Ancient Herbalists Legend:The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD)The Tang Dynasty(618～907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907～960/979 AD)Back.
The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD)The Tang Dynasty(618～907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907～960/979 AD)
Famous herbalist of this period:Zhen Quan(major works:Zhen Fang,Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu),Chao Yuanfang(major works:Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun),Yang Shang-shan(major works:Huangdi Nei Jing Tai Su),Sun Simiao(major works:Qian Jin Yao Fang,Qian Jin Yi Fang),Su Jing(major works:Xin Xiu Ben Cao),Meng Shen(major works:Shi Liao Ben Cao),Jian Zhen,Wang Tao(major works:Wai Tai Mi Yao),Chen Zangqi(major works:Ben Cao Shi Yi),Wang Bing,Zan Yin(major works:Jing Xiao Chan Bao).
As one of the most prosperous ancient China epoch,The Tang Dynasty worship Taoism(Not "confucianism"),to raise up social positions of the Li-imperial lineage,Emperor Tang Gaozu Li Yuan worshipped Lao-tzu(李耳Li Erh) as remote ancestor,Emperor Tang Xuanzong 李隆基(Li Longji) wrote annotations for the Taoism classics 《道藏》(Dao Zang),worship ancient Taoist 庄子(Chuang Tzu)、庚桑子(Geng Sangzi) as “Immortal”,send out imperial decree that officials and folks should collect Taoism classics 《老子》(Lao Zi),《庄子》(Zhuang Zi) etc in house.The development of medicine crafts in Tang Dynasty benefit a lot from Taoism and Taoists,those famous herbalists normally also Taoists.
甄权(Zhēn Quán,c540-643):physician in the Tang Dynasty,who was a leading expert at acupuncture and the author of the Zhen Fang, Needling Prescriptions, and the Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu,or Figures of the Human Body.
甄权(Zhēn Quán),birth date the Datong six years(大统六年,Year 540 AD) of the Western Wei Dynasty(西魏,535-556AD,one of the Northern Dynasties),or at Datong seven years(大同七年,or year 541AD) of the Liang Dynasty(南朝梁,502~557AD,one of the Southern Dynasties),passed away at Zhenguan seventeen years of Tang (唐贞观十七年,or year 643 AD).Native to 许州扶沟(Xu Zhou Fugou,ancient toponym,today's Fugou,Henan.),for mother sick when young,learning and careful study with medicine with younger brother 甄立言(Zhēn Lì Yán),practice remedy books,and gradually turned a famous herbalists.Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) very good at acupuncture and moxibustion,also know well treatment with medicine.
Works and Writings:Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) had many writings and works in his life,till today his works known are: 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) in 1 volume,《针经钞》(Zhen Jing Chao) in 3 volumes,《脉经》(Mai Jing) in 1 volumes,《针方》(Zhen Fang) in 1 volume,《脉诀赋》(Mai Jue Fu,or Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem) in 1 volume,《本草音义》(Ben Cao Yin Yi,or Herbal Phonosemantics) in 7 volumes,《药性论》(Yao Xing Lun,or Thesis of Herb Characters) in 4 volumes.These works and writings all lost in ancient time,part of its content available from later classics 《备急千金要方》(Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang),《千金翼方》(Qian Jin Yi Fang),《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) etc,these works has influences to later generations.Especially the graphs collection 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) was very popular and fashionable at the epoch of Tang,famous herbalist 孙思邈 ever redrawing colored photo gallery according to it,and named as 人体经络俞穴彩图(Ren Ti Jing Luo Yu Xue Cai Tu),and this classics gallery also lost.
《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) 1 volumes ever recorded in history classics 《新唐志》(Xin Tang Zhi,or New Tang Annals),but recorded 2 volumes in the classics 《通志·艺文略》(Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue),《脉廖赋》(Mai Liao Fu)or 《脉诀赋》(Mai Jue Fu,or Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem) 1 volume ever recorded in classics 《通志· 艺文略》(Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue),《本草音义》(Ben Cao Yin Yi,or Herbal Phonosemantics) 7 volumes also recorded in 《通志·艺文略》(Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue).
For the cause his mother feeble and sick whole year when 甄权(Zhēn Quán) was young,he and younger brother 甄立言(Zhen LiYan) study medicine and treatment with great concentration,read recipe books and crafts widely,and started to practise medicine and save people,and treated many patients,and herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) achieved great attainment in acupuncture and moxibustion.At beginning of KaiHuang Year(开皇初年,Kai Huang was the reign title of 杨坚[YangJian,year 541~604AD],Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty,or year 581AD),甄权(Zhēn Quán) was assigned the I Secretary of the Imperial Library,and resigned with cause allege illness,and went on with medicine and craft study and treatment till pass away.There were events of his miraculous treatment skills recorded in ancient classics:
Ancient classics 《旧唐书·本传》(Old Tang Book·Biography) recorded,"隋鲁州刺史库狄嵚苦风患，手不得引弓，诸医莫能疗，权谓曰：但将弓箭向垛，一针可以射矣。针其肩隅一穴，应时即射。权之疗疾，多此类也。",means "Lu Zhou Prefectural governor named 库狄嵚(Ku Diqīn) caught and suffering with apoplexia(wind-stroke syndrome),doctors could not treat with,(when comes to consult with herbalist Zhēn Quán,afte careful check and diagnose)Quán said:'You simply hold the bow and arrow,aim at the target,only one needle,guarantee you can shoot.'And needling his shoulder corner point,the problems and suffering relieved and cured,Ku Diqīn tried shoot and just hit the target,folks around all cheers."
In the ancient classics 《千金翼方》(Qian Jin Yi Fang) written by herbalist Sun Simiao,its volume 26 recorded a treatment case of herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán):during time Wu De Year(618~626AD),甄权(Zhēn Quán) followed AnKang Duke 李袭誉(Li Xiyu) to guard 潞州(Lu Zhou,ancient toponymy,today's ChangZhi city of Shan Xi province),ShenZhou Prefectural governor named 成君绰(Cheng Junchāo) caught problems of swelling nape,as large as a sheng(ancient measure,unit of dry measure for grain),throat obstruction,can not eat any food or drink any water,already 3 days.甄权(Zhēn Quán) needling the forefinger of his right hand,,a little while later,the patient breath became smooth.The second day,the patient recovered and eat drink as healthy as normal.This case also collected in the later classics named 《续名医类案·咽喉门》(Xu Ming Yi Lei An·Yan Hou Men)。
Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) also know well about herbs and medicines,and often combine herbs and acupuncture togethor for treatment.Except master of acupuncture and moxibustion,甄权(Zhēn Quán) also good at treat with herbs and medicine.AnPing Gong 李德林(Li Delin) caught hemilateral wind,甄权(Zhēn Quán) treated him with 防风汤(Fang Feng Tang),also needling his seven acupuncture point(风池Fengchi or Wind Pool、肩髃Jiānyú、曲池Quchi or Bend Pond、支沟Zhigou、阳陵泉Yanglingquan、五枢Wushu、巨虚下兼Lower Ridge of Great Hollow)etc.Taken 9 dose of medicines,and needling nine times,the patient recovered gradually.AnKang Gong caught problems of waterswelling,difficulty in micturition,甄权(Zhēn Quán) treated him with a recipe pill composed with poria cocos,the swelling disappeared before the recipes taken out.These cases were recorded in ancient classics 《千金要方·水肿门》(Qian Jin Yao Fang·Shui Zhong Men).
ZhenGuan 17 years(ZhenGuan,the reign title of Li Shimin,Emperor Taizong of Tang,year 643AD),herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) already aged 102,the emperor visited him to his house,shared greetings to him and care his personal life aspects,and consult with him about theory of herb character and health maintenance.And 甄权(Zhēn Quán) so wrote a classic named 《药性论》(Yao Xing Lun,or Thesis of Herb Characters) in 4 volumes and gifted to the emperor.And Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) passed away at the same year.
Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) not only good at acupuncture and herb medicine,famous wellknown in the courte and among folks,he also master health maintenance,knew deeply that stale rid and fresh taken in is the effective method for life span extending,he hold a viewpoint that diet and drink not need fat and tasty,vegetarian meal and mild flavours could generate and increase physical strength,reduce foul turbidity and dirt,adjust and compromise stomach Qi,no disease could caught.In the years of ZhenGuan(627~649AD), accept the imperial order to compile and edit 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu).
In the years of ZhenGuan(627~649AD),for the chaotic conditions of the acupoint name and position,the Tang government gave orders to let officials ShaoFu(少府,ancient official title) 甄权(Zhēn Quán),Chengwu Lang(承务郎,ancient official title) 司马德逸(Sima Deyi),Court Physician(太医令) 谢季卿(Xie Jiqin),Taichang cheng(太常丞,ancient official title) 甄立言(Zhen Liyan,younger brother of Zhēn Quán),compile and edit the graph spectrum of the meridians and acupoint,and completely edit and identification correct the name and position of the acupoint.
Year 627AD,甄权(Zhēn Quán) accept the imperial order to compile and edit 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu),brief named 《明堂》(Ming Tang),also edit and calibrate the classics 《图经》(Tu Jing)togethor with 甄立言(Zhen Liyan) and 司马德逸(Sima Deyi).The colorful meridian graphs 《明堂人形图》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) they painted use graphs with detailed notes and explains,is one definitive book guidance for those acupuncture practitioner of Tang and later generations,generated deep and far influence.
The compiling and editing works led by 甄权(Zhēn Quán),actually is the first time a big compilation and identification system works about acupoint launched by government in the history with clear history records,so it is also a historical summary of the subject of point ever since the classics 《针灸甲乙经》(Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing,or The ABC Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion)appeared,a big event served as a link between past and future in the history of acupuncture,has extreme big meanings for the development of acupuncture.It ended the chaotic conditions of the acupoint identification and various names ever appeared since Jin Dynasty,South and North Dynasty,Sui Dynasty and Beginning of Tang Dynasty,further developed and enriched the theory of acupoint,did extreme devotions for enlighten later generations,acupuncture education,and spread popularize the acupuncture and moxibustion medicine.
Herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán) passed away without any illness at age 103,buried at hometown Hao Gang village north,Baotun town of FuGou county(扶沟县包屯镇,郝岗村北),his tomb was listed as the important historical and cultural sites under government protection by local government.In the grave under the two chinese scholar tree,long sleep the famous ancient herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán),150 meters north east away,located the cemetery of 甄立言(Zhēn Liyan),the younger brother of herbalist 甄权(Zhēn Quán).
Emperor Tang Taizong Li Shimin(599-649AD) was one of the emperor with outstanding exploit in the history,carried out land equalization system,lower tax,appointment of the sages,extensive advice,the social economy got obvious progress and improvement,history recorded as "ZhenGuan Period",Li Shimin attention for the medicine knowledge and health maintenance method,consult with many herbalists including 甄权(Zhēn Quán),compare with CaoCao(the King of Wei at the Three Kingdom Period) who regard herbalist 华佗(HuaTuo) as rats,really enormous differences.
甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán,545~627~649),younger brother of Zhen Quan. Birth at Datong eleven years(大同十一年,or year 545AD) of the Liang Dynasty(南朝梁,502~557AD,one of the Southern Dynasties),passed away at Zhenguan years of Tang (唐贞年间,or year 627~649 AD).Learn medicine since young age with his old brother 甄权(Zhēn Quán),has special opinion and viewpoint with disease dignosis and herb medicines.Famous herbalist same as his brother Zhen Quan,good at treatment and herbal classics,especially good for parasite treatment.
During Tang Wude years(WuDe,the reign title of emperor Tang Gaozu 李渊,or year 618~626AD),herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) was assigned as 太常丞(Tai Chang Cheng,or Official Master of Ceremony),famous with his brother 甄权(Zhēn Quán) at the time.Herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) good at treatment,and know well of various herbs,especially good at treatment of miscellaneous diseases.History classics 《旧唐书·甄权传》(Jiu Tang Shu·Zhen Quan Zhuan,or Old Tang Book·Legend of Zhen Quan)recorded some of his treatment cases:Imperial Counsellor(御史大夫) 杜淹(Du Yan) caught wind toxin and swelling,唐太宗(Tang Taizong) asked 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) to treat him.After his diagnosis,herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) proposed that:"从今日起过十一日，午时必死。","counted from today in 11 days,he will definitely die at high noon.",and the result same as he declared.A duddhist nun named 明律(Ming Lv),aged over 60,caught problems stomach swelling,looks slim lean,and suffering over 2 years,herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) diagnosed with and proposed it caused by paratites in belly,let the patient taken 1 dose of red orpiment,the patient vomit out a parasite sooner,size like the little finger,and cured.a patient with family name Wei caught cardiodynia,suffering over 10 years,herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) asked him taken the herb Tian MingJing,and the patient completely recovered after 1 dose treatment.
Herbalist 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán) ever wrote many classics,and he known as the author of 《本草音义》(Ben Cao Yin Yi,or Pronouncing Meanings of Herbs,7 volumes),《本草药性》(Ben Cao Yao Xing,or Pharmacological Property of Herbs,3 volumes),《本草集录》(Ben Cao Ji Lu,Collecting Lists of Herbs,2 volumes),《古今录验方》(Gu Jin Lu Yan Fang,or Proved Recipes from Ancient till Present,50 volumes),all lost,part of lost articles these classics could be found in other books such like 《千金要方》(Qian Jin Yao Fang),《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao).The classics 《古今录验方》(Gu Jin Lu Yan Fang,or Proved Recipes from Ancient till Present) made extreme achievement in aspects of diagnose treat and differential diagnosis.His description of the symptoms "消渴小便至甜(thirsty and urine taste sweet)" which ever collected in the classics 《外台秘要》(Wai Tai Mi Yao) is the earliest diabets record in ancient China.
巢元方,Chao Yuanfang(550-630): imperial physician of Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty,who took charge of the compilation of the Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun,or Treatise on Causes and Symptoms of Diseases, the first Chinese work in this category and still a valuable reference book.
杨上善,Yang Shang-shan(585-670):physician at the turn of the Sui and Tang dynasties,imperial physician from 605-616 and one of the earliest physicians who made notes and commentaries on the Internal Classic or Canon of Medicine and was the author of Huangdi Nei Jing Tai Su,or Fundamentals of Huangdi's Internal Classic,an important reference book for studying the Internal Classic.
孙思邈,Sun Simiao(518 or 541-682): prominent physician of the Tang Dynasty,also a famous Taoist Priest at Tang period,the author of the Qian Jin Yao Fang《千金要方》,or Invaluable Prescriptions(652),total 30 vlumes,combined 5300 recipes and formulas,and the Qian Jin Yi Fang《千金翼方》,or Supplement to the Invaluable Prescriptions(682),which have been considered compilations of the medical achievements before the 7th century.
Sun Simiao was also a famous Taoist and scholar of Taoism,he was a real scholar and good at anti-aging,he started research of herbs at very young age,as he proposed:"吾幼遭风冷,屡造医门,汤药之资,罄尽家产。"“至于弱冠,頗觉有悟,是以亲邻中外有疾厄者,多所济益。”(1)(in Pin Yin "Wu You Zao Feng Leng,Lv Zao Yi Men,Tang Yao Zhi Zi,Qing Jin Jia Chan." "Zhi Yu Ruo Guan,Po Jue You Wu,Shi Yi Qin Lin Zhong Wai You Ji E Zhe,Duo Suo Ji Yi.")(which means "i suffered cold chilling since child,consult with doctor many times,to pay for the fees of medicine nearly exhausting our family property.""started to know well about medicine since 20 years old,thus could be kind to neighbours who suffering from disease,helped them."),when the Sui Dynasty ended,Sun Simiao became a hermit and move to ZhongNan Mountain,be friend with famous monk Dao Xuan(596~667).according to ancient literature,even at age 40s,he still looks like a young man,the literature noted that "唐武德(618-626)中,以修炼,行医闻名于世,奉唐太宗召,入京师。唐太宗见其年虽高而容色甚少,惊叹其有道,欲授之以爵位,固辞不受。(2)(Tang Wude Zhong,Yi Xiu Lian,Xing Yi Wen Ming Yu Shi,Feng Tang Tai Zong Zhao,Ru Jing Shi.Tang Tai Zong Jian Qi Nian Sui Gao Er Rong Se Shen Shao,Jing Tan Qi You Dao,Yu Shou Zhi Yi Jue Wei,Gu Ci Bu Shou.)"(which means:During years of Tang Dynasty,Wu De reign title[618-626],Sun Simiao became a famous alchemist and herbalist,come to nation capital by imperial edict from Tang TaiZong[Li Shimin,the 2nd emperor of Tang Dynasty].Tang Taizong caught sight of herbalist Sun Simiao and saw he looks very young although aged,suprising and saying he must has ways,so showed respect and give some rank of nobility,but herbalist Sun refused it.),at year 674,Sun returned back to Mountain with cause of sickness.Herbalist Sun was a real scholar and all his life living by help patients in mountain,Dr.Sun belives nature-cultivation may brings longivity,and the most important method of health preserving is nature-cultivation,and it is even more important than supplements.Except the famous books,Sun ever written some other books,such like She Yang Zhen Zhong Fang《摄养枕中方》,Fu Lu Lun《福禄论》,Bao Sheng Ming《保生铭》,Cun Shen Lian Qi Ming《存神炼气铭》,etc.
Herbalist Sun Simiao hold very precious treatment morality in ancient time,emphasis the importance of life,he proposed "人命至重,有贵千金,一方济之,德愈于此。(3)(in Pin Yin,"Ren Ming Zhi Zhong,You Gui Qian Jin,Yi Fang Ji Zhi,De Yu Yu Ci")",which means "man's life is the most important,and higher value than 5kgs gold,1 recipe for help,morality over than saving.",he thinks as a herbalist,firstly,should "博及医源,精勤不倦,不得道听途说,而言医道已了(4)(Bo Ji Yi Yuan,Jing Qin Bu Juan,Bu De Dao Ting Tu Shuo,Er Yan Yi Dao Yi Liao)",which means a herbalist should "know widely about the origin of classics,learn hard and with no lassitude,should not listen to hearsay,then announced that herbal theory already finished.",and second,herbalist should "志存救济",“若有疾厄来求救者,不得问其贵贱贫富,长幼妍媸,怨亲善友,华夷愚智,普同一等,皆如至亲之想;亦不得瞻前顾后,自虑吉凶,护惜生命”(5)(in Pin Yin "Zhi Cun Jiu Ji,""Ruo You Ji E Lai Qiu Zhe,Bu De Wen Qi Gui Jian Pin Fu,Zhang You Yan Chi,Yuan Qin Shan You,Hua Yi Yu Zhi,Pu Tong Yi Deng,Jie Ru Zhi Qin Zhi Xiang;Yi Bu De Zhan Qian Gu Hou,Zi Lv Ji Xiong,Hu Xi Sheng Ming."),which means,a herbalist should "set saving as purpose,","when a patient with problems ask for help and saving,should not ask and discriminate by their social position,they rich or poor,old or young,appearance beautiful or looks ugly,a chinese or a barbarian,a wise man or an idiot,all should be treated the same,as one's closest relatives,and should not overcautious and indecisive,considering good or ill luck for self,should take life precious and care about it."
Herbalist Sun Simiao pay attention to health preservation,and emphasis that health preservation prompt longevity,he believes in Taoism theory "我命在我不在天"(Wo Ming Zai Wo Bu Zai Tian,which means my life hold in my own hand,instead of God.),he proposed that "神仙之道难致,养性之术易崇。故善摄生者常须慎于忌讳,勤于服食,则百年之内不惧于天伤也。(6)Shen Xian Zhi Dao Nan Zhi,Yang Xing Zhi Shu Yi Chong.Gu Shan She Sheng Zhe Chang Xu Shen Yu Ji Hui,Qin Yu Fu Shi,Ze Bai Nian Zhi Nei Bu Ju Yu Tian Shang Ye.",which means "Its hard to be an immortal,but it is easier to respect method of nature-cultivation.Thus those who good at health preservation should care of tatoo,care of supplement,thus no afraid of hurt from God within hundred years of life,before death comes.",Dr.Sun thinks the most important for health preservation is nature-cultivation,this is more important than supplement,and he proposed that "德行不充,纵服玉液金丹,未能延寿。(7)",which means "if a person's morality degraded,life span could never be extended even taken very precious pills and liquid."
苏敬(Sū Jìng,599-674):court official of the Tang Dynasty,also known as Su Gong.He was ordered by the emperor to review traditional herbals with a staff of 22 scholars and physicians.As a result of their work,in 659,the Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or Newly Compiled Materia Medica (of Tang) or Tang Ben Cao,or The Tang Materia Medica was published as the first official pharmacopoeia in China.
Herbalist 苏敬(Su Jing),native to Song of Tang(唐代宋人,today's Hubei province),born at Kai Huang Ninteen years of Sui Dynasty(隋开皇十九年,or year 599AD),passed away at Xian Heng five years(唐咸亨五年,or year 674AD),ever assigned as as an official titled "朝议郎右监门府长史骑都尉",Xian Qing two years(显庆二年,Xian Qing is the reign title of Tang Gaozong LiZhi,or Year 657AD),for the cause the previous herbal classics 《本草经集注》(Ben Cao Jing Ji Zhu) which edited by herbalist 陶弘景(Tao Hongjing) has various lost and errors,苏敬(Su Jing) and others wrote letters to the imperial court for editing new materia medica,Tang Gaozong LiZhi assigned 苏敬(Su Jing),and other 22 officials or scholars including 长孙无忌(Zhǎngsūn Wwúqì,year 597-659AD)、许孝崇(Xu Xiaochun)、李淳风(Li Chunfeng,602~670AD) etc edit the new materia medica togethor.
The new classics 《新修本草》(Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or Newly Compiled Materia Medica,also called The Tang Materia Medica) finally finished at year XianQing four years(659AD),including materia medica 20 volumes(survived 11 volumes today),table of contents 1 volume;herbal gallery 25 volumes,contents 1 volume;Tujing or Illustrated classics 7 volumes(already lost),totally 54 volumes,collected herb and medicine over 800kinds.In the west,the Florentine Codex published at year 1498,the Nuremberg Pharmacopoeia published at year 1535,they all very late pharmacopoeia compare with The Tang Materia Medica.
孟诜,Meng Shen(621-713) :herbalist of the Tang Dynasty,author of the Shi Liao Ben Cao,or A Diatetic Materia Medica.The original has been lost,but the text can be found in the Lei Zheng Ben Cao,or Classified Materia Medica.
王焘,Wang Tao(c670-755):distinguished physician of the Tang Dynasty.Trying to cure his sick mother,he made up his mind to go in for medicine.Having worked in the imperial library for twenty years and read a lot of medical books,he compiled a book of his own,titled Wai Tai Mi Yao,or Medical Secrets of an Official(752),an exhausted study of every branch of medicine,up to that time.
陈藏器,famous herbalist of the 8th century,who compiled the Ben Cao Shi Yi,or A Supplement to the Herbal.
李含光,Li Hanguang(682-735),famous Taoist of the 8th century,the 13th generation master of MaoShan Taoism who compiled herbal classic Ben Cao Yu Yi,and other Taoism classics,including Zhou Yi Yi Lue,Lao Zhuang Xue Ji,Lun San Xuan Yi Tong,Xian Xue Zhuan,Zhen Jing,nearly all lost,only some copies survived,such like Biao Zou Shi San Tong,Tai Shang Ci Bei Dao Chang Xiao Jiu You Chan Xu.
王冰(Wáng Bīng,c710-805),physician specializing in the art of healing and health preservation,who spent twelve years rearranging and revising the Su Wen,or Plain Questions,one of the two component parts of Huangdi's Internal Classic,into 24 volumes, with notes,commentaries and supplements.
王冰(Wáng Bīng),alias 启玄子(Qi Xuanzi),or 启元子(Qi Yuanzi),born at around Jing Yun 1st year(唐景云元年,or 710AD),passed away at ZhenYuan twenty years(贞元二十年,or year 805AD),native county not known,assigned as an official titled "太仆令"(Taipu ling) at year 762～763,also called Wang Taipu.
王冰(Wáng Bīng) personal character peaceful mind,pure heart and few desires,fond of health preserving method and searching for various health maintenance crafts,also good in study with Taoism,ever followed with famous herbalist 孟诜(Meng Shen) for health preserving methods,孟诜(Meng Shen) was a excellent and master medicine treatment and alchemy,and also a disciple of herbalist sage 孙思邈(Sun Simiao),who inherited the true teachings from 孙思邈(Sun Simiao) including crafts of YinYang,calendars deduction and medicine treatment,and ever wrote classics 《补养方》(Bu Yang Fang) 3 volumes and 《必效方》(Bi Xiao Fang) 3 volumes.Followed with 孟诜(Meng Shen) several years,王冰(Wáng Bīng) learned deeply the essence and miracle crafts of ancient herbalism,and also affected by his Taoism.
When he aged 20,王冰(Wáng Bīng) heard that a strange eccentric herbalist named 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) got a copy of 《皇帝内经·素问》(Huang Di Nei Jing·Su Wen),but he lived seclusion with practice in some Taoist temple,with great talent,then 王冰(Wáng Bīng) decided to visit him and seek taught,with guidiance from some related person,王冰(Wáng Bīng) came to the Taoist temple where 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) stayed and practice.玄珠(Xuan Zhu) ever traveling around four seas and treat folks in his early age,live in solitude in his late study deep theory and writing meidicine classics.玄珠(Xuan Zhu) laid very strict criteria for disciple selection,and he required 王冰(Wáng Bīng) know well and practice with basic guide of “大医习业第一”,“大医精诚第二”(these request were given by herbalist Sun Simiao in his classics 《千金要方》Qian Jin Yao Fang),and also should familiar with basic knowledge from previous classics 《内经》(Nei Jing)、《难经》(Nan Jing)、《甲乙经》(Jia Yi Jing)《本草》(Ben Cao)、《经方》(Jing Fang),and also should study with basic crafts and academics related with 阴阳(Yin Yang) and 五行(Wu Xing),and should be a herbalist with morality opinion and ethics.
王冰(Wáng Bīng) fond of health nourishing,wish to be immortal,and return with sky land and all things,join the follower admirer of Taoism,and his own few desire belief also consistent with those Taoism opinions “无为letting things take their own course”,“无欲desire-lessness”,“恬淡为止Indifferent to fame or benefit”.So worship Taoism and fond of crafts is the main pursuit in his life,this also one reason of his alias 启玄子(Qi Xuanzi).His teacher 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) know well of ancient classics 《素问》(Su Wen),very excellent in those delicacy and essence of it,王冰(Wáng Bīng) got taught from him and enlightened,thus self titled 启玄子(Qi Xuanzi),means got enlightened from his teacher 玄珠(Xuan Zhu).The conception 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) as a word,etymology origin from the ancient classic 《庄子》(Zhuang Zi),but the word 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) recorded in 《庄子》(Zhuang Zi) originally referred to Taoism,in the legend of the epoch Huang Di,the land under the sky lost Tao,and Huang Di sent officials知(Zhi),离朱(Li Zhu) and 喫诟(Chi Gou) to seek “道学(Taoism)”,知(Zhi) seek Tao from spirits，离朱(Li Zhu) seek Tao from shape and shadows，喫诟(Chi Gou) seek Tao from sound and hearing，but result all far away from Tao.Then Huang Di again sent 象罔(Xiang wǎng) to seek Tao,象罔(Xiang wǎng) finally found and discovered the truth of Taoism from “若有形，若无形”(As the physical,as the intangible),and found the 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) which Huang Di expected.The teacher of 王冰(Wáng Bīng) worship Taoism,so possible self titled as 玄珠(Xuan Zhu) with this ancient story.
王冰(Wáng Bīng) fond of Yi-ology and Taoism in his young age,pay attention in medicine study,especially hobby in classics 《黄帝内经》(Huang Di Nei Jing),“于先生郭于斋堂，受得先师张公秘本”,ever "inherited a secret classic copy from ancestor teacher Zhang Gong at the place of his teacher Guo Yuzhai.",herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave supplements and notes to the ancient classics since year TianBao nine years(天宝九年,or year 750A) till Bao Ying 1st year(宝应元年,or year 762AD),totally 12 years,finally edited and compiled out the classics 《素问》(Su Wen) in 24 volumes,and total 81 articles,for the original classic copy 王冰(Wáng Bīng) got lost the 7th volume,he added with the volume which collected in some old copy(which means those seven great treatises edited in the published copy volume 19th to volume 22th),combined and reedited into 24 volumes,which made devotions for the reservation and spread of ancient medicine literatures.The legend noted herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng)ever wrote other classics,like 《玄珠》(Xuan Zhu),which lost in Song Dynasty,and other classics titled 《昭明隐旨》(Zhao Ming Yin Zhi) in 3 volumes,《天元玉册》(Tian Yuan Yu Ce) in 30 volumes,《元和纪用经》(Yuan He Ji Yong Jing) in 1 volume,and these books possibly wrote by some later generations authors with 王冰(Wáng Bīng)'s title as Pseudo author.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) got the secret copy 《素问》(Su Wen) from ancestor teacher Zhang Gong,and compare proofread with the copy 《内经训解》(Nei Jing Xun Jie) which written by previous herbalist 全元起(Quan Yuanqi,birth date unknown,live during the Qi and Liang of South Dynasty epoch),with careful study and combine reference to hiw own academic thoughts and experience,Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng)applied methods like title combination,contents differentiation,shift chapter,supplements etc,re-edit and re-compile the classics 《素问》(Su Wen),and with specific methods like fill,error correction,delete extra sentence,embroidery,systemly and completely emendate,interpretation,notes and elaborate the classic copy,and complete at year 762AD and the final copy titled as 《次注素问》(Ci Zhu Su Wen),also named 《重广补注黄帝内经素问》(Chong Guang Bu Zhu Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen),totally 24 volumes and 81 articles(9*9 big theory).Due to his seriousness and strict academic attitude,hardworking detecting research and style,the ancient classics 《黄帝内经素问》(Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen)possibly survived and completely reserved.The printing technique applied characters cut in intaglio and characters cut in relief to differ in the block printing,the compilation and supplement of 《黄帝内经素问》(Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen) of herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng),had a crucial contribution in the history of Chinese medicine.The classic copy 《素问》(Su Wen) edited by him was refered by later herbalists as the blue print.Some opinion and creative ideas of medicine from herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng),still has very important value for reference and study.Other classics ever written by 王冰(Wáng Bīng) all lost in ancient times,could never seen again,the only survived copy is the 《次注素问》(Ci Zhu Su Wen),his academic opinion also mainly represented in the supplement notes of 《素问》(Su Wen).Later herbalist and officials of Song dynasty 高保衡(Gao Baoheng) and 林亿(Lin Yi) commented that 王冰(Wang Bing)“得先师所藏之卷大为次注，犹是三皇遗文，灿然可观”。
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) had depth study with the Qi directing practice,the detailed theory were recorded in those supplements and notes in the Seven Articles of Great Treatise,and were traced and respected as the essence and basis of Qi-directing theory of later generations.Combined with his own rich knowledge of medicine,王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave the classics 《素问》(Su Wen) easier and smooth for understanding,those articles he added in,which titled《天元纪大论》(Tian Yuan Ji Da Lun)、《五运行大论》(Wu Yun Xin Da Lun)、《五常政大论》(Wu Chang Zheng Da Lun)、《六微旨大论》(Liu Wei Zhi Da Lun)、《六元正纪大论》(Liu Yuan Zheng Ji Da Lun)、《气交变大论》(Qi Jiao Bian Da Lun)、《至真要大论》(Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun),these articles represents the main essence of the Qi-direction theory.These articles under title great treatise gave detailed and deep interpretations of the related questions,like deep interpretation for the question of mutual rooting of yin-yang(阴阳互根问题).According and reference to the theory recorded in the classics《素问·四气调神大论》(Su Wen·Si Qi Tiao Shen Da Lun)“春夏养阳．秋冬养阴，以从其根”,Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave very incisive exposition about the question mutual rooting of Yin-Yang.He proposed that:“阳气根于阴，阴气根于阳；无阴则阳无以生，无阳则阴无以化；全阴则阳气不极，全阳则阴气不穷。滋苗者必固其根．伐下者必枯其上。”,his interpretation sounds very simple clear and to the point,got real essence from 《内经》(Nei Jing),and has guiding significance for clinical practice.
When discussing and propose the distribution and metabolism of water and body fluid,he mentioned the important effects and functions of the organ Lung and Spleen,and especially emphasize the functions of Lung,Spleen and Kidney on the water distribution and metabolism.His theory “冲为血海，任主胞胎，二者相资，故能有子” was followed by later generation herbalists.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave interpretations of pathogenic theory,and he summarized etiology and pathogenesis of various disease as four kinds,as “一者始因气动而内有所成；二者不因气动而外有所成；三者始因气动而病生于内；四者不因气动而病生于外”。The concept "气动”(Qi movement) mentioned by herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng),means the turmoil or turn chaotic conditions of visceral-qi,and classified the pathogenesis into 2 categories,one from Qi-movement,one not from Qi-movement,and further differentiate exogenous pathogenic factor or internal disorder.This kind of classification method combine pathogenesis with etiology,different from the three-factory theory,and praised by later herbalists 张元素(Zhang Yuansu) and 张从正(Zhang Congzheng).Further more,for the pathogenesis of exogenous febrile disease fever,asthenic disease,王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold very specific opinion too.For the propose in the classics《至真要大论》(Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun)“谨守病机，各司其属，有者求之，无者求之，盛者责之，虚者责之，必先五胜，疏其血气，令其调达，而致和平” texts,he gave very high praise and also wrote notes more than 300 words,repeatedly emphasis to detect the pathogenesis through phenomena and various symptoms,gave further interpretation of the pathogenesis analysis method.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave very specific discuss of therapeutic method and rules,and clearly proposed treatment should based on real pathogenesis,and based on Yin-Yang,clearly identify and differentiate deficiency and excess of Yin-Yang,Water-Fire,and proposed to treat deficiency of kidney-YANG should refer to “益火之源，以消阴翳”，treat deficiency of kidney-YIN should refer to “壮水之主，以制阳光”.These incisive exposition got high attention by all later generation herbalists,and founded basis for the formation of later life-gate theory.About the question of routine treatment and counteracting treatment,he also gave detailed analysis,and pointed out “逆者正治也，从者反治也。逆病气而正治，则以寒攻热，以热攻寒。虽从顺病气，乃反治法也。”,which means the straight treatment of serious cases,actually are counteracting treatment.And he used fire as metaphor to analysis the treatment method:“夫病之微小者，犹人火也．遇草而焫，得木而燔，可以湿伏．可以水灭，故逆其性气以折之攻之。病之大甚者，犹龙火也，得湿而焰。遇水而燔，不知其性以水湿折之，适足以光焰诣天，物穷方止矣；识其性者，反常之理，以火逐之，则燔灼自消．焰光扑灭。”,these discussion actually means for the treatment of serious disease,better treat straight with its nature,and his discussion actually the origin of later treatment method under title “引火归原”(guide fire return to its origin),which has guiding essence for clinical practice.On other aspects,for the treatment of five types depression,王冰(Wáng Bīng) gave differentiation of the five types depression,and applied different methods 吐vomit、汗sweat、下、渗泄eliminating wetness etc,which make the treatment method from 《素问》(Su Wen) more clear and exact,later generation herbalists seek reference from the method of 王冰(Wáng Bīng) for depression treatment and supplemented with their own inventions,and gradually treatment of depression formed a theory doctrine in the TCM theory system with clinical value.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold his specific opinion on some questions of the TCM theory.For example,when he gave explain and interpretion of the propose “微者逆之，甚者从之” recorded in 《素问》(Su Wen)，raise 2 concept about fire,人火(Ren Huo,or Man-Fire) and龙火(Long Huo,or Dragon-Fire),these are actually metaphoric descriptions,as he explained:“夫病之微小者，犹人火也，遇草而芮，得木而燔，可以湿伏，可以水灭，故逆其性气以折之攻之。病之大者，犹龙火也，得湿而焰，遇水而燔，不识其性，以水湿折之，适足以光焰诣天，物穷方止矣。识其性者，反常之理，以火逐之，则燔灼自削，焰光扑灭。”王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold a viewpoint that Ren-Huo and Long-Huo are two different fire with complete different essence.the first is common heat,its nature belong to Yang-heat and may hurt Yin-fluid,can use herbs with cooling characters for treatment,for example the liver-fire and red eyes,stomach-fire and toothache etc,herbs with character clearing discharging stomach fire and liver fire could be selected,like radix geutianae,rhizoma coptidis,shi gao,da huang,etc.But for the dragon-fire,its nature similar as the Dragon in ancient legend,Dragon live in water,water accumulated and Dragon fly out,thus the character of this type fire is that herbs with cooling property not only could not help treatment,on the contrary may also aid fire generate more heat,thus 王冰(Wáng Bīng) hold a treatment viewpoint to exorcise fire with fire.
Herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) was really a generation master of 《内经》(Nei Jing),there were many later works forge author under his name,like those books titled 《素问六气玄珠密语》(《素問六氣玄珠密語》Su Wen Liu Qi Xuan Zhu Mi Yu)in 10 volumes,《照明隐旨》(《照明隱旨》Zhao Ming Yin Zhi)in 3 volumes,《天元玉册》(Tian Yuan Yu Ce) in 30 volumes,《元和纪用经》(Yuan He Ji Yong Jing) in 1 volume.
昝殷,Zan Yin(c797-860): specialist in women's diseases and the author of the Jing Xiao Chan Bao,or Tested Treasures of Obstetrics,written 852-856,and one of the earliest extant book on obstetrics.
1, see Dao Zang,vol 26,page 2.
2, see Dao Jiao Shi,page 107.
3,4,5, see Dao Zang,vol 26,page 2,6,26.
6, see Chuan Shi Cang Shu,vol 3,page 3877,Published by Hai Nan Guo Ji Xin Wen Chu Ban Zhong Xin,1996.
7, see Dao Zang,vol 26,page 530.
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