Ancient Herbalists Legend:The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)Back.
The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)
Famous herbalist of this period:Wang Weiyi,Su Song,Shen Kuo,Su Shi,Qian Yi,Pang Anshi,Kou Zongshi,Liu Fang,Tang Shenwei,Cheng Wuji,Xu Shu-wei,Chen Yan,Wang Zhizhong,Qi Zhongfu,Zhang Yuansu,Liu Wansu,Zhang Congzheng,Li Gao,Song Ci,Chen Ziming,Chen Wenzhong,Yan Yonghe.
王唯一,Wang Weiyi(c987-1067): distinguished acupuncturist of the Northern Song Dynasty who sponsored by the casting of two life-sized,hollow bronze figures,on the surface of which were marked the courses of the meridians and the exact location of the acupuncture points.He also took charge of the compilation of a very important book entitled Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing,or Illustrated Manual of Acupoints on Bronze Figures(published in 1027),which facilitated the locating of acupuncture points and the teaching of acupuncture. Wang Weide is another name of Wang Wei-yi.
苏颂,Su Song(1020-1101): official who compiled the Tu Jing Ben Cao,or Illustrated Herbal(1062) in 21 volumes, with the appended pictures collected from different provinces by the other of the emperor.This was the first complete herbal with detailed pictorial illustrations of each medicament.
沈括,Shen Kuo(1030-1095): also called Shen Cunzhong.Though more famous as a scientist, Shen was renowned in medical circles for a treatise on therapeutics and medicine titled Su Shen Liang Fang,or Best Formulas Collected by Su Shi and Shen Kuo.
钱乙,Qian Yi(c1032-1113),also called Qian Zhongyang,appointed court physicians in 1090,whose experience as a pediatrician for more than 40 years was summed up by his student Yan Xiaozhong in the book Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue,or Key to Therapeutics of Children's Diseases(1119) in 3 volumes.One of the earliest pediatric books in ancient China,it had a profound influence upon the development of this subject.Qian was the first to give valuable definitions of measles,scarlatina,fever,chickenpox and smallpox,and point out the peculiar features of pediatrics.He also forwarded new methods of diagnosis and treatment.Qian Zhongyang is another name of Qian Yi.
庞安时,Pang Anshi(c1043-1100):physician noted for several medical works,among which the most widely read was a detailed and comprehensive treatise on various kinds of fever under the title of Shang Han Zong Bing Lun,or General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases(1100).
寇宗时,Kou Zongshi:an expert on materia medica in the Song Dynasty,author of the Ben Cao Yan Yi,or Applied Materia Medica(1116),which lists 460 commonly used medicines with valuable records of identification,pharmacology,and process of preparation.
刘方,Liu Fang(c1080-1150): official of the Southern Song Dynasty,interested in the art of healing,especially pediatrics,and researcher into old prescriptions and remedies.Togethor with Wang Li,compiled the You You Xin Shu,or A New Book of Pediatrics(1132),one of the earliest monographs of its kind,with substantial content.
唐慎微,Tang Shenwei,also called Tang Shenyuan,a physician especially proficient in therapeutics,who declined the offer of an official post to devote his life to medical practice and collecting folk recipes.He wrote the Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,or Classic Classified Materia Medica for Emergencies(1108),a work in 31 volumes,and submitted it to the emperor who changed the title to Da Guan Ben Cao,or Daguan Herbal.
成无己,Cheng Wuji(1066-1155?): leading physician of the Jin Dynasty,known for his assiduous study of and commentary on Zhang Zhongjing's classical work Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases.His Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases(1142),is considered the earliest of its kind in Chinese medical literature.
许叔微,Xu Shu-wei(1079-1154?):leading physician of the Song Dynasty and a disciple of Zhang Zhongjing.He prepared graphic illustrations of 36 varieties of the pulse based on Zhang Zhongjing's work,and propounded the theory of using drugs in relation to the intensity of the disease.Xu was the author of several medical works,among which the Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang,or Classified Effective Prescriptions for Universal Relief(1132?) in 10 volumes has been one of his most widely read.Xu Shu-wei was the representative herbalist of Meng He School (孟河医派,which origin could be traced back to Dong Han Dynasty and Three Kingdom period,origined and related from with herbalist and Taoist Ge Hong.) during Song Dynasty period.
陈言,Chen Yan: leading physician of the Song Dynasty,also called Chen Wuze,author of the San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on the Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors and Prescriptions,a work in 18 volumes published in 1174,in which causes of diseases are grouped under three headings in accordance with Zhang Zhongjing's theory.
王执中,Wang Zhizhong:physician of the Song Dynasty skilled in acupuncture and moxibustion,author of the Zhen Jiu Zhi Sheng Jing,or Classic of Nourishing Life with Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1220).
齐仲甫,Qi Zhongfu: physician of the Song Dynasty with rich experience in treating women's diseases,author of the very popular medical work Nü Ke Bai Wen,or Hundred Questions on Women's Diseases(1220.A.D.).
张元素,Zhang Yuansu:physician of the 12th century,also called Zhang Jiegu.He made the bold announcement that in view of the different conditions between ancient and modern times it was impossible to treat new diseases with old methods,discarded obsolete traditional formulas and devised a system of his own.Most of the doctors of the Jin-Yuan period(1115-1368) were influenced by his teahcings.He was the author of the Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag and other medical works.Among his disciples were such eminent doctors as Li Gao and Wang Hao-gu.Zhang Jiegu is another name of Zhang Yuansu.
刘完素,Liu Wansu: also called Liu Shouzhen(c1120-1200),He propounded the theory that diseases were caused by excessive heat in the body,and advocated the use of medicines of cold nature,thus starting the Cold School of Medicine.He was the author of the Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing,or Etiology Based on Plain Questions and other medical works,and had much influence on the School of Epidemic Febrile Diseases in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.Liu Shouzhen is another name of Liu Wansu.
张从正,Zhang Congzheng:also called Zhang Zihe(c1156-1228),Once a court physician,with rich experience in various branches of medicine,he compared a disease to a foreign substance in the organism which should be attacked and driven out by drastic drugs,such as diaphoretics,emetics and purgatives and thus started the Attack or Purgation School.He was the author of the Ru Men Shi Qin,or The Scholars' Care of Their Parents,which was completed by his disciple Ma Zhiji.Zhang Zihe is another name of Zhang Congzheng.
李皋,Li Gao:also called Li Mingzhi,or Li Dongyuan(1180-1251),a disciple of Zhang Yuansu,who held that diseases,apart from external changes,were mainly caused by internal injury to the spleen and stomach(i.e. by intemperance in drinking and eating or overwork) and advocated cure by regulating the spleen and the stomach and nourishing the original qi.He was considered to be the founder of the School for Strengthening the Spleen and Stomach.His masterpiece was the Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach.Li Dongyuan,Li Mingzhi is other names of Li Gao.
宋慈,Song Ci:also called Song Huifu(1186-1249 A.D.),author of the Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners,a treatise on forensic medicine written on the basis of his personal experience as a judge and his profound knowledge of previous works on the subject,which exerted a great influence on Chinese jurisprudence.
陈自明,Chen Ziming: also called Chen Liangfu(c1190-1270),a distinguished gynecologist from a family of medical practitioners for many generations and the author of two important books--Fu Ren Da Quang Liang Fang,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women and Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine.Cheng Liangfu is another name of Chen Ziming.
陈文中,Chen Wenzhong,noted pediatrist in the 13th century,and author of the Chen Shi Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang,or Chen's Prescriptions for Smallpox and Measles in Children(1241),and Xiao Er Bing Yuan Fang Lun,or Treatise on Etiology of Children's Diseases(1253).
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