogenic characteristics,set syndrome types deficiency,excess,cold or hot as the accordance of prescription,especially those articles under title “脏腑虚实论治”,gave extreme interpretations on syndrome differentiations,for example the article under title “肝胆虚实论治”,discuss the physiological characteristisc and pathogenic factors of the liver and gallbladder first,then followed with discuss of the syndromes of the liver and gallbladder deficiency,excess,cold and heat,treatment method,he started from the functions of the zang-fu organs and gave interpretations of the normal and varies conditions,very detailed discussions and key points represented with its pathogenesis,development,transform and enter,treatment method etc,make reader easy to understand,so later folks commented on his treatise and discussions that “微言精要，信为司命绳墨”,herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) also attached importance to the completeness of treatment with reference to pulse taken,for example in the article titled “便血评治”,he pointed out that:“脉来浮弱，按之带芤者是下血也。”,and its pathogenic factors are “多因过饱，饮酒无度，房室劳损．荣卫气虚，风冷易入，邪热易蕴，留注大肠，则为下血”,and its syndromes are “血色鲜者风也；色如小豆汁者寒也；浊而色黯者热也”,and its treatment “风则散之，热则清之，寒则温之，虚则补之”,this kind of treatment method according to syndromes and pulse,represented some tradition of TCM.
Emphasis on the the source of vital function(engendering transformation),replenish spleen and tonify kidney:herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) emphasis on protection the healthy qi of spleen stomach,he proposed that:“夫人受天地之中以生，莫不以胃为主。盖胃受水谷，脾主运化，生血生气，以充四体者也。”,so suggested better not make spleen stomach injury,once hurt it turned disease,and also warned that to use herbs and medicine should follow cautions “不坏睥胃”,"No harm spleen and stomach".With the importance attached to spleen and stomach,herbalist Yan showed extreme attention with the function of the kidney,for example when discuss the pill named Bu Zhen Wan(补真丸,or Premordial Qi Tonify Pill),he proposed that：“房劳过度，真阳衰虚，坎火不温，不能上蒸脾土，冲和失布，中州不运．…“古人云补肾不如补脾，余谓补脾不若补肾，肾气若壮．丹田火经上蒸脾土，脾土温和，中焦自治，膈开能食矣。”,this kinds of viewpoints actually inherited the ancient theory of kidney-YANG(Primordial Fire) and developed it,it generated some influence on the development of the life-gate theory in Ming Dynasty,also when discuss “turbid urine(遗浊)”,he proposed:“心受病者令人遗精白浊-肾受病者亦令人遗精白浊。此皆心肾不交，关键不牢之故也。”,this was the original viewpoints about theory of heart-kidney invariant(心肾不变),which also reflected the viewpoints on the importance of the congenital foundation from herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe).
Empahsis on the Qi channel,master with regulating the qi flowing in the channels:herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) hold a viewpoint that “人之气道贵乎顺，顺则津液流通”,so he put the Qi regulation to the important position.for example in treatment of apoplexia,he pointed out that “若内因七情而得之者，法当调气，不当治风，外因六淫而得之者，亦先当调气，然后依所感之气随正治之，此良法也”,for the treatment of phlegm and retained fluid(痰饮),he also proposed that “顺气为先，分导次之”,for more examples for treatment of diarrhoea,he proposed “七情伤感所致，兼以调气药，随证主治，则不失其机要矣”,he good at regulating Qi with fragrant herbs for regulating Qi,including 丁香(Ding Xiang),木香(Mu Xiang),沉香(Chen Xiang),檀香(Tan Xiang),砂仁(Sha Ren) etc,not only can make Qi go smooth in channels,also can tonify spleen and stomach,these are the superiority of his methods and principles.
Devotions on aspect of syndrome differentiations,prescription formulating,medication:herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) has many creative viewpoints on treatment according to syndrome differentiation,for example he pointed out that edema(水肿) should be identified and differ from tympanites due to parasitosis(蛊胀),that “蛊胀腹满而不肿，水肿面目四肢俱肿。治蛊以水药，治水以蛊药，非其治也”,to treat edema principle with tonify spleen and warm kidney,thought yang edema excess syndrome(阳水实证),should better use herbs characteristics smooth,better not use strong herbs to attack,for example treat yang edema with Duck Head Pill(鸭头丸),only take the property laxation bowls of 葶苈,combined with bland percolation of 猪苓、防己.In the pill Ting Li Wan(葶苈丸),the herb 牵牛(Qian Niu) prepared half raw half fried,to weak its potency,so can be evidence he practice medicine meticulously attentive.For another example for treatment of diarrhea,herbalist Yan against take astringent in early stage,and pointed out that:“叹世之人初感此病，往往便用罂粟壳、石榴皮、诃子肉、豆蔻辈以止涩之，殊不知痢疾多因饮食停滞于肠胃所由致，…“必以导涤肠胃，次正根本，然后辨其风冷暑湿而为之。”,also for the treatment of cough,should better avoid use herbs astringent like 乌梅(Wu Mei) etc,to avoid close door and kept thieves.Besides,herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) also very good in herbs preparation,,for example "如巴豆除用巴豆霜入药处，常用他药伴炒取其性，如治疝的金铃子散，巴豆与川楝子同炒去巴豆用楝子；治积聚的香棱丸．与莪术同炒用莪术；却痛散巴豆与良姜同炒用良姜,"which can be proof how fine and strict standard he use medicine.
Herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) also attentioned with principles of prescription formulating,and he pointed out that:“间有药用群队，必使刚柔相济．佐使合宜。用一刚剂，专而易效，须当用一柔剂，以制其刚，庶几刚柔相济，不特取效之速，亦可使之无后患也。”,so in clinical practice he formulate prescriptions with principles combining vigor and suppleness,association of activity and inertia,balance Yin with Yang,for exmpla in the recipe Gui Pi Tang(归睥汤) with 木香(Mu Xiang),tonify without stasis,Bi Jia Di Huang Tang(鳖甲地黄汤) with 肉桂(Rou Gui),nourishing but not greasy,for example in treatment of blood disease,not only focus on hemostasis,but combined herbs with characteristics of warming and stasis moving,like 姜汁(Jiang Zhi),or 锦纹(Jin Wen),or 葱汁(Cong Zhi),or 乳香(Ru Xiang),which stop bleeding and without stasis problems,these proved his strict criteria in prescriptions formulating.
From his clinical practice and works,in summary,herbalist 严用和(Yan Yonghe) was a generation of academic elite,a herbalist with rich practice experience,his works 《济生方》(Ji Sheng Fang) gave refined discussions of prescriptions formulation,inherited theories and developed with own creations,really a good prescription classics with high practice value.
王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin,year 925～997AD),also name 怀德(Huai De),herbalist of North Song Synasty,native to Song Zhou Sui Yang(宋州睢阳,today's Shang Qiu South).Ever was a Taoist in early years,and stay habitat in the Jian Long Temple of Kai feng(開封建隆觀),good in treatment.During Tai Ping Xing Guo Years(太平兴国,regin title of emperor Zhao Guangyi,976—984AD),he followed imperial decree and resumed secular life,assigned as offical titled Shang Yao Feng Yu(尚药奉御),and was prompted as Han Lin Yi Guan Shi(翰林医官使) and stayed in capital Kai Feng till pass away.
Once the emperor Song Taizong accessed to the throne,year 978AD,he sent imperial edict and let 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin) and 王祜(Wang Hu),郑奇(Zheng Qi),doctor official 陈昭遇(Chen Zhaoyu) to compile prescription works,edit and collate those collected famous prescriptions over 1000 pieces,set discussions from the ancient classics 《諸病源候論》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun) as beginning,followed with recipes,and finished at Chun Hua Three Years(淳化三年,or year 992AD),total 100 volumes,emperor Song Taizong wrote preface by himself,and titled it as 《太平聖惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang),abbr as《圣惠方》(Sheng Hui Fang),published and spread to every states of Song,this classics use ancient classics《千金要方》(Qian Jin Yao Fang),《千金翼方》(Qian Jin Yi Fang) and 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) as blue print,widely collected and gathored recipe works crafts works and folk remedy ever since Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty,classified contents with zang-fu organs and syndromes,total listed 1670 categories and recorded recipes total 16834 pieces,was actually a great prescription works of Song dynasty,listed first with diagnosis and pulse taken method,principles of medications,then listed and content with disease source or pathogenic factors,symptoms in departments,and borrowed these contents majorly from classics《诸病源侯论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun),with prescriptions and other therapy method in the end.It content very rich and recorded medical achievements till the 10th century of ancient China.
Herbalist 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin) and others attached importance to zang-fu disease,and put them to superor position than other disease,gave detailed descriptions of those physiological,pathogenesis of zang-fu organs,and deficiency excess,cold and heat,prescriptions,counted totally 13 kinds of liver gallbladder disease and prescriptions,14 kinds of heart and small intestine disease,18 kinds of spleen stomach disease,14 kinds of lung and large intestine disease,16 kinds of kidney and urinary bladder disease.Offer various treatment to each cases of same syndrome type with different symptoms,edited with guidelines and categories,very clear and in order.For those herbs applied to five internal organs,herbalist 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin) gave clear classifications of them,among which herbs special for liver recorded as 蕤仁 and others in 28 kinds,herbs special for heart recorded as 麥門冬(Mai Mendong) and others in 23 kinds,herbs special for spleen recorded as 黃芪(Huang Qi) and others in 25 kinds,herbs for lung recorded as 款冬花(Kuan Donghua) and others in 26 kinds,herbs for kidney recorded as 肉蓯蓉(Rou Congrong) and others in 21 kinds,this kind of classification methods,extended big influence on later herbalists.Herbalist 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin) and others summarized common used herbs for 95 kinds of disease,and also selected some herbs used scarcely or not used before that epoch.He also excellent and mastered with other aspects including meridians,acupoints,acupuncture and moxbustion etc,and they attached high importance to medical virtue and crafts,and insisted that scholars should and must detect and read ancient classics,do refined studies and detect to details,this kind of requirements on academics still has its meaning till today.
The great works《太平聖惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang) compiled by herbalist 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin) and 王祜(Wang Hu),郑奇(Zheng Qi),陈昭遇(Chen Zhaoyu)others,summarized rich remedy experience from folks and various contents of recipes till Tang and Song Dynasty,it is not only a compilation of proved prescriptions from different schools,but also a comprehensive great medical works,has very rich contents and system theory viewpoints,owns its special and important values for literature study and TCM clinical practice.
1: see 《叶显纯论方药(YE XIAN CHUN LUN FANG YAO)》,ISBN7-81010-731-3,2003,by Prof.叶显纯,page 9,"《名医别录》所载'韭归心'，‘蒜归脾，肾’，可以说是最早明确指出药物与脏腑经络关系的记载，可惜为数甚少，尚未形成系统。宋代的《本草衍义》说‘张仲景八位丸用之者（指泽泻），亦不过接引桂，附归就肾经......’首先提出了‘归......经’的名词。及至金代的《珍珠囊》，张元素创造了‘脏腑标本虚实用药式’，‘引经报使’，才终于完善了中药归经学说的理论认识。"
2: 伏瘕fú jiǎ,也作"虙瘕(fú jiǎ)",语出《素问·气厥论》。“虙”与“伏”音义相通。指一种邪气伏于大肠的瘕证。下腹部有时鼓起块状,但有时消散,可伴有腹痛,便秘等症状。多因大肠热气郁积所致。
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