Ancient Herbalists Legend:The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)Back.
The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)
Before the Song Dynasty,clinical practice and herb medicine closely related togethor,medicine science separated from herbs till the 10th century,or end of Tang Dynasty and beginning of Song dynasty,the precipitating factor of the separation,mainly because a lot of alchemist turned their identity to herbal doctors and practice herb processing,prepared medicine turned in full flourish at the epoch of Song,government runned prepared medicine processing and marketing agency appeared,The Song Dynasty was an unprecedented epoch of herb medicine development in the world history,all other area of the world in the field all falled behind the Civilization of Song.
The government of Song Dynasty showed attention in prepared medicine,changed decoction into powder,process and prepare herb medicine according to government published pharmacia,sell by the appointed government runned Hui Min Yao Ju(惠民药局,Benefiting Folks Pharmacy Bureau) according to the prepared recipes and prescriptions.Those emperors and officials of Tang Dynasty all wanted immortality and laid hope on alchemy,but unfortunately there were no immortals could be turned from their circle,the emperors and officials of Song Dynasty learned lessons,they laid hope on herb medicine to drive away disease and extend longevity,the emperors of Song ever gave orders for medicine recipes compilation,and arranged the Imperial Doctors Bureau for clinical test to screen out effective recipes,famous official herb recipe classics came to birth during the Song Dynasty,they are known as the 《太平圣惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang) with orders of Song Taizu and Taizong(宋太祖赵匡胤Zhao Kuangyin,宋太宗赵匡义ZhaoGuangYi)compiled at year 978AD and published at year 992,《圣济总录》(Sheng Ji Zong Lu) during year 1111~1117 by orders of Song Huizong(宋徽宗赵佶Zhao Jí),《和剂局方》(He Ji Ju Fang) during years of 1078~1085,later classics《太平惠民和剂局方》(Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang) extended from it and published at year 1151 by orders of emperor Song Gaozong(宋高宗赵构,year 1107~1187AD).The herb medicine processing industry highly developed,could prepare huge volume prepared medicines in professional sites,but on the other side,clause composed classics requested herbal doctors treat patients with dogmas and memorize mechanically,which very different from traditional treatment according to syndrome differentiation ever since ancient epoch,and opposed challenged by herbalists with wisdom.
Famous herbalist of this period:Wang Weiyi,Su Song,Shen Kuo,Su Shi,Qian Yi,Pang Anshi,Kou Zongshi,Liu Fang,Tang Shenwei,Cheng Wuji,Xu Shu-wei,Chen Yan,Wang Zhizhong,Qi Zhongfu,Zhang Yuansu,Liu Wansu,Zhang Congzheng,Li Gao,Song Ci,Chen Ziming,Chen Wenzhong,Yan Yonghe.
The listed herbalists are the most representative herbalists of the epoch,and this is not a complete list of the famous herbalist at the epoch.Herbalist is a very old profession since ancient China,there are countless folk herbalists work hard to carry their bounden duty of healing the wounded and rescueing the dying,they may completely unknown or unrecognized in public,many of them living simple life in mountains,due to this tradition,actually many Taoist and Herbalists with very high treatment skills actually became hermit,due to this reason those life stories of many Taoist Herbalist not knowable in details,or even became unknown.
- Famous Herbalists:
- 王唯一(Wang Weiyi)
- 苏颂(Su Song)
- 沈括(Shen Kuo)
- 苏轼(Su Shi)
- 钱乙(Qian Yi)
- 庞安时(Pang Anshi)
- 寇宗时(Kou Zongshi)
- 刘方(Liu Fang)
- 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei)
- 成无己(Cheng Wuji)
- 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi)
- 许叔微(Xu Shu-wei)
- 陈言(Chen Yan)
- 王执中(Wang Zhizhong)
- 齐仲甫(Qi Zhongfu)
- 张元素(Zhang Yuansu)
- 刘完素(Liu Wansu)
- 张从正(Zhang Congzheng)
- 李皋(Li Gao)
- 宋慈(Song Ci)
- 陈自明(Chen Ziming)
- 陈文中(Chen Wenzhong)
- 严用和(Yan Yonghe)
- 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin)
王唯一(Wang Weiyi,date of birth and pass:year 987-1067AD):distinguished acupuncturist of the Northern Song Dynasty who sponsored by the casting of two life-sized,hollow bronze figures,on the surface of which were marked the courses of the meridians and the exact location of the acupuncture points.He also took charge of the compilation of a very important book entitled 《铜人腧穴针灸图经》Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing,or Illustrated Manual of Acupoints on Bronze Figures(published in 1027),which facilitated the locating of acupuncture points and the teaching of acupuncture.
王唯一(Wang Weiyi),also may name 惟德(WeiDe),Wang Weide is another name of Wang Wei-yi,herbalist of North Song Dynasty,native county unspecified.Herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) ever assigned as imperial doctors in the reign period of 宋仁宗(Song RenZong,name 赵祯Zhao Zhen,year 1010~1063AD,the fourth emperor of North Song Synasty,reign period 1023~1063) and 宋英宗(Song YingZong,name 赵曙Zhao Shu,year 1032~1067AD,the fifth emperor of North Song,reign period 1063~1067AD),ever assigned official title "翰林医官(Han Ling Yi Yuan,Doctor of Imperial Academy)"、"朝散大夫(Chao San Da Fu)"、"殿中尚药奉御骑都尉(Dian Zhong Shang Yao Feng Yu Ji Du Wei)",etc.
Acupuncture and moxibustion is one of the important component of Chinese Medicine System,with history several thousand years.Before Song Dynasty and in Tang Dynasty,doctors diagnose and treat disease according to those channel and point marked by acupuncture classics of Tang Dynasty titled《皇帝明堂经》(Huang Di Ming Tang Jing),but unfortunately the classics 《皇帝明堂经》(Huang Di Ming Tang Jing) lost in chaos during war period at end years of Tang Dynasty,which made the acupuncture point lost standard.
To set new standard for the acupuncture point reference,Tian Sheng Four Yeats of Song(宋天圣四年,or year 1023AD),emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) sent out imperial edict let agency 医官院(Yi Guan Yuan,or the Medical Officer Academy Agency)to edit new classics,the Medical Officer Academy Agency handed the task to herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi),followed with the imperial order,herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) tried detailed archeological study and made identifications with those records about acupuncture and acupuncture chart details in ancient literature,summarized experiences from generations acupuncture and moxibustion experts before Song Dynasty,with 3 years indefatigable efforts,he drew out front elevation and side elevation according to human body,exact acupoint position,also sourced and collected clinical experiences from ancient epoch,collected acupuncture theory from different schools,compiled the acupuncture works in 3 volumes,recorded total 657 acupoints,accepted arrangement method with combinative way including both meridian channels and acupoint,made it easy to understand meridian channel system,and convenient for acupoint selection in treatment,the works finished at Tian Sheng Four Years(天圣四年,or year 1026AD),titled 《新铸铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),and published by Song government later,for the convenience of reservation,its texts carved on 5 pieces of stone tablets.
The emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) hold a viewpoint that “古经训诂至精，学者执封多失，传心岂如会目，著辞不若案形，复令创铸铜人为式。”,which means "ancient classics text interpretation very fine,scholars hold viewpoints and possibly lost something,to understand in heart may not comparable with to see with eyes,presented in works may not comparable with put in shapes,thus send orders again to casting bronze acupuncture figure",so emperor Song Renzong sent out imperial orders again to casting bronze acupuncture figure according to the new classics 《新铸铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),and arranged herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) responsible for design the bronze acupuncture figure,the imperial court organize those a skillful craftsmen to casting it,at Tian Sheng 5 Years of Song(宋天圣五年,or year 1027AD) finished casting 2 human figure with refined copper,these two figured got named as “宋天圣针灸铜人”(Song Tian Sheng Zhen Jiu Tong Ren,or Bronze Acupuncture Figure of Song Dynasty) by later generations.The emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) sent out imperial edict to place one of them at the 医官院(Yi Guan Yuan,or the Medical Officer Academy Agency),another one placed in 大相国寺殿(the Daxiangguo Temple,Famous Buddahist temple first built in 555 A.D.),these two bronze acupuncture figure all casted miming adult man,its body composed of front and back two parts,zang-fu internal organs put inside,acupoint engraved outer surface,all those acupoints connect with body inside,with yellow wax(bee wax) coated outside,injected with water or mercury inside,engraved with acupoint name on surface,once the acupoint hit,then liquid spilled over,needle could not enter with hit if a bit difference,thus doctors can try acupuncture hit with this,for use in teaching and test.These two bronze acupuncture figure lost after song Dynasty,whereabouts unknown.
With his effort,herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) did great devotions to the development of acupuncture of Song and later generations,and respected as a generation of great acupuncturist.
苏颂,Su Song(1020-1101): official who compiled the Tu Jing Ben Cao,or Illustrated Herbal(1062) in 21 volumes, with the appended pictures collected from different provinces by the other of the emperor.This was the first complete herbal with detailed pictorial illustrations of each medicament.
沈括,Shen Kuo(1030-1095): also called Shen Cunzhong.Though more famous as a scientist, Shen was renowned in medical circles for a treatise on therapeutics and medicine titled Su Shen Liang Fang,or Best Formulas Collected by Su Shi and Shen Kuo.
钱乙,Qian Yi(c1032-1113),also called Qian Zhongyang,appointed court physicians in 1090,whose experience as a pediatrician for more than 40 years was summed up by his student Yan Xiaozhong in the book Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue,or Key to Therapeutics of Children's Diseases(1119) in 3 volumes.One of the earliest pediatric books in ancient China,it had a profound influence upon the development of this subject.Qian was the first to give valuable definitions of measles,scarlatina,fever,chickenpox and smallpox,and point out the peculiar features of pediatrics.He also forwarded new methods of diagnosis and treatment.Qian Zhongyang is another name of Qian Yi.
庞安时,Pang Anshi(c1043-1100):physician noted for several medical works,among which the most widely read was a detailed and comprehensive treatise on various kinds of fever under the title of Shang Han Zong Bing Lun,or General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases(1100).
寇宗时,Kou Zongshi:an expert on materia medica in the Song Dynasty,author of the Ben Cao Yan Yi,or Applied Materia Medica(1116),which lists 460 commonly used medicines with valuable records of identification,pharmacology,and process of preparation.
刘方,Liu Fang(c1080-1150): official of the Southern Song Dynasty,interested in the art of healing,especially pediatrics,and researcher into old prescriptions and remedies.Togethor with Wang Li,compiled the You You Xin Shu,or A New Book of Pediatrics(1132),one of the earliest monographs of its kind,with substantial content.
唐慎微,Tang Shenwei,also called Tang Shenyuan,a physician especially proficient in therapeutics,who declined the offer of an official post to devote his life to medical practice and collecting folk recipes.He wrote the Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,or Classic Classified Materia Medica for Emergencies(1108),a work in 31 volumes,and submitted it to the emperor who changed the title to Da Guan Ben Cao,or Daguan Herbal.
成无己,Cheng Wuji(1066-1155?): leading physician of the Jin Dynasty,known for his assiduous study of and commentary on Zhang Zhongjing's classical work Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases.His Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases(1142),is considered the earliest of its kind in Chinese medical literature.
骆龙吉(Luò Lóng jí),year of birth and death unknown in details,native county unknown,herbalist live in the epoch of Song Dynasty,life story unknown in details.
According to legend,herbalist 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi) mastered with ancient Taoism,know very depth with the things of Sky,Human,Yin Yang,and things,excellent diagnose skills with the crucial reason of the internal zang-fu organs,turn white bone into flesh and skills revive dead folks,crafts and creation skills,big fame at the epoch,but unknown reason his life stories not recorded in details,the legend only recorded that "宋骆龙吉先生学古之道，深究于天人阴阳五事之理。洞见五脏症结，肉白骨而生死人，功补造化，名于当时。所著《拾遗》书六十二条，皆可传习其功，非浅鲜矣。......所以活亿万不足计矣。".
Herbalist 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi) left posthumous works,many of them lost,only one of them survived till today and known as 《内经拾遗方论》(Nei Jing Shi Yi Fang Lun),a very abstruse and mysterious works derived from 《内经》(Nei Jing),its academic level like a footsteps in a deserted valley,which means One and the Only One.
许叔微,Xu Shu-wei(1079-1154?):leading physician of the Song Dynasty and a disciple of Zhang Zhongjing.He prepared graphic illustrations of 36 varieties of the pulse based on Zhang Zhongjing's work,and propounded the theory of using drugs in relation to the intensity of the disease.Xu was the author of several medical works,among which the Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang,or Classified Effective Prescriptions for Universal Relief(1132?) in 10 volumes has been one of his most widely read.Xu Shu-wei was the representative herbalist of Meng He School (孟河医派,which origin could be traced back to Dong Han Dynasty and Three Kingdom period,origined and related from with herbalist and Taoist Ge Hong.) during Song Dynasty period.
陈言,Chen Yan: leading physician of the Song Dynasty,also called Chen Wuze,author of the San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on the Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors and Prescriptions,a work in 18 volumes published in 1174,in which causes of diseases are grouped under three headings in accordance with Zhang Zhongjing's theory.
王执中,Wang Zhizhong:physician of the Song Dynasty skilled in acupuncture and moxibustion,author of the Zhen Jiu Zhi Sheng Jing,or Classic of Nourishing Life with Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1220).
齐仲甫,Qi Zhongfu: physician of the Song Dynasty with rich experience in treating women's diseases,author of the very popular medical work Nü Ke Bai Wen,or Hundred Questions on Women's Diseases(1220.A.D.).
张元素,Zhang Yuansu:physician of the 12th century,also called Zhang Jiegu.He made the bold announcement that in view of the different conditions between ancient and modern times it was impossible to treat new diseases with old methods,discarded obsolete traditional formulas and devised a system of his own.Most of the doctors of the Jin-Yuan period(1115-1368) were influenced by his teahcings.He was the author of the Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag and other medical works.Among his disciples were such eminent doctors as Li Gao and Wang Hao-gu.Zhang Jiegu is another name of Zhang Yuansu.
刘完素,Liu Wansu: also called Liu Shouzhen(c1120-1200),He propounded the theory that diseases were caused by excessive heat in the body,and advocated the use of medicines of cold nature,thus starting the Cold School of Medicine.He was the author of the Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing,or Etiology Based on Plain Questions and other medical works,and had much influence on the School of Epidemic Febrile Diseases in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.Liu Shouzhen is another name of Liu Wansu.
张从正(Zhang Congzheng,year 1151-1231AD),name 从正(Congzheng),alias 子和(Zi He),practise medicine since last generations,academic followed 刘完素(Liu Wansu),master of healing art.Birth Tian De 3 years of Jin(金天德三年,about year 1151AD),passed away at Zheng Da 8 years of Jin(金正大八年,or year 1231AD),passed away at age 80,native to Diao Zhou Kao Cheng of Jin(金雕州考城,today's Lan Kao county,He Nan province).张从正(Zhang Congzheng) is a big physician during the epoch,had many creative ideas on medical theory,and some big influence on later generations,he was respected as the ancestor of the Attack Pathogen School.
Once a court physician,with rich experience in various branches of medicine,he compared a disease to a foreign substance in the organism which should be attacked and driven out by drastic drugs,such as diaphoretics,emetics and purgatives and thus started the Attack or Purgation School.He was the author of the Ru Men Shi Qin,or The Scholars' Care of Their Parents,which was completed by his disciple Ma Zhiji.Zhang Zihe is another name of Zhang Congzheng.
李皋,Li Gao:also called Li Mingzhi,or Li Dongyuan(1180-1251),a disciple of Zhang Yuansu,who held that diseases,apart from external changes,were mainly caused by internal injury to the spleen and stomach(i.e. by intemperance in drinking and eating or overwork) and advocated cure by regulating the spleen and the stomach and nourishing the original qi.He was considered to be the founder of the School for Strengthening the Spleen and Stomach.His masterpiece was the Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach.Li Dongyuan,Li Mingzhi is other names of Li Gao.
宋慈,Song Ci:also called Song Huifu(1186-1249 A.D.),author of the Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners,a treatise on forensic medicine written on the basis of his personal experience as a judge and his profound knowledge of previous works on the subject,which exerted a great influence on Chinese jurisprudence.
陈自明,Chen Ziming: also called Chen Liangfu(c1190-1270),a distinguished gynecologist from a family of medical practitioners for many generations and the author of two important books--Fu Ren Da Quang Liang Fang,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women and Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine.Cheng Liangfu is another name of Chen Ziming.
陈文中,Chen Wenzhong,noted pediatrist in the 13th century,and author of the Chen Shi Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang,or Chen's Prescriptions for Smallpox and Measles in Children(1241),and Xiao Er Bing Yuan Fang Lun,or Treatise on Etiology of Children's Diseases(1253).
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