Ancient Herbalists Legend:The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD)The Tang Dynasty(618～907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907～960/979 AD)Back.
The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD)The Tang Dynasty(618～907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907～960/979 AD)
Famous herbalist of this period:Zhen Quan(major works:Zhen Fang,Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu),Chao Yuanfang(major works:Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun),Yang Shang-shan(major works:Huangdi Nei Jing Tai Su),Sun Simiao(major works:Qian Jin Yao Fang,Qian Jin Yi Fang),Su Jing(major works:Xin Xiu Ben Cao),Meng Shen(major works:Shi Liao Ben Cao),Jian Zhen,Wang Tao(major works:Wai Tai Mi Yao),Chen Zangqi(major works:Ben Cao Shi Yi),Wang Bing,Zan Yin(major works:Jing Xiao Chan Bao).
As one of the most prosperous ancient China epoch,The Tang Dynasty worship Taoism(Not "confucianism") in most of its period,to raise up social positions of the Li-imperial lineage,Emperor Tang Gaozu 李渊(Li Yuan,Gaozu was the dynastic title of emperor Li Yuan,year 566~635AD) worshipped Lao-tzu(李耳,Li Erh) as remote ancestor,Emperor Tang Xuanzong 李隆基(Li Longji,Xuanzong was the dynastic title of emperor Li Longji,year 685~762AD) wrote annotations himself for the Taoism classics 《道藏》(Dao Zang),worship ancient Taoist 庄子(Chuang Tzu)、庚桑子(Geng Sangzi) as “Immortal”,send out imperial decree that officials and folks should collect Taoism classics 《老子》(Lao Zi),《庄子》(Zhuang Zi) etc in house.The development of medicine crafts in Tang Dynasty benefit a lot from Taoism and Taoists,those famous herbalists normally also Taoists.
甄权(Zhēn Quán,c540-643):physician in the Tang Dynasty,who was a leading expert at acupuncture and the author of the Zhen Fang, Needling Prescriptions, and the Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu,or Figures of the Human Body.
甄权(Zhēn Quán),birth date the Datong six years(大统六年,Year 540 AD) of the Western Wei Dynasty(西魏,535-556AD,one of the Northern Dynasties),or at Datong seven years(大同七年,or year 541AD) of the Liang Dynasty(南朝梁,502~557AD,one of the Southern Dynasties),passed away at Zhenguan seventeen years of Tang (唐贞观十七年,or year 643 AD).Native to 许州扶沟(Xu Zhou Fugou,ancient toponym,today's Fugou,Henan.),for mother sick when young,learning and careful study with medicine with younger brother 甄立言(Zhēn Lì Yán),practice remedy books,and gradually turned a famous herbalists.Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) very good at acupuncture and moxibustion,also know well treatment with medicine.
Works and Writings:Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) had many writings and works in his life,till today his works known are: 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) in 1 volume,《针经钞》(Zhen Jing Chao) in 3 volumes,《脉经》(Mai Jing) in 1 volumes,《针方》(Zhen Fang) in 1 volume,《脉诀赋》(Mai Jue Fu,or Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem) in 1 volume,《本草音义》(Ben Cao Yin Yi,or Herbal Phonosemantics) in 7 volumes,《药性论》(Yao Xing Lun,or Thesis of Herb Characters) in 4 volumes.These works and writings all lost in ancient time,part of its content available from later classics 《备急千金要方》(Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang),《千金翼方》(Qian Jin Yi Fang),《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) etc,these works has influences to later generations.Especially the graphs collection 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) was very popular and fashionable at the epoch of Tang,famous herbalist 孙思邈 ever redrawing colored photo gallery according to it,and named as 人体经络俞穴彩图(Ren Ti Jing Luo Yu Xue Cai Tu),and this classics gallery also lost.
《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) 1 volumes ever recorded in history classics 《新唐志》(Xin Tang Zhi,or New Tang Annals),but recorded 2 volumes in the classics 《通志·艺文略》(Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue),《脉廖赋》(Mai Liao Fu)or 《脉诀赋》(Mai Jue Fu,or Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem) 1 volume ever recorded in classics 《通志· 艺文略》(Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue),《本草音义》(Ben Cao Yin Yi,or Herbal Phonosemantics) 7 volumes also recorded in 《通志·艺文略》(Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue).
For the cause his mother feeble and sick whole year when 甄权(Zhēn Quán) was young,he and younger brother 甄立言(Zhen LiYan) study medicine and treatment with great concentration,read recipe books and crafts widely,and started to practise medicine and save people,and treated many patients,and herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) achieved great attainment in acupuncture and moxibustion.At beginning of KaiHuang Year(开皇初年,Kai Huang was the reign title of 杨坚[YangJian,year 541~604AD],Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty,or year 581AD),甄权(Zhēn Quán) was assigned the I Secretary of the Imperial Library,and resigned with cause allege illness,and went on with medicine and craft study and treatment till pass away.There were events of his miraculous treatment skills recorded in ancient classics:
Ancient classics 《旧唐书·本传》(Old Tang Book·Biography) recorded,"隋鲁州刺史库狄嵚苦风患，手不得引弓，诸医莫能疗，权谓曰：但将弓箭向垛，一针可以射矣。针其肩隅一穴，应时即射。权之疗疾，多此类也。",means "Lu Zhou Prefectural governor named 库狄嵚(Ku Diqīn) caught and suffering with apoplexia(wind-stroke syndrome),doctors could not treat with,(when comes to consult with herbalist Zhēn Quán,afte careful check and diagnose)Quán said:'You simply hold the bow and arrow,aim at the target,only one needle,guarantee you can shoot.'And needling his shoulder corner point,the problems and suffering relieved and cured,Ku Diqīn tried shoot and just hit the target,folks around all cheers."
In the ancient classics 《千金翼方》(Qian Jin Yi Fang) written by herbalist Sun Simiao,its volume 26 recorded a treatment case of herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán):during time Wu De Year(618~626AD),甄权(Zhēn Quán) followed AnKang Duke 李袭誉(Li Xiyu) to guard 潞州(Lu Zhou,ancient toponymy,today's ChangZhi city of Shan Xi province),ShenZhou Prefectural governor named 成君绰(Cheng Junchāo) caught problems of swelling nape,as large as a sheng(ancient measure,unit of dry measure for grain),throat obstruction,can not eat any food or drink any water,already 3 days.甄权(Zhēn Quán) needling the forefinger of his right hand,,a little while later,the patient breath became smooth.The second day,the patient recovered and eat drink as healthy as normal.This case also collected in the later classics named 《续名医类案·咽喉门》(Xu Ming Yi Lei An·Yan Hou Men)。
Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) also know well about herbs and medicines,and often combine herbs and acupuncture togethor for treatment.Except master of acupuncture and moxibustion,甄权(Zhēn Quán) also good at treat with herbs and medicine.AnPing Gong 李德林(Li Delin) caught hemilateral wind,甄权(Zhēn Quán) treated him with 防风汤(Fang Feng Tang),also needling his seven acupuncture point(风池Fengchi or Wind Pool、肩髃Jiānyú、曲池Quchi or Bend Pond、支沟Zhigou、阳陵泉Yanglingquan、五枢Wushu、巨虚下兼Lower Ridge of Great Hollow)etc.Taken 9 dose of medicines,and needling nine times,the patient recovered gradually.AnKang Gong caught problems of waterswelling,difficulty in micturition,甄权(Zhēn Quán) treated him with a recipe pill composed with poria cocos,the swelling disappeared before the recipes taken out.These cases were recorded in ancient classics 《千金要方·水肿门》(Qian Jin Yao Fang·Shui Zhong Men).
ZhenGuan 17 years(ZhenGuan,the reign title of Li Shimin,Emperor Taizong of Tang,year 643AD),herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) already aged 102,the emperor visited him to his house,shared greetings to him and care his personal life aspects,and consult with him about theory of herb character and health maintenance.And 甄权(Zhēn Quán) so wrote a classic named 《药性论》(Yao Xing Lun,or Thesis of Herb Characters) in 4 volumes and gifted to the emperor.And Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) passed away at the same year.
Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) not only good at acupuncture and herb medicine,famous wellknown in the courte and among folks,he also master health maintenance,knew deeply that stale rid and fresh taken in is the effective method for life span extending,he hold a viewpoint that diet and drink not need fat and tasty,vegetarian meal and mild flavours could generate and increase physical strength,reduce foul turbidity and dirt,adjust and compromise stomach Qi,no disease could caught.In the years of ZhenGuan(627~649AD), accept the imperial order to compile and edit 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu).
In the years of ZhenGuan(627~649AD),for the chaotic conditions of the acupoint name and position,the Tang government gave orders to let officials ShaoFu(少府,ancient official title) 甄权(Zhēn Quán),Chengwu Lang(承务郎,ancient official title) 司马德逸(Sima Deyi),Court Physician(太医令) 谢季卿(Xie Jiqin),Taichang cheng(太常丞,ancient official title) 甄立言(Zhen Liyan,younger brother of Zhēn Quán),compile and edit the graph spectrum of the meridians and acupoint,and completely edit and identification correct the name and position of the acupoint.
Year 627AD,甄权(Zhēn Quán) accept the imperial order to compile and edit 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu),brief named 《明堂》(Ming Tang),also edit and calibrate the classics 《图经》(Tu Jing)togethor with 甄立言(Zhen Liyan) and 司马德逸(Sima Deyi).The colorful meridian graphs 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) they painted use graphs with detailed notes and explains,is one definitive book guidance for those acupuncture practitioner of Tang and later generations,generated deep and far influence.
The compiling and editing works led by 甄权(Zhēn Quán),actually is the first time a big compilation and identification system works about acupoint launched by government in the history with clear history records,so it is also a historical summary of the subject of point ever since the classics 《针灸甲乙经》(Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing,or The ABC Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion)appeared,a big event served as a link between past and future in the history of acupuncture,has extreme big meanings for the development of acupuncture.It ended the chaotic conditions of the acupoint identification and various names ever appeared since Jin Dynasty,South and North Dynasty,Sui Dynasty and Beginning of Tang Dynasty,further developed and enriched the theory of acupoint,did extreme devotions for enlighten later generations,acupuncture education,and spread popularize the acupuncture and moxibustion medicine.
Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) passed away without any illness at age 103,buried at hometown Hao Gang village north,Baotun town of FuGou county(扶沟县包屯镇,郝岗村北),his tomb was listed as the important historical and cultural sites under government protection by local government.In the grave under the two chinese scholar tree,long sleep the famous ancient herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán),150 meters north east away,located the cemetery of 甄立言(Zhēn Liyan),the younger brother of herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán).
Emperor Tang Taizong Li Shimin(599-649AD) was one of the emperor with outstanding exploit in the history,carried out land equalization system,lower tax,appointment of the sages,extensive advice,the social economy got obvious progress and improvement,history recorded as "ZhenGuan Period",Li Shimin attention for the medicine knowledge and health maintenance method,consult with many herbalists including 甄权(Zhēn Quán),compare with CaoCao(the King of Wei at the Three Kingdom Period) who regard herbalist 华佗(HuaTuo) as rats,really enormous differences.
甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán,545~627~649),younger brother of Zhen Quan. Birth at Datong eleven years(大同十一年,or year 545AD) of the Liang Dynasty(南朝梁,502~557AD,one of the Southern Dynasties),passed away at Zhenguan years of Tang (唐贞年间,or year 627~649 AD).Learn medicine since young age with his old brother 甄权(Zhēn Quán),has special opinion and viewpoint with disease dignosis and herb medicines.Famous herbalist same as his brother Zhen Quan,good at treatment and herbal classics,especially good for parasite treatment.
During Tang Wude years(WuDe,the reign title of emperor Tang Gaozu 李渊,or year 618~626AD),herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) was assigned as 太常丞(Tai Chang Cheng,or Official Master of Ceremony),famous with his brother 甄权(Zhēn Quán) at the time.Herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) good at treatment,and know well of various herbs,especially good at treatment of miscellaneous diseases.History classics 《旧唐书·甄权传》(Jiu Tang Shu·Zhen Quan Zhuan,or Old Tang Book·Legend of Zhen Quan)recorded some of his treatment cases:Imperial Counsellor(御史大夫) 杜淹(Du Yan) caught wind toxin and swelling,唐太宗(Tang Taizong) asked 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) to treat him.After his diagnosis,herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) proposed that:"从今日起过十一日，午时必死。","counted from today in 11 days,he will definitely die at high noon.",and the result same as he declared.A duddhist nun named 明律(Ming Lv),aged over 60,caught problems stomach swelling,looks slim lean,and suffering over 2 years,herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) diagnosed with and proposed it caused by paratites in belly,let the patient taken 1 dose of red orpiment,the patient vomit out a parasite sooner,size like the little finger,and cured.a patient with family name Wei caught cardiodynia,suffering over 10 years,herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) asked him taken the herb Tian MingJing,and the patient completely recovered after 1 dose treatment.
Herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) ever wrote many classics,and he known as the author of 《本草音义》(Ben Cao Yin Yi,or Pronouncing Meanings of Herbs,7 volumes),《本草药性》(Ben Cao Yao Xing,or Pharmacological Property of Herbs,3 volumes),《本草集录》(Ben Cao Ji Lu,Collecting Lists of Herbs,2 volumes),《古今录验方》(Gu Jin Lu Yan Fang,or Proved Recipes from Ancient till Present,50 volumes),all lost,part of lost articles these classics could be found in other books such like 《千金要方》(Qian Jin Yao Fang),《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao).The classics 《古今录验方》(Gu Jin Lu Yan Fang,or Proved Recipes from Ancient till Present) made extreme achievement in aspects of diagnose treat and differential diagnosis.His description of the symptoms "消渴小便至甜(thirsty and urine taste sweet)" which ever collected in the classics 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) is the earliest diabets record in ancient China.
巢元方,Chao Yuanfang(550-630):imperial physician of Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty,who took charge of the compilation of the Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun,or Treatise on Causes and Symptoms of Diseases, the first Chinese work in this category and still a valuable reference book.
巢元方(Chao Yuanfang),famous physician of Sui Dynasty,live during about epoch 6th to 7th century AD,lack legend in history classics,date of birth and death and native county hard to identify for literature short.Herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang) ever assigned as Imperial Physician Doctor(太医博士) during the epoch of Da Ye Years of Sui(隋·大业年间,or year 605~618AD),and later elevated to Tai Yi Ling(太医令,Director of the Imperial Medical Bureau)，he had very rich practical experience,high level medical skills and stuidy.According to history classics 《开河记》(Kai He Ji),year 609 AD,official 麻叔谋(Ma Shumou,assigned as Kai He Du Hu) who responsible for canalization caught wind inverse disease,suffering with arthralgia from head to toe,feel dizziness and nausea when sit up,doctors tried but all treatment failed.Emperor 隋炀帝(emperor Sui Yangdi,杨广,year 569~618AD,the second emperor of Sui Dynasty.) ordered herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang) go and treat.After diagnosis,herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang) hold a viewpoint his case caused by wind entering into striae and interstitial space(风入腠理),problems in chest,gave him suggestions to take well steamed mutton with herbs,then the problems can be cured.麻叔谋(Ma Shumou) prepare recipes according to the guide,steamed and taken,recovered before the recipe taken out.巢元方(Chao Yuanfang) also suggested and reminded him that combine 5 recipes including almond kernels with mutton,take some daily,and the problems can not relapse.
At Da Ye 6 Years of Sui Dynasty(大业六年,or year 610AD),follow with imperial orders herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang) response project and compiled medical classics 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun,or Treatise on Causes and Symptoms of Diseases),total 50 volumes,recorded syndromes 1739 pieces,with discussions about etiology and pathology,syndromes of many diseases,and normally has no discussions on the treatment of disease,but with except case some partial disease gave certain therapy method and steps.This classics has obvious difference than another recipe classics edited with order of Emperor SuiYangDi(隋炀帝) titled 《四海类聚方》(Si Hai Lei Ju Fang,or Gathored Recipes from Four Seas),compare with the classic《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun) which special in discussion of theory,the classics 《四海类聚方》(Si Hai Lei Ju Fang) special in therapy and treatment method,thus the two classics complemented with each other,formed a complete medical works combination,unlucky the classics 《四海类聚方》(Si Hai Lei Ju Fang) lost in ancient epoch,and no folks know its content today.The classics 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun) was the first professional medicine classics systemly detect and summarize etiology and pathology,syndromes,showed great influence on the development of medical science of Tang and Song Dynasty after Sui,did extreme devotions to the development of medical science of China,and was hold in esteem by later generation herbalists.
杨上善,Yang Shang-shan(575~585-670):physician at the turn of the Sui and Tang dynasties,no legend record in official history classics,ever assinged as 太子文学(Tai Zi Wenxue,A teacher of princess),imperial physician from 605-616 and one of the earliest physicians who made notes and commentaries on the Internal Classic or Canon of Medicine and was the author of Huangdi Nei Jing Tai Su,or Fundamentals of Huangdi's Internal Classic,total 30 volumes,this classics kept the earlier content style of the ancient classic Su Wen,own some concensus about its importance among mordern scholars for the study of Huang Di Nei Jing,an important reference book for studying the Internal Classic.
According to ancient epigraph record titled 《唐代墓志汇编续集》(Tang Dai Mu Zhi Hui Bian Xu Ji,or Epigraph Record compilation sequel of Tang,edited by 周绍良Zhou Shaoliang,赵超Zhao Chao),which recorded the epigraph of 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan),his birth and death date known today as,birth at year 589AD(Sui Dynasty),death at year 681AD(early of Tang),passed away at age 93,and 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) became a Taoist priest at year Kai Huang 19 years(开皇十九年,or year 599AD),at his 11 age.At year Xian Qing 5 years(唐高宗显庆五年,Xian Qing is the reign title of Tang Gaozong,or year 660AD) he was called into court at age 72 and assigned as title Hong Wen Guan Zhi Xue Shi(弘文馆直学士),At year Long Shuo 1st year(龙朔元年,or year 661AD) at age 73,assigned as Pei Wang Wenxue(沛王文学),at year Ling De 2 years(麟德二年,or year 665AD) at age 77,he was assigned as Zuo Wei Zhang Shi(左卫长史),at year Shang Yuan 2 years(上元二年,or year 675AD) at age 87 assigned as Tai Zi Wenxue(太子文学,or teacher of princess),at year Feng Yi 1st year to Diao Lu 1st year(仪风元年至调露元年,or year 676~679AD) at his 90 age,assigned as Tai Zi Si Yi Lang(太子司议郎),Tai Zi Xi Ma(太子洗马),at year Diao Lu 2 years(调露二年,or year 680AD) at age 92 returned to homwtown,at year Yong Long 2 years(永隆二年,or year 681) at age 93,passed away at hometown.
According to ancient history classics 《旧唐书·经籍志》(Jiu Tang Shu·Jing Ji Zhi) records,杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) ever wrote and edited academic classics and note classics total 76 volumes,among them 33 volumes about Taoism,and 43 volumes about Medicine.The volumes of Taoism are known as:1.《老子》(Lao Zi),in 2 volumes(《新唐书·艺文志》Xin Tang Shu·Yi Wen Zhirecorded as 《杨上善注老子道德经二卷》,or Lao Zi Dao De Jing 2 volumes annotated by Yang Shangshan);2.《老子道德指略论》(Lao Zi Dao De Zhi Lue Lun),2 volumes,杨上善撰(《新唐书》recorded as 《老子指略论二卷》Lao Zi Zhi Lue Lun Er Juan,annotated by Tai Zi Wen Xue);3.《略论》(Lue Lun),3 volumes,wrote by by 杨上善(recorded in 《新唐书》Xin Tang Shu,or New History of Tang.);4.《庄子》(Zhuang Zi),10 volumes,wrote by 杨上善(recorded in 《新唐书》Xin Tang Shu,or New History of Tang.,’‘撰”作’‘注”,"wrote" as "annotated".);5.《六趣论》(Liu Qu Lun),6 volumes,wrote by 杨上善(recorded in 《新唐书》Xin Tang Shu,or New History of Tang.);The volumes of Medicine are known as:1.《黄帝内经太素》(Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su),30 volumes,annoted by 杨上善(recorded in 《新唐书》Xin Tang Shu,or New History of Tang.);2.《黄帝内经明堂类成》(Huang Di Nei Jing Ming Tang Lei Cheng),13 volumes,wrote by 杨上善(recorded in《新唐书》Xin Tang Shu,or New History of Tang).
孙思邈,Sun Simiao(518 or 541-682): prominent physician of the Tang Dynasty,also a famous Taoist Priest at Tang period,the author of the Qian Jin Yao Fang《千金要方》,or Invaluable Prescriptions(652),total 30 vlumes,combined 5300 recipes and formulas,and the Qian Jin Yi Fang《千金翼方》,or Supplement to the Invaluable Prescriptions(682),which have been considered compilations of the medical achievements before the 7th century.
Sun Simiao was also a famous Taoist and scholar of Taoism,he was a real scholar and good at anti-aging,he started research of herbs at very young age,as he proposed:"吾幼遭风冷,屡造医门,汤药之资,罄尽家产。"“至于弱冠,頗觉有悟,是以亲邻中外有疾厄者,多所济益。”(1)(in Pin Yin "Wu You Zao Feng Leng,Lv Zao Yi Men,Tang Yao Zhi Zi,Qing Jin Jia Chan." "Zhi Yu Ruo Guan,Po Jue You Wu,Shi Yi Qin Lin Zhong Wai You Ji E Zhe,Duo Suo Ji Yi.")(which means "i suffered cold chilling since child,consult with doctor many times,to pay for the fees of medicine nearly exhausting our family property.""started to know well about medicine since 20 years old,thus could be kind to neighbours who suffering from disease,helped them."),when the Sui Dynasty ended,Sun Simiao became a hermit and move to ZhongNan Mountain,be friend with famous monk Dao Xuan(596~667).according to ancient literature,even at age 40s,he still looks like a young man,the literature noted that "唐武德(618-626)中,以修炼,行医闻名于世,奉唐太宗召,入京师。唐太宗见其年虽高而容色甚少,惊叹其有道,欲授之以爵位,固辞不受。(2)(Tang Wude Zhong,Yi Xiu Lian,Xing Yi Wen Ming Yu Shi,Feng Tang Tai Zong Zhao,Ru Jing Shi.Tang Tai Zong Jian Qi Nian Sui Gao Er Rong Se Shen Shao,Jing Tan Qi You Dao,Yu Shou Zhi Yi Jue Wei,Gu Ci Bu Shou.)"(which means:During years of Tang Dynasty,Wu De reign title[618-626],Sun Simiao became a famous alchemist and herbalist,come to nation capital by imperial edict from Tang TaiZong[Li Shimin,the 2nd emperor of Tang Dynasty].Tang Taizong caught sight of herbalist Sun Simiao and saw he looks very young although aged,suprising and saying he must has ways,so showed respect and give some rank of nobility,but herbalist Sun refused it.),at year 674,Sun returned back to Mountain with cause of sickness.Herbalist Sun was a real scholar and all his life living by help patients in mountain,Dr.Sun belives nature-cultivation may brings longivity,and the most important method of health preserving is nature-cultivation,and it is even more important than supplements.Except the famous books,Sun ever written some other books,such like She Yang Zhen Zhong Fang《摄养枕中方》,Fu Lu Lun《福禄论》,Bao Sheng Ming《保生铭》,Cun Shen Lian Qi Ming《存神炼气铭》,etc.
Herbalist Sun Simiao hold very precious treatment morality in ancient time,emphasis the importance of life,he proposed "人命至重,有贵千金,一方济之,德愈于此。(3)(in Pin Yin,"Ren Ming Zhi Zhong,You Gui Qian Jin,Yi Fang Ji Zhi,De Yu Yu Ci")",which means "man's life is the most important,and higher value than 5kgs gold,1 recipe for help,morality over than saving.",he thinks as a herbalist,firstly,should "博及医源,精勤不倦,不得道听途说,而言医道已了(4)(Bo Ji Yi Yuan,Jing Qin Bu Juan,Bu De Dao Ting Tu Shuo,Er Yan Yi Dao Yi Liao)",which means a herbalist should "know widely about the origin of classics,learn hard and with no lassitude,should not listen to hearsay,then announced that herbal theory already finished.",and second,herbalist should "志存救济",“若有疾厄来求救者,不得问其贵贱贫富,长幼妍媸,怨亲善友,华夷愚智,普同一等,皆如至亲之想;亦不得瞻前顾后,自虑吉凶,护惜生命”(5)(in Pin Yin "Zhi Cun Jiu Ji,""Ruo You Ji E Lai Qiu Zhe,Bu De Wen Qi Gui Jian Pin Fu,Zhang You Yan Chi,Yuan Qin Shan You,Hua Yi Yu Zhi,Pu Tong Yi Deng,Jie Ru Zhi Qin Zhi Xiang;Yi Bu De Zhan Qian Gu Hou,Zi Lv Ji Xiong,Hu Xi Sheng Ming."),which means,a herbalist should "set saving as purpose,","when a patient with problems ask for help and saving,should not ask and discriminate by their social position,they rich or poor,old or young,appearance beautiful or looks ugly,a chinese or a barbarian,a wise man or an idiot,all should be treated the same,as one's closest relatives,and should not overcautious and indecisive,considering good or ill luck for self,should take life precious and care about it."
Herbalist Sun Simiao pay attention to health preservation,and emphasis that health preservation prompt longevity,he believes in Taoism theory "我命在我不在天"(Wo Ming Zai Wo Bu Zai Tian,which means my life hold in my own hand,instead of God.),he proposed that "神仙之道难致,养性之术易崇。故善摄生者常须慎于忌讳,勤于服食,则百年之内不惧于天伤也。(6)Shen Xian Zhi Dao Nan Zhi,Yang Xing Zhi Shu Yi Chong.Gu Shan She Sheng Zhe Chang Xu Shen Yu Ji Hui,Qin Yu Fu Shi,Ze Bai Nian Zhi Nei Bu Ju Yu Tian Shang Ye.",which means "Its hard to be an immortal,but it is easier to respect method of nature-cultivation.Thus those who good at health preservation should care of tatoo,care of supplement,thus no afraid of hurt from God within hundred years of life,before death comes.",Dr.Sun thinks the most important for health preservation is nature-cultivation,this is more important than supplement,and he proposed that "德行不充,纵服玉液金丹,未能延寿。(7)",which means "if a person's morality degraded,life span could never be extended even taken very precious pills and liquid."
苏敬(Sū Jìng,599-674):court official of the Tang Dynasty,also known as Su Gong.He was ordered by the emperor to review traditional herbals with a staff of 22 scholars and physicians.As a result of their work,in 659,the Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or Newly Compiled Materia Medica (of Tang) or Tang Ben Cao,or The Tang Materia Medica was published as the first official pharmacopoeia in China.
Herbalist 苏敬(Su Jing),native to Song of Tang(唐代宋人,today's Hubei province),born at Kai Huang Ninteen years of Sui Dynasty(隋开皇十九年,or year 599AD),passed away at Xian Heng five years(唐咸亨五年,or year 674AD),ever assigned as as an official titled "朝议郎右监门府长史骑都尉",Xian Qing two years(显庆二年,Xian Qing is the reign title of Tang Gaozong LiZhi,or Year 657AD),for the cause the previous herbal classics 《本草经集注》(Ben Cao Jing Ji Zhu) which edited by herbalist 陶弘景(Tao Hongjing) has various lost and errors,苏敬(Su Jing) and others wrote letters to the imperial court for editing new materia medica,Tang Gaozong LiZhi assigned 苏敬(Su Jing),and other 22 officials or scholars including 长孙无忌(Zhǎngsūn Wwúqì,year 597-659AD)、许孝崇(Xu Xiaochun)、李淳风(Li Chunfeng,602~670AD) etc edit the new materia medica togethor.
The new classics 《新修本草》(Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or Newly Compiled Materia Medica,also called The Tang Materia Medica) finally finished at year XianQing four years(659AD),including materia medica 20 volumes(survived 11 volumes today),table of contents 1 volume;herbal gallery 25 volumes,contents 1 volume;Tujing or Illustrated classics 7 volumes(already lost),totally 54 volumes,collected herb and medicine over 800kinds.In the west,the Florentine Codex published at year 1498,the Nuremberg Pharmacopoeia published at year 1535,they all very late pharmacopoeia compare with The Tang Materia Medica.
孟诜,Meng Shen(year 621-713AD),herbalist of the Tang Dynasty,author of the 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao,or A Diatetic Materia Medica).The original has been lost,but the text can be found in the Lei Zheng Ben Cao,or Classified Materia Medica.
孟诜,Meng Shen,native to Ru Zhou Liang Xian,Xin Feng Xiang,Zi Ping Li(唐代汝州梁县新丰乡子平里人Zi Ping Li,Xin Feng village,Liang county,Ru Zhou state,Tang Dynasty,今河南省汝州市陵头镇孟庄村,today's Meng Zhuang Village,Ling Tou County,Ru Zhou city,He Nan Province,China),famous scholar,herbalist,food professional.His classics 《食疗本草》Shi Liao Ben Cao(A Diatetic Materia Medica) is the earliest professional writings about diatetic books survived till today in the world,it was the great achievement of ancient diatetic treatment practice,similar as modern dietetics,and 孟诜(Meng Shen) was named as ancestor of diatetic treatment practice in the world.
孟诜(Meng Shen) passed imperial test and elected as scholar Jinshi,was elected as Shi Du(侍读,a teacher of imperial members) during the reign period of 睿宗(Rui Zong,李旦,Li Dan,year 662～716),was assigned as 同州刺史(Tong Zhou Ci Shi,official title,Prefectural governor of Tong Zhou) during years of Chang An(长安,year 701~704AD),so folks called him also as Meng Tongzhou,ever assigned as 凤阁舍人(Feng Ge She Ren,official title of Tang,official of Secretariat) during years of Chui Gong(垂拱,year 685~688AD).
孟诜(Meng Shen) fond of medicine and art of health,formed a very close relationship with herbalist 孙思邈(Sun Simiao,Immortal Sun),herbalist 孟诜(Meng Shen) master medicine and health maintenance,often collect herbs in the mountain YiYang(伊阳山,located west of the Ru Yang County,He Nan province),prepare herbs according to recipes and saving folks.When his age very old,still has big strength as prime of life,folks asked him how to sustain health,孟诜(Meng Shen) said “要想保身养性，必须善言不离口，良药莫离手”,folks heard and trusted him very much.Year 710AD,Prince 李旦(Li Dan) succeed to the throne and became an emperor,missed 孟诜(Meng Shen) very much,sent out imperial decree to call him be an official in the imperial court,孟诜(Meng Shen) decline with thanks and his age,the second year,emperor Rui Zong not forget old friends and gifted him silks and satins 100 bales,and order He Nan Fu(河南府) gift him Sheep,Wine and Food in spring and autumn.At the beginning of year Kai Yuan(开元,year 714~741AD),the official Fu Yin of He Nan named 毕构(Bi Gou) suggested 孟诜(Meng Shen)'s exemplary conduct and nobility of character can be equal to famous hermit 向长(字子平,Xiang Chang,alias Zi Ping)of Dong Han Dynasty,thus retitled the village where 孟诜(Meng Shen) live as “子平里”(Zi Ping Li).
孟诜(Meng Shen) are known ever wrote classics 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao,or A Diatetic Materia Medica)3 volumes,《必效方》(Bi Xiao Fang,or Recipes Definitely Works)3 volumes、《补养方》(Bu Yang Fang,or Tonic Recipes)3 volumes,the classic 《补养方》(Bu Yang Fang,or Tonic Recipes) ever augmented and supplemented by later herbalist 张鼎(Zhang Ding) and changed title as 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao,or A Diatetic Materia Medica)3 volumes,and now there are survived copy of ancient hand-copied book discovered from Mo Kao Grotto at Dunhuang,and scattered manuscripts,his classics 《必效方》(Bi Xiao Fang,or Recipes Definitely Works) also lost till today,but ever quoted in other herbal classics like 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao),《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao)etc.Herbalist 孟诜(Meng Shen) ever invented method to detect yellow jaundice,soak white silks in the urine of yellow jaundice patient,dry in shade and compare with day by day,to observe the treatment effects of yellow jaundice.Herbalist 孟诜(Meng Shen) ever wrote other books titled 《家祭礼》(Jia Ji Li,or Manner of family sacrificial rites) 1 volume,《丧服正要》(Sang Fu Zheng Yao,or Positive Tips of Mourning Dress) 1 volume,《锦带书》(Jin Dai Shu,or Weigela Book)etc,these books all lost in ancient time.His legends all recorded in ancient history classics 《旧唐书》(Jiu Tang Shu,or Old Tang Book) and 《新唐书》(Xin Tang Shu,or New History of the Tang Dynasty).
History Classics 《御史台记》(YuShiTai Ji,or Censorate Records) recorded:唐孟诜，汝州人也，父曜明经擢第，拜学官。诜少敏悟，博闻多奇，举世无与比。进士擢第，解褐长乐县尉，累迁凤阁舍人。时凤阁侍郎刘祎之卧疾，诜候问之，因留饭，以金碗贮酪。诜视之惊曰："此药金，非石中所出者。"祎之曰："主上见赐，当非假金。"诜曰："药金仙方所资，不为假也。"祎之曰："何以知之？"诜曰："药金烧之，其上有五色气。"遽烧之，果然。祎之以闻。则天以其近臣，不当旁稽异术，左授台州司马，累迁同州刺史。每历官，多烦政，人吏殆不堪。薄其妻室，常曰，妻室可烹之以啖客。人多议之。The story tells that 孟诜(Meng Shen) is an honest scholar,oneday 孟诜(Meng Shen) was invited by 刘祎(Liu Wei,titiled as 凤阁侍郎) to be guest and saw the silver bestowed by women emperess 武则天(Wu Zetian),then 孟诜(Meng Shen) told 刘祎(Liu Wei):“this is fake silver with meidicine silver daubed on surface,burn it and you will know truth.”,刘祎(Liu Wei) put it in fire and the silver turned into tin liquid in a moment.Later the women emperess know this event,became angry and red-faced,very unsatisfied with 孟诜(Meng Shen),and demoted him as 台州司马(Tai Zhou Sima) with the cause that he practice heterodox doctrines.Prince 李旦(Li Dan) admire his scholarship,assigned him as Shi Du(侍读),responsible for classics interpretation and teaching.At year ChangAn 3 year(长安三年,or year 703AD),assigned as 同州刺吏(Tong Zhou Ci Shi) and 青光禄大夫(Qing Guang Lu Da Fu).During years of Shen Long(神龙,years Holy Dragon,or year 705~707AD,reign title of emperor Li Xian,Zhong Zong of Tang),resigned from office and return to native town,returned to 伊阳之山(Mountain YiYang),deal with meidicne and herbs,passed away at 93 years age.Folks at Hometown constructed a temple and memory for him.
鉴真,Jian Zhen(688-763):outstanding Buddhist monk as well as a physician.He introduced Chinese medicine to jokbari islands
Year 753 AD,monk 鉴真(Jian Zhen) arrived at jokbari islands,and welcomed by native barbarians as a big God from Tang,he spread civilization of Tang to the barbarian jokbari island and taught the barbarians how to practice medicine,religious discipline and calligraphy,showed great influence on the culture origin of jokbaris island.
王焘,Wang Tao(670-755AD),distinguished physician of the Tang Dynasty.Trying to cure his sick mother,he made up his mind to go in for medicine.Having worked in the imperial library for twenty years and read a lot of medical books,he compiled a book of his own,titled 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao),or (Medical Secrets of an Official)(752),an exhausted study of every branch of medicine,up to that time.
王焘(Wang Tao),native to MeiXian county,ShaanXi,Tang Dynasty(唐陕西省郿县),his grandfather 王珪(Wang Gui) was one famous prime minister,honest and upright,free of corruption and was regarded as a Mr.Clean.
王焘(Wang Tao) suffering from weakness and sick since he was a kid,his mother Nan Ping Princess caught sick too,王焘(Wang Tao) help treat his mother and read a lot of medicine books,seek effective formula and miracle medicines,gradually he showed more interest in medicine.王焘(Wang Tao) was ever assigned as official Xu Zhou Sze-ma(徐州司马) and Ye Jun Taishou(邺郡太守,prefecture chief),but for more chances to read medical books he later hold a post in the imperial library Hong Wen Guan,and past 20 years reading there,systemly read a lot of medical books and made detailed extracts,day and night,year after year,accumulated big volume medical literatures,among them ancient recipes reach to 50 to 60 schools.Later during Tian Bao Years(天宝年间,year 742-755AD)he was designated to area Fang Ling(房陵),and re-assigned at DaNing Jun (大宁郡,今山西隰县治)after absolved,the local climate very hot and humid,many folks caught miasma,6 to 7 among 10 hard to escape the hand of death,王焘(Wang Tao) help treat those folks according to the effective formula he took with,and magically saved life of dying patients,ever since then,he made decision to edit medical books.
Herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) hold an opinion that the famous classics 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun)by herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang) only has thesis and discussions but has no recipes,so he gathored various school's strong point,experienced hard works and finally complete the compilation of the monumental medical work 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) at Tian Bao 10 years(天宝十年,year 752AD).
王焘(Wang Tao) did not hold personal prejudices when edit the herbal books,instead he learn and accept widely from others' strong points,in the herbal classics 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao),the herbal classics he used as reference and quotation before the epoch number over 60,almost all the survival classics became the object of his address and analysis,scholars commented that “上自神农，下及唐世，无不采摭”,"Early to Epoch of Shen Nong,late to Tang Dynasty,gathor nearly all classics",herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) not only made careful study with famous herbal classics like 《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang)、《肘后备急方》(Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang),but also collect those classics not famous and not widely spread,like 《小品方》(Xiao Pin Fang) by 陈延之(Chen Yanzhi),《张文仲方》(Zhang Wenzhong Fang) by 张文仲(Zhang Wenzhgong),etc.Except these,he did also collected many folk remedy.The herbal classic 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) collected over 6900 recipes,each part used the articles from classics 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun)as index.then widely quoted recipes.Each recipes,all noted literature origin and reference,which brought big convenience for later folks,many ancient herbal classics lost,todays folks can got known their main contents from 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao).
The herbal classics《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) total 40 volumes,all sections edited with academic discussions from beginning,followed with recipes,in proper order edition,its medical discussion part mainly interpreted and based on discussions from the herbal classics 《诸病源候论》(Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun)by herbalist 巢元方(Chao Yuanfang),its recipe and formula parts mostly selected from herbal classics 《千金要方》(Qian Jin Yao Fang),other articles quoted from other herbal classics all has clear records of book title and volume number etc.The whole book 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) edited totally 1104 sections(the survival copy identified 1048 sections,seems lost some part),recorded recipes over 6000,the herbal classics 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) were highly suggested by later generation herbalists ever since it came into birth till 1200 years later today,and had various copy editions in different later periods.
For the recipes collection,Herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) did not only quote widely,and also selected with extreme care and fine criteria.From today's viewpoint,many therapy method and recipes collected by Herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) at that epoch,they were very practicable and applicable.The traditional technique for couching cataracts recorded in it for treat cataract,was the earliest record of this method in the history of China,and this method still used till today.
The history classics 《新唐书》(Xin Tang Shu,or New History of Tang) praised the classics 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) as “世宝(Precious in the World)”,many herbalists ever since hold view point that “不观《外台》方，不读《千金》论，则医所见不广，用药不神”,"Not read recipes from Wai Tai,Not read discussions from Qian Jin,then the knowledge may not wide,and medical practice could not be magical"，so this could be an evidence the high position of this classics in the medical academic field.Herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) put all his life energy and time for reservation and editing the original copy of ancient herbal classics and summarize the medical achievement till Tang,left a pretty fame lasting thousands of years.Herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) ever wrote another classics titled《外台要略》(Wai Tai Yao Lue),total 10 volumes,and it lost in ancient time.
Although herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) was a government official of Tang,but judge from the classics 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao),when he select the ancient medical classics before Tang Dynasty,the accept or reject and editing,proved he was actually a herbalist with higher level mastery of medicine.For example about the recognition and identification of bacillary phthisis,based on those symptoms like “虚劳”(prostration)、“骨蒸(steaming bone,or hectic fever due to yin deficiency)” recorded in classics 《巢氏病源》(Chao Shi Bing Yuan,another title name of Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun),he gave further detailed descriptions of thoese symptoms of “肺痨(tuberculosis)”,afternoon hectic fever,night sweat,marasmus,flushing at zygomaticus and lip,and other symptoms of nervous system and digestive system,also mentioned the risks when tuberculosis showed symptoms complications including diarrhea,red and black stool,abdominal dropsy,which proved herbalist 王焘(Wang Tao) had great and great accomplishments in medicine.
陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi)
陈藏器,famous herbalist of the 8th century(date of birth and pass about year 687~757AD),native to SiMing of Tang(唐代四明人,today's 鄞县yín xian,Zhejiang Province),ever assisnged as XianWei(县尉,an official just below the head of the county) of JingZhao Fu SanYuan(京兆府三原) during KaiYuan years of Tang(year 713-741AD),who compiled the 《本草拾遗》Ben Cao Shi Yi,or A Supplement to the Herbal.
陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi),birth at Chui Gong 3 years(垂拱三年,reign title of empress Wu Zetian,or year 687AD),showed his intelligence when he was a child,followed elder generation relatives out to collect herbs ever since 8 years age,recognize and identify herbs,had good memory for many herbs with similar shapes,some elder herbalists commented that:“此子将来必成大器”,"the child must be an outstanding talents someday",started to help his father decocting herbs ever since 10 years age,and learned how to use and prepare different plant herbs as medicine.When he was 13 years ago,his mother caught disease,his father combined many remedies but not treated,days later his mother passed away,陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) felt very sorrow and sweared to study herb and medicine,to mourning his mother and save folks.
According to history records,herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) became a master of herbs and medicine when he was 15 years old,neighbour folks seek help and all cured with his treatment.After that,he continued with studying various herbal classics,and never forget study with herbs and medicine even in his official career period,and compiled herbal classics 《本草拾遗》Ben Cao Shi Yi,or A Supplement to the Herbal 10 volumes,ever proposed conception of herbal tea treatment with “茶为万病之药”or "tea is the medicine for all disease",and was given an official title 茶疗鼻祖(Ancestor of Tea Treatment) by Emperor Tang Xuanzong 李隆基(Li Longji,year 685~762AD).
According to legend,when herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) in his official position as Xianwei of San Yuan(三原县尉),hardworking and worried about folks' life,felt no shame before the sky.There was a folk with family name Han,from a poor family,caught disease for long years and not treated,coughed up blood and fall on ground when passed by county office,concierge saw the case and told him immediately.herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) diagnosed him and identify as lung problems,ask family members prepare secret "Medicine Tea",and told him take twice daily,after half year more,foolk Han recovered,the event of herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) treat trouble disease with "Medicine Tea" spread in towns,and patients from around all came for treatment for the fame,herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) gifted them the Medicine Tea for help with generosity.
Local chronicles named 《三秦志》San Qin Zhi recorded:“病家云集，门庭若市，日有感恩者众，或携子叩首致谢，或响鞭不绝于耳，屋外金匾林立、室内锦旗无数。”,which means "patients accumulated as cloud,the courtyard as crowded as a marketplace,many thanksgivers arrived daily,kotowed with sons for thanks,or touch off the firecracker without stopping,gold plaques stood in great numbers outside house,silk banners countless inside house",and herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi)rised to fame.
At Kai Yuan 26 years(开元26年,reight title of Xuanzong,or year 738AD),the 18th son of emperor Xuanzong named 李瑁(Li Mao) caught strange disease,felt hunger but sick of eat,bony appearance,sleep in bed all days,looks no Qi and blood,treated with many recipes but show no effects,emperor Xuanzong very angry and dismissed several imperial physicians from their position.When herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) heard this,presented with secrect “药茶(Medicine Tea)”,and told:“寒者温之、热者寒之、虚者补之、实者泻之”，very effective,emperor Xuanzong suspected and told herbalist Chen Cangqi that will kill his nine degrees of kindred if no effect in several days.But out of expect,once it drunk in the morning,able to eat in the noon,the son 李瑁(Li Mao) recovered in over half year,emperor Xuanzong felt very happy and gave many rewards,the son 李瑁(Li Mao) also gave banquets for 3 days to appraise herbalist Chen,and emperor Xuanzong gave out official notice and gifted herbalist Chen title as “茶疗鼻祖(Ancestor of Tea Treatment)”.
During Kai Yuan years(开元年间,713年—741年),herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) was assigned an official position as Xianwei of San Yuan,during this period,he hold an viewpoint that the ancient herbal classics 《神农本草经》Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing lost many not recorded,so he sought out those short and not included,and finally compiled herbal classics 《本草拾遗》Ben Cao Shi Yi,or A Supplement to the Herbal in 10 volumes at KaiYuan 27 years(开元二十七 ,or year 739AD),firstly created the taxonomy based on 10 recipe categories under title “宣、通、补、泄、轻、重、滑、涩、燥、湿”,with propose and notes that “宣可去壅”、“通可去滞”、“补可去弱”、“泄可去闭”、“轻可去实”、“重可去怯”、“滑可去着”、“涩可去脱”、“燥可去湿”、“湿可去枯”，also recorded that poppy could be used as medicine,the original classic copy lost in ancient times,lucky its original content collected by herbal classics 《证类本草》Zheng Lei Ben Cao,thus it survived.
Herbalist 陈藏器(Chen Zangqi/Chen Cangqi) studied with herbs in his whole life,combined many effective secrect Tea Therapy recipes.The Herbal Tea Treatment Therapy Method he suggested also affected Southeast Asian countries during Tang Dynasty,his wisdom on Tea Medicine gave light to later generations ever since.
李含光,Li Hanguang(682～769),famous Taoist of the 8th century,the 13th generation master of MaoShan Taoism who compiled herbal classic Ben Cao Yu Yi,and other Taoism classics,including Zhou Yi Yi Lue,Lao Zhuang Xue Ji,Lun San Xuan Yi Tong,Xian Xue Zhuan,Zhen Jing,nearly all lost,only some copies survived,such like Biao Zou Shi San Tong,Tai Shang Ci Bei Dao Chang Xiao Jiu You Chan Xu.
李含光(Li Hanguang,date of birth/pass:682～769AD),famous Taoist of Tang Dynasty.Original family name 宏(Hong),changed to 李氏(Li) later.Native to Guanglin JiangDu of Tang(广陵江都人,today's Yangzhou,Jiangsu).His life deeds mainly recorded in several ancient classics like 《茅山玄靖先生广陵李君碑铭并序》(Mao Shan Xuan Jing Xian Sheng Guang Lin Li Jun Bei Ming Bing Xu)by 颜真卿(Yan Zhenqin),and 《唐茅山紫阳观玄静先生碑》(Tang Mao Shan Zi Yang Guan Xuan Jing Xian Sheng Bei)by 柳识(Liu Shi).His father named 孝感(Xiao Gan,or 孝威),learned and fond of ancient classics,friendship with 司马承祯(SiMa ChengZhen),his mother family name Wang and native to 琊,family belief in Taoism.李含光(Li Hanguang) fond of strange classics,read and learn ancient classics San Fen Wu Dian,like stay alone in peace.At age 18,will to seek miracle Taoism,took clansman Mr.Li as teacher.At Shen Long years(神龙,Holy Dragon,reign title,year 705～707AD),turned a Taoist,practice in temple 龙兴观(Long Xing Guan Temple).master key points of Lao,Zhuang and ZhouYi.At Kai Yuan 17th years(开元十七年,year 729AD) followed with 司马承祯(SiMa ChengZhen,year 647~735,alias "子微"ZiWei,monastic name "道隐Dao Yin,or Tao Hermit",self title "白云子Bai Yuna Zi,or Son of Cloud",the 12th generation master of the Shang Qing School MaoShan Zong of Taoism) at mountain WangWu(王屋山),learn and taught fundamental methods.
At middle of Kai Yuan years(开元中,or year 713～741AD),Tang Xuanzong got authentic works of Shang Qing Schools left by masters 杨羲(Yang Yi,year 330~386AD,one creator of the Shang Qing School,lived at East Jin Dynasty,year 364AD accept classics《上清真经》Shang Qing Zhen Jing)、许谧(Xu mì,year 305~376,also name 穆Mu，alias "思玄Si Xuan",the 3rd generation master of Shang Qing School,respected as Shang Qing Immortal in the Taoism tradition),陶弘景(Tao Hongjing,year 456~536) and other immortals,but lack of the classics text 13 paper,arrange secretary 王旻赍(Wang Minji) sent out orders written imperial edict stamped with imperial jade seal to Zi Yang Guan Temple(紫阳观) and ask 李含光(Li Hanguang) help to supplement the works,Tang Xuanzong got know that 李含光(Li Hanguang) inherited with the Taoism from 司马承祯(SiMa ChengZhen),so sent out imperial edict arrange him stay in the Yang Tai Guan Temple(阳台观) of Wangwu Mountain(王屋山,located at west north of He Nan province,Ji Yuan city,one of the nine famous mountain in ancient China,also the native county of the Foolish Old Man) to continue his Taoism.At the end of Kai Yuan years,Tang Xuanzong called 李含光(Li Hanguang) to court and consult with him the things under the sun,answered:“《道德》，君王师也。昔汉文行其言，仁寿天下。”,and asked about furnaces,answered:“《道德》，公也；轻举，公中私也。时见其私，圣人存教。若求生徇欲，乃似系风耳。”
Years later,李含光(Li Hanguang) requested to move to mount MaoShan(茅山) to compile and edit classics.Emperor Xuanzong ever sent out imperial edict titled《命李含光建茅山坛宇敕》(Ming Li HanGuang Jian Mao Shan Tan Yu Chi),it read“炼师李含光，道高紫府，学总黄庭，赍然来思，式敷至妙。既而属念茅岭，言访真经。近出咸泰，远游方外。朕载怀仙境，延伫勤修，将使九有之人，同归玄教，三清之众，俯鉴遵行”，greetings for the plan edit and compilation of classics by 李含光(Li Hanguang),and later sent out imperial edicts but 李含光(Li Hanguang) not out yet.Xuanzong sent out edict further and it read:“朕每重清真，亲乎有道，而览兹诚请，义在难违，俾遂乃怀，以就医药。亦既痊损，当早来旋。”,till Tian Bao 4 years(天宝四载,or year 745AD),emperor Xuanzong order written imperial edict stamped with imperial jade seal again to call him:“尊师道德之重，仙真所钦，足以修斋，必有精感。”,and invited 李含光(Li Hanguang) to inner room once he arrived,and invited him bath and dinner before each consult.Later 李含光(Li Hanguang) asked emperor to permit him return back to Temple to compile and continue edit ancient classics,for the conditions at the moment the miracle event trace of mount MaoShan seems fallen,ancient classics and secret literature scattered almost lost,so emperor Xuanzong sent out edict to let 李含光(Li Hanguang) stay in the old temple Zi Yang Guan Temple(紫阳观) at which immortals 杨羲(Yang Yi)、许谧(Xu mì) ever stayed with,and gifted him thin tough silk and Taoism materials.
At Tina Bao Six years(天宝六载,or year 747AD),Taoist 李含光(Li Hanguang) returned back to mount MaoShan(茅山)，3 edicts came the same year to support him continue with the project.The temple on mount MaoShan ever kept ancient classics written by Shang Qing School Immortals 杨羲(Yang Yi)、许谧(Xu mì),陶弘景(Tao Hongjing),inherited by generations,happened disturbance,all lost and no copy left,李含光(Li Hanguang) followed the order and out sought them all and represented later.Till the spring of Tian Bao 7 years(天宝七载,or year 748AD),emperor Xuanzong plan to accept San Dong Zhen Jing(三洞真经),took 李含光(Li Hanguang) as master,respect him with title "玄静先生",“以昭懿德彰高行”,"to let public know his morality and deeds",and sent out imperial decree rock inscription in the HuaYang Dong Palace(华阳洞宫),till summer the same year,sent out decree again to support the temple incense.
Till July Autumn,李含光(Li Hanguang) was called again to the capital ChangAn,stay in temple to rest and nourishment regain health.Tian Bao Nine Years spring(天宝九载,or year 750AD),bade farewell and returned to mount MaoShan(茅山),emperor called him again in winter the same year and stay in the Zi Yang Bie Yuan(紫阳别院).In the autumn of Tian Bao Ten Years(天宝十载秋,or year 751AD),李含光(Li Hanguang) resignated retire with age,emperor Xuanzong versed poem and send-off him.The second year,followed decree 李含光(Li Hanguang) and disciples including 韦景昭(Wei Jingzhao,year 693—785,native to Dan Yang Yan Lin,丹阳延陵人,the 14th generation master of MaoShan Zong Taoism) built up new temple on the mount Yu Gang(郁冈山) which east to Zi Yang Temple,and named 心诚斋(Xin Cheng Zhai Temple,or Temple with Sincerity)
Tang Suzong Li Heng(肃宗李亨,son of Xuanzong,year 711~762AD) ever praised 李含光(Li Hanguang) many times,praised him “深通道妙，久著名闻”，“久契真要，深通元微，游逍遥之境，得朝彻之道。”and “加意坛场，洁清香火，广上皇之福寿，俾六合之康宁，静正道门，当在师也”，to affirm his efforts on compilation classics to support the religious activities of Tang Dynasty.Just for these,Maoshan Zong flourish and widely spread during the Tang Period of Li's.
At November of Da Li 4 Years(大历四年,or 769AD),Taoist 李含光(Li Hanguang) passed away at mount MaoShan.Taoist 李含光(Li Hanguang) ever had works including 《周易义略》三篇(Zhou Yi Yi Lue,3 articles)、《老庄学记》三篇(Lao Zhuang Xue Ji,3 articles)、《本草音义》二卷(Ben Cao Yin Yi,2 volumes)、《三玄异同论》(San Xuan Yi Tong Lun)、《道学》二十卷(Dao Xue,20 volumes),all lost.His deeds ever recorded in ancient classics 《茅山志》卷十一(Mao Shan Zhi,the 11th volume),《唐茅山紫阳观玄静先生碑》(Tang Mao Shan Zi Yang Guan Xuan Jing Xian Sheng Bei),etc.
王冰(Wáng Bīng,c710-805),physician specializing in the art of healing and health preservation,who spent twelve years rearranging and revising the Su Wen,or Plain Questions,one of the two component parts of Huangdi's Internal Classic,into 24 volumes, with notes,commentaries and supplements.
王冰(Wáng Bīng),alias 启玄子(Qi Xuanzi),or 启元子(Qi Yuanzi),born at around Jing Yun 1st year(唐景云元年,or 710AD),passed away at ZhenYuan twenty years(贞元二十年,or year 805AD),native county not known,assigned as an official titled "太仆令"(Taipu ling) at year 762～763,also called Wang Taipu.
王冰(Wáng Bīng) personal character peaceful mind,pure heart and few desires,fond of health preserving method and searching for various health maintenance crafts,also good in study with Taoism,ever followed with famous herbalist 孟诜(Meng Shen) for health preserving methods,孟诜(Meng Shen) was a excellent and master medicine treatment and alchemy,and also a disciple of herbalist sage 孙思邈(Sun Simiao),who inherited the true teachings from 孙思邈(Sun Simiao) including crafts of YinYang,calendars deduction and medicine treatment,and ever wrote classics 《补养方》(Bu Yang Fang) 3 volumes and 《必效方》(Bi Xiao Fang) 3 volumes.Followed with 孟诜(Meng Shen) several years,王冰(Wáng Bīng) learned deeply the essence and miracle crafts of ancient herbalism,and also affected by his Taoism.
When he aged 20,王冰(Wáng Bīng) heard that a strange eccentric herbalist named 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) got a copy of 《皇帝内经·素问》(Huang Di Nei Jing·Su Wen),but he lived seclusion with practice in some Taoist temple,with great talent,then 王冰(Wáng Bīng) decided to visit him and seek taught,with guidiance from some related person,王冰(Wáng Bīng) came to the Taoist temple where 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) stayed and practice.玄珠(Xuan Zhu) ever traveling around four seas and treat folks in his early age,live in solitude in his late study deep theory and writing meidicine classics.玄珠(Xuan Zhu) laid very strict criteria for disciple selection,and he required 王冰(Wáng Bīng) know well and practice with basic guide of “大医习业第一”,“大医精诚第二”(these request were given by herbalist Sun Simiao in his classics 《千金要方》Qian Jin Yao Fang),and also should familiar with basic knowledge from previous classics 《内经》(Nei Jing)、《难经》(Nan Jing)、《甲乙经》(Jia Yi Jing)《本草》(Ben Cao)、《经方》(Jing Fang),and also should study with basic crafts and academics related with 阴阳(Yin Yang) and 五行(Wu Xing),and should be a herbalist with morality opinion and ethics.
王冰(Wáng Bīng) fond of health nourishing,wish to be immortal,and return with sky land and all things,join the follower admirer of Taoism,and his own few desire belief also consistent with those Taoism opinions “无为letting things take their own course”,“无欲desire-lessness”,“恬淡为止Indifferent to fame or benefit”.So worship Taoism and fond of crafts is the main pursuit in his life,this also one reason of his alias 启玄子(Qi Xuanzi).His teacher 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) know well of ancient classics 《素问》(Su Wen),very excellent in those delicacy and essence of it,王冰(Wáng Bīng) got taught from him and enlightened,thus self titled 启玄子(Qi Xuanzi),means got enlightened from his teacher 玄珠(Xuan Zhu).The conception 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) as a word,etymology origin from the ancient classic 《庄子》(Zhuang Zi),but the word 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) recorded in 《庄子》(Zhuang Zi) originally referred to Taoism,in the legend of the epoch Huang Di,the land under the sky lost Tao,and Huang Di sent officials知(Zhi),离朱(Li Zhu) and 喫诟(Chi Gou) to seek “道学(Taoism)”,知(Zhi) seek Tao from spirits，离朱(Li Zhu) seek Tao from shape and shadows，喫诟(Chi Gou) seek Tao from sound and hearing，but result all far away from Tao.Then Huang Di again sent 象罔(Xiang wǎng) to seek Tao,象罔(Xiang wǎng) finally found and discovered the truth of Taoism from “若有形，若无形”(As the physical,as the intangible),and found the 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) which Huang Di expected.The teacher of 王冰(Wáng Bīng) worship Taoism,so possible self titled as 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) with this ancient story.
王冰(Wáng Bīng) fond of Yi-ology and Taoism in his young age,pay attention in medicine study,especially hobby in classics 《黄帝内经》(Huang Di Nei Jing),“于先生郭于斋堂，受得先师张公秘本”,ever "inherited a secret classic copy from ancestor teacher Zhang Gong at the place of his teacher Guo Yuzhai.",herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave supplements and notes to the ancient classics since year TianBao nine years(天宝九年,or year 750A) till Bao Ying 1st year(宝应元年,or year 762AD),totally 12 years,finally edited and compiled out the classics 《素问》(Su Wen) in 24 volumes,and total 81 articles,for the original classic copy 王冰(Wáng Bīng) got lost the 7th volume,he added with the volume which collected in some old copy(which means those seven great treatises edited in the published copy volume 19th to volume 22th),combined and reedited into 24 volumes,which made devotions for the reservation and spread of ancient medicine literatures.The legend noted herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng)ever wrote other classics,like 《玄珠》(Xuan Zhu),which lost in Song Dynasty,and other classics titled 《昭明隐旨》(Zhao Ming Yin Zhi) in 3 volumes,《天元玉册》(Tian Yuan Yu Ce) in 30 volumes,《元和纪用经》(Yuan He Ji Yong Jing) in 1 volume,and these books possibly wrote by some later generations authors with 王冰(Wáng Bīng)'s title as Pseudo author.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) got the secret copy 《素问》(Su Wen) from ancestor teacher Zhang Gong,and compare proofread with the copy 《内经训解》(Nei Jing Xun Jie) which written by previous herbalist 全元起(Quan Yuanqi,birth date unknown,live during the Qi and Liang of South Dynasty epoch),with careful study and combine reference to hiw own academic thoughts and experience,Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng)applied methods like title combination,contents differentiation,shift chapter,supplements etc,re-edit and re-compile the classics 《素问》(Su Wen),and with specific methods like fill,error correction,delete extra sentence,embroidery,systemly and completely emendate,interpretation,notes and elaborate the classic copy,and complete at year 762AD and the final copy titled as 《次注素问》(Ci Zhu Su Wen),also named 《重广补注黄帝内经素问》(Chong Guang Bu Zhu Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen),totally 24 volumes and 81 articles(9*9 big theory).《重广补注黄帝内经素问》(Chong Guang Bu Zhu Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen)序，王冰曰：“伏羲，神农，黄帝之书，谓之三坟，言大道也。......虽复年移代革，而授学犹存。惧非其人，而时有所隐。故第七一卷，师氏藏之，今之奉行，唯八卷尔。然而其文简，其意博，其理奥，其趣深。天地之象分，阴阳之候列，变化之由表，死生之兆彰。不谋而遐迩自同，勿约而幽明斯契。稽其言有微，验之事不忒。诚可谓至道之宗，奉生之始矣。” Due to his seriousness and strict academic attitude,hardworking detecting research and style,the ancient classics 《黄帝内经素问》(Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen)possibly survived and completely reserved.The printing technique applied characters cut in intaglio and characters cut in relief to differ in the block printing,the compilation and supplement of 《黄帝内经素问》(Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen) of herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng),had a crucial contribution in the history of Chinese medicine.The classic copy 《素问》(Su Wen) edited by him was refered by later herbalists as the blue print.Some opinion and creative ideas of medicine from herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng),still has very important value for reference and study.Other classics ever written by 王冰(Wáng Bīng) all lost in ancient times,could never seen again,the only survived copy is the 《次注素问》(Ci Zhu Su Wen),his academic opinion also mainly represented in the supplement notes of 《素问》(Su Wen).Later herbalist and officials of Song dynasty 高保衡(Gao Baoheng) and 林亿(Lin Yi) commented that 王冰(Wang Bing)“得先师所藏之卷大为次注，犹是三皇遗文，灿然可观”。
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) had depth study with the Qi directing practice,the detailed theory were recorded in those supplements and notes in the Seven Articles of Great Treatise,and were traced and respected as the essence and basis of Qi-directing theory of later generations.Combined with his own rich knowledge of medicine,王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave the classics 《素问》(Su Wen) easier and smooth for understanding,those articles he added in,which titled《天元纪大论》(Tian Yuan Ji Da Lun)、《五运行大论》(Wu Yun Xin Da Lun)、《五常政大论》(Wu Chang Zheng Da Lun)、《六微旨大论》(Liu Wei Zhi Da Lun)、《六元正纪大论》(Liu Yuan Zheng Ji Da Lun)、《气交变大论》(Qi Jiao Bian Da Lun)、《至真要大论》(Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun),these articles represents the main essence of the Qi-direction theory.These articles under title great treatise gave detailed and deep interpretations of the related questions,like deep interpretation for the question of mutual rooting of yin-yang(阴阳互根问题).According and reference to the theory recorded in the classics《素问·四气调神大论》(Su Wen·Si Qi Tiao Shen Da Lun)“春夏养阳．秋冬养阴，以从其根”,Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave very incisive exposition about the question mutual rooting of Yin-Yang.He proposed that:“阳气根于阴，阴气根于阳；无阴则阳无以生，无阳则阴无以化；全阴则阳气不极，全阳则阴气不穷。滋苗者必固其根．伐下者必枯其上。”,his interpretation sounds very simple clear and to the point,got real essence from 《内经》(Nei Jing),and has guiding significance for clinical practice.
When discussing and propose the distribution and metabolism of water and body fluid,he mentioned the important effects and functions of the organ Lung and Spleen,and especially emphasize the functions of Lung,Spleen and Kidney on the water distribution and metabolism.His theory “冲为血海，任主胞胎，二者相资，故能有子” was followed by later generation herbalists.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave interpretations of pathogenic theory,and he summarized etiology and pathogenesis of various disease as four kinds,as “一者始因气动而内有所成；二者不因气动而外有所成；三者始因气动而病生于内；四者不因气动而病生于外”。The concept "气动”(Qi movement) mentioned by herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng),means the turmoil or turn chaotic conditions of visceral-qi,and classified the pathogenesis into 2 categories,one from Qi-movement,one not from Qi-movement,and further differentiate exogenous pathogenic factor or internal disorder.This kind of classification method combine pathogenesis with etiology,different from the three-factory theory,and praised by later herbalists 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) and 张从正(Zhang Congzheng).Further more,for the pathogenesis of exogenous febrile disease fever,asthenic disease,王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold very specific opinion too.For the propose in the classics《至真要大论》(Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun)“谨守病机，各司其属，有者求之，无者求之，盛者责之，虚者责之，必先五胜，疏其血气，令其调达，而致和平” texts,he gave very high praise and also wrote notes more than 300 words,repeatedly emphasis to detect the pathogenesis through phenomena and various symptoms,gave further interpretation of the pathogenesis analysis method.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave very specific discuss of therapeutic method and rules,and clearly proposed treatment should based on real pathogenesis,and based on Yin-Yang,clearly identify and differentiate deficiency and excess of Yin-Yang,Water-Fire,and proposed to treat deficiency of kidney-YANG should refer to “益火之源，以消阴翳”，treat deficiency of kidney-YIN should refer to “壮水之主，以制阳光”.These incisive exposition got high attention by all later generation herbalists,and founded basis for the formation of later life-gate theory.About the question of routine treatment and counteracting treatment,he also gave detailed analysis,and pointed out “逆者正治也，从者反治也。逆病气而正治，则以寒攻热，以热攻寒。虽从顺病气，乃反治法也。”,which means the straight treatment of serious cases,actually are counteracting treatment.And he used fire as metaphor to analysis the treatment method:“夫病之微小者，犹人火也．遇草而焫，得木而燔，可以湿伏．可以水灭，故逆其性气以折之攻之。病之大甚者，犹龙火也，得湿而焰。遇水而燔，不知其性以水湿折之，适足以光焰诣天，物穷方止矣；识其性者，反常之理，以火逐之，则燔灼自消．焰光扑灭。”,these discussion actually means for the treatment of serious disease,better treat straight with its nature,and his discussion actually the origin of later treatment method under title “引火归原”(guide fire return to its origin),which has guiding essence for clinical practice.On other aspects,for the treatment of five types depression,王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave differentiation of the five types depression,and applied different methods 吐vomit、汗sweat、下、渗泄eliminating wetness etc,which make the treatment method from 《素问》(Su Wen) more clear and exact,later generation herbalists seek reference from the method of 王冰(Wáng Bīng) for depression treatment and supplemented with their own inventions,and gradually treatment of depression formed a theory doctrine in the TCM theory system with clinical value.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold his specific opinion on some questions of the TCM theory.For example,when he gave explain and interpretion of the propose “微者逆之，甚者从之” recorded in 《素问》(Su Wen)，raise 2 concept about fire,人火(Ren Huo,or Man-Fire) and龙火(Long Huo,or Dragon-Fire),these are actually metaphoric descriptions,as he explained:“夫病之微小者，犹人火也，遇草而芮，得木而燔，可以湿伏，可以水灭，故逆其性气以折之攻之。病之大者，犹龙火也，得湿而焰，遇水而燔，不识其性，以水湿折之，适足以光焰诣天，物穷方止矣。识其性者，反常之理，以火逐之，则燔灼自削，焰光扑灭。”王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold a viewpoint that Ren-Huo and Long-Huo are two different fire with complete different essence.the first is common heat,its nature belong to Yang-heat and may hurt Yin-fluid,can use herbs with cooling characters for treatment,for example the liver-fire and red eyes,stomach-fire and toothache etc,herbs with character clearing discharging stomach fire and liver fire could be selected,like radix geutianae,rhizoma coptidis,shi gao,da huang,etc.But for the dragon-fire,its nature similar as the Dragon in ancient legend,Dragon live in water,water accumulated and Dragon fly out,thus the character of this type fire is that herbs with cooling property not only could not help treatment,on the contrary may also aid fire generate more heat,thus 王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold a treatment viewpoint to exorcise fire with fire.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) was really a generation master of 《内经》(Nei Jing),there were many later works forge author under his name,like those books titled 《素问六气玄珠密语》(《素問六氣玄珠密語》Su Wen Liu Qi Xuan Zhu Mi Yu)in 10 volumes,《照明隐旨》(《照明隱旨》Zhao Ming Yin Zhi)in 3 volumes,《天元玉册》(Tian Yuan Yu Ce) in 30 volumes,《元和纪用经》(Yuan He Ji Yong Jing) in 1 volume.
昝殷(Zǎn Yīn,797-859):specialist in women's diseases and the author of the Jing Xiao Chan Bao,or Tested Treasures of Obstetrics,written 852-856,and one of the earliest extant book on obstetrics.
昝殷(Zǎn Yīn,797-859),native to Shu of Tang(蜀,located in Sichuan province,China),birth at about Zhen Guan 13 years of Tang(唐贞元十三年,or year 797AD),passed away at Da Zhong 13 years of Tang(大中十三年,or year 859AD),the famous herbalist of Tang Dynasty in ancient China,famous uterologist,good at obstetrics and gynecology,good at medicine and herbs,excellent at medicine theory,ever assigned to Suijun Jiedushi(随军节度),YiXue BoShi(医学博士,Medicine Doctor),during the Da Zhong Years of Tang(唐宣宗大中年间,year 847-860AD,Da Zhong is the reign title of Tang Xuan Zong,李忱Li Chén),he gathored decades years clinical experience of obstetrics and gynecology,mime the literature forms and genre of the classics 《千金方》(Qian Jin Fang)by herbalist 孙思邈(Sun Simiao),collected effective recipes of those diseases from previous herbalists about amenorrhea,morbid leucorrhea,encyesis,confinement in childbirth,dystocia,and postpartum syndromes,togethor with his own clinical experience,totally 378 articles,edited and compiled into book titled 《产宝》(Chan Bao) in 3 volumes(into book at year 853AD),late to year 897AD,herbalist 周颋(Zhou Tǐng) supplemented the book and wrote preface,changed title into 《经效产宝》(Jing Xiao Chan Bao) in 3 volumes,according to 周颋(Zhou Tǐng),the book 《产宝》(Chan Bao) original copy 3 volumes,“凡五十二篇，三百七十一方”,"total fifty two articles,three hundred and seventy one recipes.",the classics 《经效产宝》(Jing Xiao Chan Bao) survived today in 3 volumes,fourty one articles,and three hundred seventy four recipes.The classics 《经效产宝》(Jing Xiao Chan Bao) is the earliest academic works about obstetrics and gynecology survived till today in China,and also most widespread one,and it is the first academic works of obstetrics and gynecology from ancient China survived till today,had wide and deep influence on later generation herbalists,own very high value both in literature and clinical applications,and also quoted frequently as reference by later famous herbalist 唐慎微(Tang ShenWei),陈自明(Chen Ziming) and others,devoted to the development of obstetrics and gynecology biggishly.Herbalist 昝殷(Zǎn Yīn) has studies in health maintenance,food therapy,also compiled works titled 《医方类聚》(Yi Fang Lei Ju),《道养方》(Dao Yang Fang)3 volumes,《食医心鉴》(Shi Yi Xin Jian)3 volumes,survived till today.
The academic thoughts of herbalist 昝殷(Zǎn Yīn) mainly represented on the topics of obstetrics and gynecology,and food therapy.His major academic viewpoints represented in the related classics.
日华子(Ri Hua Zi)
日华子(Ri Hua Zi),dates of birth and death unspecified.Original name 大明(Da Ming),travel with title,native to 四明(Si Ming of Tang,Yin county of Zhejiang today,鄞县),native to 雁门(Yan Men,belong to Shan Xi province today)according to other legend records,ever wrote herbal classics under title 《诸家本草》Zhu Jia Ben Cao.
The classics 《诸家本草》Zhu Jia Ben Cao by 日华子(Ri Hua Zi) full title 《日华子诸家本草》(Ri Hua Zi Zhu Jia Ben Cao),total 20 volumes,generally called《日华子本草》Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao,also ever titled as 《日华子》Ri Hua Zi in ancient literature.The original works lost in ancient period.Its lost articles scattered in later herbal classics,like 《本草纲目》Ben Cao Gang Mu.《证类本草》Zheng Lei Ben Cao,etc.
1, see Dao Zang,vol 26,page 2.
2, see Dao Jiao Shi,page 107.
3,4,5, see Dao Zang,vol 26,page 2,6,26.
6, see Chuan Shi Cang Shu,vol 3,page 3877,Published by Hai Nan Guo Ji Xin Wen Chu Ban Zhong Xin,1996.
7, see Dao Zang,vol 26,page 530.
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