Ancient Herbalists Legend:The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)Back.
The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD)
Before the Song Dynasty,clinical practice and herb medicine closely related togethor,medicine science separated from herbs till the 10th century,or end of Tang Dynasty and beginning of Song dynasty,the precipitating factor of the separation,mainly because a lot of alchemist turned their identity to herbal doctors and practice herb processing,prepared medicine turned in full flourish at the epoch of Song,government runned prepared medicine processing and marketing agency appeared,The Song Dynasty was an unprecedented epoch of herb medicine development in the world history,all other area of the world in the field all falled behind the Civilization of Song.
The government of Song Dynasty showed attention in prepared medicine,changed decoction into powder,process and prepare herb medicine according to government published pharmacia,sell by the appointed government runned Hui Min Yao Ju(惠民药局,Benefiting Folks Pharmacy Bureau) according to the prepared recipes and prescriptions.Those emperors and officials of Tang Dynasty all wanted immortality and laid hope on alchemy,but unfortunately there were no immortals could be turned from their circle,the emperors and officials of Song Dynasty learned lessons,they laid hope on herb medicine to drive away disease and extend longevity,the emperors of Song ever gave orders for medicine recipes compilation,and arranged the Imperial Doctors Bureau for clinical test to screen out effective recipes,famous official herb recipe classics came to birth during the Song Dynasty,they are known as the 《太平圣惠方》(Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang) with orders of Song Taizu and Taizong(宋太祖赵匡胤Zhao Kuangyin,宋太宗赵匡义ZhaoGuangYi)compiled at year 978AD and published at year 992,《圣济总录》(Sheng Ji Zong Lu) during year 1111~1117 by orders of Song Huizong(宋徽宗赵佶Zhao Jí),《和剂局方》(He Ji Ju Fang) during years of 1078~1085,later classics《太平惠民和剂局方》(Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang) extended from it and published at year 1151 by orders of emperor Song Gaozong(宋高宗赵构,year 1107~1187AD).The herb medicine processing industry highly developed,could prepare huge volume prepared medicines in professional sites,but on the other side,clause composed classics requested herbal doctors treat patients with dogmas and memorize mechanically,which very different from traditional treatment according to syndrome differentiation ever since ancient epoch,and opposed challenged by herbalists with wisdom.
Famous herbalist of this period:Wang Weiyi,Su Song,Shen Kuo,Su Shi,Qian Yi,Pang Anshi,Kou Zongshi,Liu Fang,Tang Shenwei,Cheng Wuji,Xu Shu-wei,Chen Yan,Wang Zhizhong,Qi Zhongfu,Zhang Yuansu,Liu Wansu,Zhang Congzheng,Li Gao,Song Ci,Chen Ziming,Chen Wenzhong,Yan Yonghe.
The listed herbalists are the most representative herbalists of the epoch,and this is not a complete list of the famous herbalist at the epoch.Herbalist is a very old profession since ancient China,there are countless folk herbalists work hard to carry their bounden duty of healing the wounded and rescueing the dying,they may completely unknown or unrecognized in public,many of them living simple life in mountains,due to this tradition,actually many Taoist and Herbalists with very high treatment skills actually became hermit,due to this reason those life stories of many Taoist Herbalist not knowable in details,or even became unknown.
- Famous Herbalists:
- 王唯一(Wang Weiyi)
- 苏颂(Su Song)
- 沈括(Shen Kuo)
- 苏轼(Su Shi)
- 钱乙(Qian Yi)
- 庞安时(Pang Anshi)
- 寇宗时(Kou Zongshi)
- 刘方(Liu Fang)
- 唐慎微(Tang Shenwei)
- 成无己(Cheng Wuji)
- 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi)
- 许叔微(Xu Shu-wei)
- 陈言(Chen Yan)
- 王执中(Wang Zhizhong)
- 齐仲甫(Qi Zhongfu)
- 张元素(Zhang Yuansu)
- 刘完素(Liu Wansu)
- 张从正(Zhang Congzheng)
- 李皋(Li Gao)
- 宋慈(Song Ci)
- 陈自明(Chen Ziming)
- 陈文中(Chen Wenzhong)
- 严用和(Yan Yonghe)
- 王怀隐(Wang HuaiYin)
王唯一(Wang Weiyi,date of birth and pass:year 987-1067AD):distinguished acupuncturist of the Northern Song Dynasty who sponsored by the casting of two life-sized,hollow bronze figures,on the surface of which were marked the courses of the meridians and the exact location of the acupuncture points.He also took charge of the compilation of a very important book entitled 《铜人腧穴针灸图经》Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing,or Illustrated Manual of Acupoints on Bronze Figures(published in 1027),which facilitated the locating of acupuncture points and the teaching of acupuncture.
王唯一(Wang Weiyi),also may name 惟德(WeiDe),Wang Weide is another name of Wang Wei-yi,herbalist of North Song Dynasty,native county unspecified.Herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) ever assigned as imperial doctors in the reign period of 宋仁宗(Song RenZong,name 赵祯Zhao Zhen,year 1010~1063AD,the fourth emperor of North Song Synasty,reign period 1023~1063) and 宋英宗(Song YingZong,name 赵曙Zhao Shu,year 1032~1067AD,the fifth emperor of North Song,reign period 1063~1067AD),ever assigned official title "翰林医官(Han Ling Yi Yuan,Doctor of Imperial Academy)"、"朝散大夫(Chao San Da Fu)"、"殿中尚药奉御骑都尉(Dian Zhong Shang Yao Feng Yu Ji Du Wei)",etc.
Acupuncture and moxibustion is one of the important component of Chinese Medicine System,with history several thousand years.Before Song Dynasty and in Tang Dynasty,doctors diagnose and treat disease according to those channel and point marked by acupuncture classics of Tang Dynasty titled《皇帝明堂经》(Huang Di Ming Tang Jing),but unfortunately the classics 《皇帝明堂经》(Huang Di Ming Tang Jing) lost in chaos during war period at end years of Tang Dynasty,which made the acupuncture point lost standard.
To set new standard for the acupuncture point reference,Tian Sheng Four Yeats of Song(宋天圣四年,or year 1023AD),emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) sent out imperial edict let agency 医官院(Yi Guan Yuan,or the Medical Officer Academy Agency)to edit new classics,the Medical Officer Academy Agency handed the task to herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi),followed with the imperial order,herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) tried detailed archeological study and made identifications with those records about acupuncture and acupuncture chart details in ancient literature,summarized experiences from generations acupuncture and moxibustion experts before Song Dynasty,with 3 years indefatigable efforts,he drew out front elevation and side elevation according to human body,exact acupoint position,also sourced and collected clinical experiences from ancient epoch,collected acupuncture theory from different schools,compiled the acupuncture works in 3 volumes,recorded total 657 acupoints,accepted arrangement method with combinative way including both meridian channels and acupoint,made it easy to understand meridian channel system,and convenient for acupoint selection in treatment,the works finished at Tian Sheng Four Years(天圣四年,or year 1026AD),titled 《新铸铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),and published by Song government later,for the convenience of reservation,its texts carved on 5 pieces of stone tablets.
The emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) hold a viewpoint that “古经训诂至精，学者执封多失，传心岂如会目，著辞不若案形，复令创铸铜人为式。”,which means "ancient classics text interpretation very fine,scholars hold viewpoints and possibly lost something,to understand in heart may not comparable with to see with eyes,presented in works may not comparable with put in shapes,thus send orders again to casting bronze acupuncture figure",so emperor Song Renzong sent out imperial orders again to casting bronze acupuncture figure according to the new classics 《新铸铜人腧穴针灸图经》(Xin Zhu Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing),and arranged herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) responsible for design the bronze acupuncture figure,the imperial court organize those a skillful craftsmen to casting it,at Tian Sheng 5 Years of Song(宋天圣五年,or year 1027AD) finished casting 2 human figure with refined copper,these two figured got named as “宋天圣针灸铜人”(Song Tian Sheng Zhen Jiu Tong Ren,or Bronze Acupuncture Figure of Song Dynasty) by later generations.The emperor 宋仁宗(Song RenZong) sent out imperial edict to place one of them at the 医官院(Yi Guan Yuan,or the Medical Officer Academy Agency),another one placed in 大相国寺殿(the Daxiangguo Temple,Famous Buddahist temple first built in 555 A.D.),these two bronze acupuncture figure all casted miming adult man,its body composed of front and back two parts,zang-fu internal organs put inside,acupoint engraved outer surface,all those acupoints connect with body inside,with yellow wax(bee wax) coated outside,injected with water or mercury inside,engraved with acupoint name on surface,once the acupoint hit,then liquid spilled over,needle could not enter with hit if a bit difference,thus doctors can try acupuncture hit with this,for use in teaching and test.These two bronze acupuncture figure lost after song Dynasty,whereabouts unknown.
With his effort,herbalist 王唯一(Wang Weiyi) did great devotions to the development of acupuncture of Song and later generations,and respected as a generation of great acupuncturist.
苏颂(Su Song,1020-1101): official who compiled the Tu Jing Ben Cao,or Illustrated Herbal(1062) in 21 volumes, with the appended pictures collected from different provinces by the other of the emperor.This was the first complete herbal with detailed pictorial illustrations of each medicament.
苏颂(Su Song,or So Siōng in Southern Fujian Dialect,year of birth and pass:1020~1101),alias 子容(Zi Rong),native to HuLuShan,TongAn county,QuanZhou city,Fujian Province of Song(宋福建泉州同安县葫芦山,today's TongAn area,XiaMen city,FuJian,China),astronomer and pharmacologist of North Song Dynasty,his ancestor immigrated into FuJian area followed with 王潮(Wang Chao) at end of Tang Dynasty,generations respected and influential clan at Minnan region,his father 苏绅(Su Shen) ever selected as Jinshi,苏颂(Su Song) born at a literary family,smart and fond of learning since child,accepted strict family education.
At Huang You 5 Years of Song RengZong(仁宗皇祐五年,Huang You is the reign title of Song RengZong,or 1053AD),苏颂(Su Song) was assigned title Collate of Jixian Yuan(国史馆集贤院校理) for nine years,during these years,苏颂(Su Song) joined team with herbalists 掌禹锡(Zhang YuXi),林亿(Lin Yi) compiled and supplemented herbal classics 《嘉佑补注本草》(Jia You Bu Zhu Ben Cao),calibrated and published herbal classics 《急备千金方》(Bei Ji Qian Jin Fang) and 《神农本草》(Shen Nong Ben Cao),and followed with these compilations,herbalist 苏颂(Su Song)edited herbal classics 《本草图经》(Ben Cao Tu Jing) in 21 volumes on his own effort.
The herbal classics 《本草图经》(Ben Cao Tu Jing) is a monumental herbal work inherit the past and forge ahead into the future,the most perfect and scientific herbal works appeared in the Song Dynasty period,it works inherited ancient medicine legacy in past thousands of years,supplemented with his own research experience and new discoveries,added big number medicine graphs and figures with texts notes,gave exact records of those herb related data,including habitat origin,shape and morphology,characters,applications,collect seasons,prepare method,identification method,combinative guide and cautions etc,very easy and exact to use,but ancient emperors not lay very importance on scientific discoveries,this giant works lost and could not passed on after 苏颂(Su Song),its content only available from herbal classics of later generations,among them the herbal classics 《本草纲目》Ben Cao Gang Mu by herbalist 李时珍(Li Shizhen)kept more articles in reservations and reference,but not all.
At Yuan Feng 2 Year of Song ShenZong(宋神宗元丰二年,Yuan Feng is the reign title of the Emperor Shenzong of Song,赵顼Zhao Xu,1048~1085,the eldest son of Song YingZong,the six generation emperor of North Song Dynasty,Yuan Feng 2 Years is the year 1079AD),苏颂(Su Song) was put into prison for the Chen Shiru case(陈世儒案),and gor prinsoned neighbour to famous literary giant 苏东坡(Su DongPo) who got put into prison for the case of Wu Tai Shi(乌台诗案),苏颂(Su Song) wrote a poem to express his depression:"遥怜北户吴兴守，诟辱通宵不忍闻。",which means "take a pity on friend Wu Xingshou far at north,remember those disgrace whole night and hardly bear to hear that."
One biggest devotion in the life of 苏颂(Su Song) was the reproduce project of the ancient astronomical instruments Astronomical Clock Tower(水运仪象台),the instruments Astronomical Clock Tower was ever created by 张衡(Zhang Heng) of East Han Dynasty,but it lost later,later astronomer of Tang Dynasty 僧一行(Ceng Yixing) and 粱令瓒(Liang LingZan) ever tried reproduce,but it lost again.Year 1088AD,苏颂(Su Song) organize scientists 韩公廉(Han Gonglian)、周日严(Zhou Riyan) and others started to reproduce the astronomical instruments Astronomical Clock Tower,with his own rich experience in astronomy,mathematics and mechanics,also absorbed experiences of laboring people using waterwheel,scoop waterwheel,shaduf,with exact theory calculation and model development,successfully reproduced the Astronomical Clock Tower just in 2 years and finished at year 1090AD,extremely improved the crafts level and function level of the Astronomical Clock Tower which appeared in Han and Tang Dynasty.
苏颂(Su Song) was a brilliant scholar of wide learning,also a pure and upright officer,his achievements on science and technology passed over his achievements in official career,the ancient history classics 《宋史,苏颂传》(Song Shi.Legend of Su Song)recorded that “经史、九流百家之说，至于图纬、律吕、兴修、算法、山经、本草，无所不通，尤明典故。”,which means he master with "classics history,various schools,know well with book of prophecy and books about charms,tonality,construction,algorithm,the classic of Mountains and Rivers,herbal,and many others,especially literary quotations."
The major works scientist 苏颂(Su Song) left are known as:《本草图经》(Ben Cao Tu Jing),21 volumes,《新仪象法要》(Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao),3 volumes,《苏魏公文集》(Su Wei Gong Wen Ji),72 volumes.
芦山堂(Lu ShanTang Temple) located in the south side of Hu Lu Mountain,Da Tong town,Tong An county,Xia Men city,Fu Jian province of China(福建厦门同安大同镇葫芦山南侧),built since Kai Yun Years of the Five Dynasties(五代晋开运年间,year 944~946AD),ruined before Shao Xing 23 Years of Song(宋绍兴二十三年,or year 1152AD),but its homestead still existed,and later on it built the temple of Su family,later burnt during occupied years of mongolia barbarians(year 1308~1311AD),rebuilt at early years of Min Guo,and also rebuilt at Feb of year 1988 by government,and now there are sitting statue of 苏颂(Su Song) respected there.
沈括(Shen Kuo,1030-1095):also called Shen Cunzhong.Though more famous as a scientist, Shen was renowned in medical circles for a treatise on therapeutics and medicine titled Su Shen Liang Fang,or Best Formulas Collected by Su Shi and Shen Kuo.
沈括(Shen Kuo) ever had very deep interest in herbs and medicine,sourced many effective recipes,and ever cured many patient with serious disease,he has wide knowledge of herbs,and could identify true or fake herbs from reality,and correct errors in ancient classics,his herbal works known today survived titled as《沈存中良方》(Shen Cun Zhong Liang Fang),the present version titled 《苏沈良方》(Su Shen Liang Fang) is a compiled works by later generation which added those various theories of 苏轼(Su Shi),in his works 《梦溪笔谈》(Meng Xi Bi Tan),沈括(Shen Kuo) ever mentioned the method of Prepared Salt,also mentioned detailed descriptions of 44 kinds herbs including morphology,combination,collection,and growing environment.
钱乙,Qian Yi(c1032-1113),also called Qian Zhongyang,appointed court physicians in 1090,whose experience as a pediatrician for more than 40 years was summed up by his student Yan Xiaozhong in the book Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue,or Key to Therapeutics of Children's Diseases(1119) in 3 volumes.One of the earliest pediatric books in ancient China,it had a profound influence upon the development of this subject.Qian was the first to give valuable definitions of measles,scarlatina,fever,chickenpox and smallpox,and point out the peculiar features of pediatrics.He also forwarded new methods of diagnosis and treatment.Qian Zhongyang is another name of Qian Yi.
钱乙(Qian Yi),birth at Ming Dao 1st Year of Song(宋明道元年,year 1032AD),pass at Zheng He 3 Years of Song(政和三年,year 1113AD),alias 仲阳(Zhong Yang),famous pediatrician,belong to the Han Nationality,native to Qian Tang of ZheJiang,immigrate to north with his father.Years later after he passed away,his disciple 阎季忠(Yan Jizhong) collected and edited his clinical experience,compiled and edited into works 《小儿药证直诀》(Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue) at Xuan He First Year(宋宣和元年,year 1119AD),it recorded 23 cases and 114 herbal formula.The works gave out very creative opinion abou topics related with pediatric and infantile physiology,pathology,dialectical therapy and recipe and prescription preparation,this works publish year over 300 years earlier than the earliest pediatric works of europ,and it is the first pediatric works of China survived till today and reserved in original copy,except this,herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) has other works known in ancient epoch as 《伤寒指论微》(Shang Han Zhi Lun Wei) in 5 volumes,《婴孺论》(Yin Ru Lun) over 100 articles,unfortunately they all lost in ancient time.
Father of herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) named 钱颢(Qian Hao),good in acupuncture,and also addict to alcohol and travel around,someday he hided his name and travel to east seas,never came back,钱乙(Qian Yi) only 3 years old at that year,his mother already passed away before that,his aunt married with 吕医生(Doctor Lv),doctor Lv took sympathy with the orphan 钱乙(Qian Yi),adopted him,and later 钱乙(Qian Yi) followed doctor Lv to study medicine and crafts.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) hold some special viewpoint on the treatment of pediatric disease,that compare with adult,the child has own special character on psychology and pathology,for example in psychology child “五脏六腑，成而未全，全而未壮”,"five zang-internal organs and six fu-internal organs,turned into shape but not completed,completed but not strong",in pathology “脏腑柔弱，易虚易实，易寒易热”,"the zang-internal organs and fu-internal organs weak and tender,easy to turn deficiency or excessive syndrome,easy cold or easy heat".Thus,once the kid hit by pathogenic factor,their resistibility normally lower than adults,and easy hurt by pathogenic evil,so the syndrome cases more frequency to be excessive type.But on the other side,once the pathogenic factor invaded human body,for the reason child internal zang-fu-organs weak tender and not supplied with enough Qi-Blood,pathogenic evil factor exhauting Genuine-Qi,then easy to turn the problems to deficiency syndrome for the damage of Genuine-Qi(Zhen Qi).Their Yang-Qi not sufficient,exhausted and generate internal cold;their Yin-Essence not sufficient,exhausted and generate internal heat,thus on the pathology deficiency,excessive,cold,heat changed very quick.This theory of herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi),laid the theoretical basis to master the development and change rules of pediatric disease.Based on this,in the clinical applications and practice of specific pediatric disease,he hold a viewpoint against treat with aimless or obscure method,for the pediatric disease,except those unavoidable cases with limited method available,normally should treat with age,physique and cases of pathogenic or healthy factors,better not treat with abuse.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) master ancient classics like 《内经》(Nei JIng),《金匮要略》(Jin Kui Yao Lue),《中藏经》(Zhong Zang Jing),《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang),based on them,he applied the five-internal organ dialectic theory to pediatric disease treatment,raised out speficic dialectic method for clinical practice of pediatric disease,he hold a viewpoint that “心主惊”，“肝主风”，“脾主困”，“肺主喘”，“肾主虚”,"heart main for fright","liver main for pathogenic wind","spleen main for sleepy","lung main for breath","kidney main for deficiency",and Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) lay extreme importance on analysis and syndrome differentiation with the deficiency,excess,cold or heat of internal zang-fu organs,and provide a series of therapy method to different disease accordingly,his theory is a kind a syndrome differentiation system of zang-fu organs,although not very complete,but already has primary frames,made devotions to the birth of zang-fu dialectic theory of TCM.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) laid emphasis on five-zang internal organs syndrome differentiation,most of his formula preparation related with deficiency,excess,cold and heat of five-internal organs,like treat heart excess syndrome with 导赤散,treat heart deficiency syndrome with 生犀散,treat liver excess syndrome with 泻青丸,treat liver deficiency syndrome with 六味丸,treat spleen deficiency with 益黄散,treat spleen damp heat with 泻黄散,treat lung deficiency with 阿胶散,treat lung heat with 泻白散,treat kidney deficiency with 六味地黄丸,etc.His prescription method lay importance on select herbs with gentle characters,not support use herbs with strong characters,this herb application principle of 钱乙(Qian Yi) set up by him especially for the character of child.When prepare remedy and prescriptions,Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) normally combine experience of previous generations and his own clinical experience,add or deduce with flexiblity to creat new formula.For example the famous formula Rehmaniae Bolus created by him,turned from ancient formula Shenqi Wan without cassia twig and prepared common monkshood.Beside this,herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) frequently select pills,powder,or paste tincture forms for treatment according to the pediatric characteristic,those prepared recipes may fit for the characteristics of pediatric disease including urgent and fast change,convenient for timely application,easy to be accepted by child.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) did very careful study with ancient classics 《内经》(Nei Jing)、《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun)、《神农本草经》(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing)etc.He also collect and extract subject related with pediatric from ancient literature,then study with them,before the epoch of 钱乙(Qian Yi),there were not many literature about pediatric disease treatment.According to history classics 《史记》(Shi Ji),herbalist 扁鹊(Bian Que) ever been a pediatrian,herbalist 卫汛(Wei Xun) ever compiled works 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing),unfortunately it lost in ancient epoch,other classics like 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun) by herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang),《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang) by herbalist 孙思邈(Sun Simiao),also has records of pediatric disease.Till the epoch of Song Dynasty,anonymous herbalist compiled 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing) 2 volumes with pseudo author ancient wizard,its content discussed with the pulse-taking method in children,syndrome diagnose and treatment of frightened epilepsy,malnutrition dysentery,erysipelas, miscellaneous pathoconditions.Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) did over and over study with this new 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing),and got enligtened from it,apply with clinical practice and got effective results,钱乙(Qian Yi) also borrowed the theory about “小儿纯阳”"child has a pure Yang-body" from 《颅囟经》(Lu Xin Jing),combined his own clinical practice,based on the syndrome differentiation treatment summarized by herbalist 张仲景(Zhang Zhongjing),groped out a set of five-organ syndrome differentiation method system which fit for child,thus his disciple 阎季忠(Yan Jizhong) commented that he “治小儿该括古今，又多自得”,"treat child with reference to ancient and today,also a lot of his own real experience".Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) also applied the four methods of diagnosis(望诊 observation,闻诊auscultation and olfaction,问诊interrogation,切诊pulse feeling and palpation) in clinical practice,and extremely attention with observation,normally gave detailed description and discuss the whole body conditions of patients,gave out diagnose and differentiation identification with common pediatric disease including fright convulsion,herpes,crystalli,smallpox,scarlatina(scarflet fever),and proposed many effective treatment method,also clearly identify several different type of jaundice(aurigo),including those disease in modern medicine terms like epidemic hepatitis,intestinal parasitic disease,and morbus haemolyticus neonatorum.
Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) ever assigned as Imperial Academy Doctor Officer(翰林医官) for some years,one day,the son of emperor Shenzong(宋神宗) suddenly caught disease,asked many famous herbalist to diagnose,no effective results achieved,the disease turned worse and worse,and the son started to cramp,the emperor felt very anxious,someone suggested 钱乙(Qian Yi) to emperor,then herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) was called to imperial court,the emperor saw him small and slim,appearance not outstanding,belittled him some degree,but already invited him,then let him diagnose with his son.钱乙(Qian Yi) tried diagnose with observation leisurely and unoppressively,ask for paper and writing brush,wrote out a prescription titled “黄土汤”(Huangtu Tang,or Terrae Flavae Decoction).The emperor with suspicion took a look at the prescriptions,and feel surprised that a kind of medicine in the recipe is loess,could not hold his own emotions and asked with anger:“how are you!could loess be used as medicine too?？”,herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) replied with confidence:“据我判断，太子的病在肾，肾属北方之水，按中医五行原理，土能克水，所以此症当用黄土。”,"according to my own judgement,the disease of prince caught in kidney,kidney belong to water at north in five element theory,earth can overcome water according to five element theory,thus to treat this disease loess should be used.",the emperor heard him say to perfect satisfaction,his own doubt already disappeared some,at the time the prince happened to cramp again,the queen urge to say: “钱乙在京城里颇有名气，他的诊断很准确，皇上勿虑。”,"钱乙(Qian Yi) enjoy a good fame in our Capital,his diagnose must be very exact,so your majest no worry about it."thus,the emperor order take out a piece of loess which burnt many years in the cooking stove,packed with cloth and put togethor with other herbs to prepare decoction.Once the prince took a dose of it,cramp sooner stopped,and completely recovered after 2 dose.Till this date,emperor Shenzong(宋神宗) started to trust the crafts level of 钱乙(Qian Yi) in real,and upgrade him from Imperial Academy Doctor Officer(翰林医官) to a higher rank officer titled Imperial Medical Officer(太医丞).
In his late days,one day,when Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) got up,took his own pulse,know something,then he told family members to notify all his relatives come,and have a dialogue with them one by one,ask family members prepare him clean clothes,changed it then told family members to go with their own things,he sit quietly in bed,looking at those kids playing happily in the yard,seems he himself back to childhood,slowly he closed eyes,and pass away at age 82.Herbalist 钱乙(Qian Yi) saved countless child in his whole life,he did not ever have a happy childhood,but not lose a philanthropic heart！
庞安时(Pang Anshi,c1043-1100):physician noted for several medical works,among which the most widely read was a detailed and comprehensive treatise on various kinds of fever under the title of Shang Han Zong Bing Lun,or General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases(1100).
庞安时(Pang Anshi,year 1042～1099,or 1100AD),alias 安常(An Chang),self title 蕲水道人(Qi Shui Dao Ren,or Qi Shui Taoist),native to QiShui(蕲水,ancient toponym,todays XiShui county,HuBei province,China),he was titled as “北宋医王”(Bei Song Yi Wang,or the Herbalist King of North Song Dynasty).庞安时(Pang Anshi) born at family with doctor tradition,smart and lfond of learning since child,do not forget once read.Ever read the classics of Huang Di and Pulse classics of Bian Que,know well its theories sooner,then could gave new interpretations,he was 20 years age the time,caught disease and deaf later,went on with studying ancient herbal classics《灵枢》(Ling Shu)、《太素》(Tai Su)、《甲乙经》(Jia Yi Jing) etc,also studied with those classics related with medicine,and studied throughly and correlatively.Herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) mastered with and had excellent treatment crafts,treat and care with patient urgent conditions,not seek private benefit when treat people,often invite patients who came to seek treatment stay in his own house and took care of them by himself until they recovered health and said farewell with eachother,in his late years,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) combined theories from different schools and his own clinical experience,compiled and edited medicine classics 《伤寒总病论》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun) in 6 volumes,gave further supplement and interpretation elaboration with the thought of ancient herbalist Zhang Zhongjing.Its extreme characteristics is lay importance on interpretation of febrile disease,and hold a viewpoint to differentiate with and separate febrile disease from cold-induced disease,this new thought was regarded by later generation as a big devotion to the development of exogenous disease.
Herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) fond og recipes in his child hood,carefully studied with ancient classics《内经》(Nei Jing)、《难经》(Nan Jing)、《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun) and other professional medicine academic works,also knew well with different classics and history schools,think thoroughly and away from disruption of confucian school of idealist philosophy,thus he had many correct and penetrating views on medical theory and practice,extreme devotions on cold-induced disease,for his study with depth and brave clinical practice,made it easy for apply medicine,acupuncture or massage in treatment,and obvious effects achieved,but he was a classical person not bundled with previous theories,hold on his free will seek with audacity and mediated in depth,and achieved many new theories and creations.For example herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) set up 病坊(Patient Workshop),let patients stay with,this was a creation of the TCM system in the middle of North Song Dynasty,he also tried reduce the burden of patients and produce herbs for patients,hold on his own belief "(to be a doctor) not for benefit"(“为医不致于利”),his distingue medical ethics,really hard to reach for doctors of today's China.
On the academic thoughts,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) not only master with cold-induced disease,also good with epidemic febrile disease,knew well internal,pediatric and gynaecology,wide and rich experience of clinical practice,gave extreme elaboration with cold-induced disease and epidemic febrile disease.
Interpretation on theory of cold-induced disease:for the treatment of cold-induced disease,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) hold his theory major from pathogenic factors and pathogenesis,and combined other factors including physique,geography,climate factors to detect,he inherited previous theory and viewpoint that the pathogenic reason of cold-induced disease was severe pathogenic cold(寒毒),and it varies for the different cases suffered with difference of time,geography location,physique,and represented as different syndrome as 伤寒(cold-induced disease),中风(wind-stroke syndrome),风温(wind-warm syndrome),温病(febrile or warm disease),湿病(diseases caused by dampness),暑病(summer-heat disease),these different syndromes.He gave further elaboration on the basis of discussions from《伤寒例》(Shang Han Li),emphasised that the common shared pathogenic reason of all exogeneous febrile disease was toxic pathogen(毒),although the toxic pathogen has different properties like yin,yang,cold,heat etc,the clinical representation syndrome also varied multiply as wind-stroke,fibrile warm,summer dampness,type urgent not serious or serious,but as once caught the toxix pathogen,then caught the common characteristics of all exogeneous fibrile disease,which means the treatment of exogeneous disease should lay importance on method of detoxification.On the other side,he also pointed out that “凡人禀气各有盛衰”,“寒毒与营互相浑”,“当是之时，勇者气行则己，怯者则著而成病矣”。hold a viewpoint that although the severe pathogenic cold already invaded human body,but whether it could turned disease depend on factors like the physique strong or weak and the genuine Qi conditions excessive or deficiency,and on the tendency of the severe pathogenic cold transformed,herbalist 庞安时(Pang Anshi) also laid emphasis on the determination of physique reasons,hold viewpoints that “假令素有寒者，多变阳虚阴盛之疾，或变阴毒也；素有热者，多变阳盛阴虚之疾，或变阴毒也”。,the basic viewpoint about pathogenic factors based on internal reasons,he also recognized that exogeneous disease closely related with four seasons climate,geography and dwelling place,for the same hit with severe pathogenic cold,when it attack in winter turned into cold-induced disease,when it attack in spring induced by warmth turned into febrile disease,when it attack in summer induced by heat turned into summer-heat pyrexia disease,attack in summer induced by summer dampness turned into diseases caused by dampness,different syndromes occured for season climate changes.Not only this,patients living in mountain area more frequency caught wind-stroke syndrome and syncope due to pathogenic cold,patients living in plain area more frequency caught summer-heat disease and dampness-disease,which proved that disease attack has relations with living habitat too.庞安时(Pang Anshi) treat cold-induced disease both respect rules of Zhang Zhongjing,also change well with flexibility,oftenly treat with personal conditions and place conditions,got many rich experience on treatment and accumulated rich therapy method of cold-induced disease.
Interpretation on theory of epidemic febrile disease:对于温热病，他基本上分为伏气和天行两类。前者是冬时中寒，随时而变病，如春之“温病”、夏之“热病”，以及“中风”、“湿病”、“风温”等，“其病本因冬时中寒，随时有变病之形态耳，故大医通谓之伤寒焉”。伏气又可有伏寒与伏热之分，但均不同于天行温病。因此他指出:“天行之病，大则流毒天下，次则一方，次则一乡，次则偏着一家。”认为天行温病是感受毒性很强的异气引起，颇具有流行性、传染性的病证，是外感热病中另一类性质不同的病证，其治疗与伤寒不同，伤寒“有可汗可下之理”,“温病若作伤寒行汗下必死”，提出了温病与伤寒分治，这对后世温病学说的形成有一定的影响。庞安时从其丰富的临证实践中观察到，温病一类以温毒最为重险，他将温毒五大证与四时、五行、经络脏腑联系起来辨证论治，有一定见解，指出“自受乖气而成脏腑阴阳温毒者，则春有青筋牵，夏有赤脉，秋有自气狸，各有黑骨温，四季有黄肉随，治疗各有各法”。对温毒五大证的治疗，他着眼一个“毒”字，使用大剂量清热解毒，辛温散毒之品，处方多以大量石膏为主，实为后来余师愚治温疫开了门径。另外，他还专立《辟温疫论》列举“疗疫气令人不染”方，有辟温粉，雄黄嚏法，千敷散等，体现出他治温病着重预防的思想。庞安时治伤寒是从病因、发病着手，强调体质因素在发病中的重要作用。并认为广义伤寒的病因是“寒毒”，而天行温病则由“异气”引起，提出温病与伤寒分治，指出温病中以温毒最为重险，对温毒五大证的治法遣方颇具特色，其重视预防的思想，也实为可贵。不仅如此，其高尚的医德也是可取的，为医药界树立了典范。
寇宗时,Kou Zongshi:an expert on materia medica in the Song Dynasty,author of the Ben Cao Yan Yi,or Applied Materia Medica(1116),which lists 460 commonly used medicines with valuable records of identification,pharmacology,and process of preparation.
刘方,Liu Fang(c1080-1150): official of the Southern Song Dynasty,interested in the art of healing,especially pediatrics,and researcher into old prescriptions and remedies.Togethor with Wang Li,compiled the You You Xin Shu,or A New Book of Pediatrics(1132),one of the earliest monographs of its kind,with substantial content.
唐慎微,Tang Shenwei,also called Tang Shenyuan,a physician especially proficient in therapeutics,who declined the offer of an official post to devote his life to medical practice and collecting folk recipes.He wrote the Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,or Classic Classified Materia Medica for Emergencies(1108),a work in 31 volumes,and submitted it to the emperor who changed the title to Da Guan Ben Cao,or Daguan Herbal.
成无己,Cheng Wuji(1066-1155?): leading physician of the Jin Dynasty,known for his assiduous study of and commentary on Zhang Zhongjing's classical work Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases.His Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun,Commentary on the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases(1142),is considered the earliest of its kind in Chinese medical literature.
骆龙吉(Luò Lóng jí),year of birth and death unknown in details,native county unknown,herbalist live in the epoch of Song Dynasty,life story unknown in details.
According to legend,herbalist 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi) mastered with ancient Taoism,know very depth with the things of Sky,Human,Yin Yang,and things,excellent diagnose skills with the crucial reason of the internal zang-fu organs,turn white bone into flesh and skills revive dead folks,crafts and creation skills,big fame at the epoch,but unknown reason his life stories not recorded in details,the legend only recorded that "宋骆龙吉先生学古之道，深究于天人阴阳五事之理。洞见五脏症结，肉白骨而生死人，功补造化，名于当时。所著《拾遗》书六十二条，皆可传习其功，非浅鲜矣。......所以活亿万不足计矣。".
Herbalist 骆龙吉(Luo LongJi) left posthumous works,many of them lost,only one of them survived till today and known as 《内经拾遗方论》(Nei Jing Shi Yi Fang Lun),a very abstruse and mysterious works derived from 《内经》(Nei Jing),its academic level like a footsteps in a deserted valley,which means One and the Only One.
许叔微,Xu Shu-wei(1079-1154?):leading physician of the Song Dynasty and a disciple of Zhang Zhongjing.He prepared graphic illustrations of 36 varieties of the pulse based on Zhang Zhongjing's work,and propounded the theory of using drugs in relation to the intensity of the disease.Xu was the author of several medical works,among which the Lei Zheng Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang,or Classified Effective Prescriptions for Universal Relief(1132?) in 10 volumes has been one of his most widely read.Xu Shu-wei was the representative herbalist of Meng He School (孟河医派,which origin could be traced back to Dong Han Dynasty and Three Kingdom period,origined and related from with herbalist and Taoist Ge Hong.) during Song Dynasty period.
陈言,Chen Yan: leading physician of the Song Dynasty,also called Chen Wuze,author of the San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on the Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors and Prescriptions,a work in 18 volumes published in 1174,in which causes of diseases are grouped under three headings in accordance with Zhang Zhongjing's theory.
王执中,Wang Zhizhong:physician of the Song Dynasty skilled in acupuncture and moxibustion,author of the Zhen Jiu Zhi Sheng Jing,or Classic of Nourishing Life with Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1220).
齐仲甫,Qi Zhongfu: physician of the Song Dynasty with rich experience in treating women's diseases,author of the very popular medical work Nü Ke Bai Wen,or Hundred Questions on Women's Diseases(1220.A.D.).
张元素,Zhang Yuansu:physician of the 12th century,also called Zhang Jiegu.He made the bold announcement that in view of the different conditions between ancient and modern times it was impossible to treat new diseases with old methods,discarded obsolete traditional formulas and devised a system of his own.Most of the doctors of the Jin-Yuan period(1115-1368) were influenced by his teahcings.He was the author of the Zhen Zhu Nang,or The Pearl Bag and other medical works.Among his disciples were such eminent doctors as Li Gao and Wang Hao-gu.Zhang Jiegu is another name of Zhang Yuansu.
刘完素,Liu Wansu: also called Liu Shouzhen(c1120-1200),He propounded the theory that diseases were caused by excessive heat in the body,and advocated the use of medicines of cold nature,thus starting the Cold School of Medicine.He was the author of the Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing,or Etiology Based on Plain Questions and other medical works,and had much influence on the School of Epidemic Febrile Diseases in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.Liu Shouzhen is another name of Liu Wansu.
张从正(Zhang Congzheng,year 1151-1231AD),name 从正(Congzheng),alias 子和(Zi He),practise medicine since last generations,academic followed 刘完素(Liu Wansu),master of healing art.Birth Tian De 3 years of Jin(金天德三年,about year 1151AD),passed away at Zheng Da 8 years of Jin(金正大八年,or year 1231AD),passed away at age 80,native to Diao Zhou Kao Cheng of Jin(金雕州考城,today's Lan Kao county,He Nan province).张从正(Zhang Congzheng) is a big physician during the epoch,had many creative ideas on medical theory,and some big influence on later generations,he was respected as the ancestor of the Attack Pathogen School.
Once a court physician,with rich experience in various branches of medicine,he compared a disease to a foreign substance in the organism which should be attacked and driven out by drastic drugs,such as diaphoretics,emetics and purgatives and thus started the Attack or Purgation School.He was the author of the Ru Men Shi Qin,or The Scholars' Care of Their Parents,which was completed by his disciple Ma Zhiji.Zhang Zihe is another name of Zhang Congzheng.
李皋,Li Gao:also called Li Mingzhi,or Li Dongyuan(1180-1251),a disciple of Zhang Yuansu,who held that diseases,apart from external changes,were mainly caused by internal injury to the spleen and stomach(i.e. by intemperance in drinking and eating or overwork) and advocated cure by regulating the spleen and the stomach and nourishing the original qi.He was considered to be the founder of the School for Strengthening the Spleen and Stomach.His masterpiece was the Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach.Li Dongyuan,Li Mingzhi is other names of Li Gao.
宋慈,Song Ci:also called Song Huifu(1186-1249 A.D.),author of the Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners,a treatise on forensic medicine written on the basis of his personal experience as a judge and his profound knowledge of previous works on the subject,which exerted a great influence on Chinese jurisprudence.
陈自明,Chen Ziming: also called Chen Liangfu(c1190-1270),a distinguished gynecologist from a family of medical practitioners for many generations and the author of two important books--Fu Ren Da Quang Liang Fang,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women and Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine.Cheng Liangfu is another name of Chen Ziming.
陈文中,Chen Wenzhong,noted pediatrist in the 13th century,and author of the Chen Shi Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang,or Chen's Prescriptions for Smallpox and Measles in Children(1241),and Xiao Er Bing Yuan Fang Lun,or Treatise on Etiology of Children's Diseases(1253).
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