TCM Classics:The Han Dynasty:Western Han Dynasty(Feb 28th,202 B.C.~Jan 10th,9 AD),Xin Dynasty (9–23 AD),Eastern Han Dynasty(25.~220 AD).Back.
The Han Dynasty:Western Han Dynasty(Feb 28th,202 B.C.~Jan 10th,9 AD),Xin Dynasty (9–23 AD),Eastern Han Dynasty(25.~220 AD).
Zhou Yi Can Tong Qi,Shang Han Za Bing Lun,Jin Kui Yao Lue Fang Lun,Zhong Zang Jing,Shang Han Lun,etc.Physicians and herbalists of Han period believed that the human body subjected to the same forces of nature that governed the greater universe,namely the cosmological cycles of yin and yang and the five phases.Each organ of the body was associated with a particular phase. Illness was viewed as a sign that qi or "vital energy" channels leading to a certain organ had been disrupted.
项羽(Xiang Yu,232~202 BC),name 籍(Ji),alias 羽(Yu),native to 下相(XiaXiang of Qin,today's Suqian of Jiang Su province),grandson of the famous general XiangYan of Chu Kingdom during the Warring States,famous ancient general,a generation hero,very strong to lift a heavy tripod,year 209 B.C,or the 1st year of Qin Ershi,Chen She and Wu Guguang uprising and revolted in Daze village,Xiang Yu,at very young about 24 age,followed his uncle Xiang Liang correspondingly revolted at WuZhong area.Year 207 B.C.,in the battle of Julu,the army led by XiangYu and his generals utterly defeated the Qin troops,and proclaim titled "The King of Chu" after the Qin dynasty terminated,rule the nine shires of liang chu at downstream section of the Yangtse River and the Yellow River,failed in series wars happened later with Liu Bang group,for his own arrogance and not listen to reasonable advice from his loyal counsellor 范增(Fan Zen) and others,at year 202 B.C.,the fierce and ambitious general XiangYu failed in wars,and refuse surrender instead committed suicide by cutting his own throat in the Wujiang River Edge,although failed,yet his story and creditworthy became an everlasting heroic legend.
Liu Bang,native to Pei Jun Feng Yi Zhong Yang(沛郡丰邑中阳里,today's Feng County of Xu Zhou city.),ever elected as a village chang at Qin period,a head of local loafer gangs,with some courage and insight,at time lunar calendar September of year 209 B.C.,forced to lead his followers revolt at Pei county(沛县),at the end of Qin after revolt of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang,with aid of many brave and loyal generals and wiseman counsellors,rely on both wars and conspiracies,Liu Bang group got defeated many times,discomfited in every battle,yet keep on fighting,lucky got final success in the series of wars and political negotiations.Year Feb 28th,202 B.C.Liu Bang claimed to be a King at Ding Tao city,north bank of the Sishui River,founded Capital at Chang An at july,founded Han Dynasty!Liu Bang taken the theory of Huang Lao and Taoism tradition,issued policy to let folks revitalize for recovery from the effects of war,reduced corvee and taxes,cleared laws and publishment,which brought long years of peace and accumulated the wills of the folks.Liu Bang is one of the most far-sight King,series policies issued by him and followers prompted society development,established the Generous and Grand culture basis of Han,which brought long years of Han culture prosperous and core idea formation of natioal identity belief.
Followed QinShiHuang,Emperor Wu of Han using confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu,promotion confucianism as the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state,declared themselves as Son of Heaven,represent both Secular Authority and Religious Authority,continued the evil tradition started by QinShiHuang,the ugly confucianism come into power of the Secular Authority culture system.
Dong Zhongshu(179-104 B.C.) are famous for his study of Gong Yang Chun Qiu,his works available including Ju Xian Liang Dui Ce(3 articles),Chun Qiu Fan Lu(17 volumes,total 82 articles),used Yin-Yang and Five-Elements Theory to re-interpret traditional confucianism,Dong Zhongshu proposed that major secular things(human birth,position of the emperor,morals,laws,disasters and dooms) are all subjected to Tian(heaven),the big master,and concluded that the authority of secular emperor are origined from Tian(the big master),so "JunZhu Shou Ming Yu Tian"(which means "kings and emperors are listening to injunctions of Tian"),so "Ci Tian Zhi Suo Yi Xing Zhou Guo Ye,Fei Zhou Guo Zhi Suo Neng Wei Ye"(which means "this is the reason Tian make Zhou kingdom rised,but not Zhou kingdom itself can do.")1,Dong's theory got passed and developed on by later scholars of Han Dynasty,including Xiahou ShiChang,Mu Hong,Xiahou Sheng,Li Xun,etc.combined with ChenWei theory,confucianism got the power to mime some thing religion since Han Dynasty,numerous description with ChenWei and "Tian Ren Gan Ying" could be found from books written in Han Dynasty.
Confucianism and its Poison:confucianism,which started with Confucius(孔子,孔玌,孔老二),greatly destroyed,ruined and poisoned Chinese's conscience,intuitive knowledge,intellectuality,and judgement ability,these has many aspects:
Confucianism destroyed chinese's conscience,according to some famous comtemporary thinker Li Ming(黎鸣,alias Philosophy Crow,1944~?)(4),Confucius is actually the Satan of the far east,the biggest Demon in the Chinese Civilization.Confucius and his disciples lured and pretended to suggest that "confucianism is chinese's cultural tradition",it taught that a successful chinese should study good then join the government to be an offical and respect their emperor,these people in government must destroy their own conscience and lying day after day,only respect "孝悌忠恕,亲亲尊尊(Xiao Ti Zhong Shu,Qin Qin Zun Zun)",which means only "show filial obedience,loyal to the old,only good to relatives and own filial relations,"(thus not care about others and publicity),the confucian intellectuals(儒家知识分子) actually became "worthless wretch(窝囊废蠢材)","mental eunuch(精神太监阉人)" in the human civilization history,their mouth could not tell truth findings,their hand could not performe invention with real knowledge,their heart and mind has no ability to create something;but on the contrary,their mouth are good at flattery,their hands good at lick sb.'s shoes,and their hearts are good at schemes and intrigues,but could not possibly think out any creative theory with logic system and honesty.The so called big confucian scholar in the history and dynasties,are actually "big worthless wretch",and Confucius's confucianism,actually are "theory of worthless wretch(废物之学)”,in the over 2000 year history of confucianism,the confucian chinese education turned generations of young chinese people into the orderly ranks of "worthless wretch" in the human civilization.This is a serious historical crime to all chinese folk.
As the confucianism tradition's core "heart of gratefulness",all focused on so called "亲,尊,长(Qin,Zun,Zhang,or the Relatives,the Respected,the Older)",this three aspect,thus the conscience who believe in confucianism,is only the thankful heart or grateful heart of the so called "the Relatives,the Respected,the Older",thus chinese's "conscience" especially emphasis "孝悌(filial piety and fraternal duty)" to the relatives,and emphasis on the so called 忠恕(Loyalty and forgiveness) to the respect.As for the confucian sense of worth “Qin Qin Zun Zun Zhang Zhang亲亲尊尊长长(which means kind to the relatives,respect the repected,loyal to the old)”,most traditional chinese's "heart of gratefulness" all focused and concentrated on those sensible,tangible aspect of person,which means only related with person's "Practical Interest",but never ever considered and think of the gratefulness in the transcendental realm(like the truth,findings,sincerity,idea,values,creation,etc).Compare to those christians who show gratefulness heart and worship for god,doubtlessly chinese's gratefulness of heart displays its narrow-minded,extreme poverty,extreme utility,extreme vulgar,extrame selfish,professor Li Ming suggested this problem actually origined from the extreme ugly vulgar worth sense of confucianism.
The confucianism actually prompt china whatever epoch turn into a virtueless wicked,fainthearted and low-spirited,mendacious,discredit society.
The famous saying of the confucianism tradition about "食色性也"(which mean "eat and sex are the nature of human") instigated and degraded the confucian generations believers completely to secular and temporal level,and bring "food(and eat)" and "sex(intercourse)" became two main supporting point of them,thus make the "food" and "sex" got some holy meanings,or a kind of pseudo religion.
Zhou Yi Can Tong Qi
《周易参同契》,or Analogism of Principles of Changes Formulated in the Zhou Dynasty,written by Wei Boyang of the Han Dynasty,in which along with teachings about making elixers(pills) of immortality externally through alchemy,the art of internal exercise for immortality is dealt with,and the part of the human body where qi was believed to be stored was thus called dantian(elixir field),analogous to the furnace in alchemy.
Actually,Zhou Yi Can Tong Qi,or Can Tong Qi is an early classics of the Taoism,appear at middle to late of Eastern Han Dynasty,and a summary of nature-cultivation and alchemy from past.About its author Wei BoYang,one viewpoint noted his name Wei Ao,Bo Yang is his alias,native ShangYu town of Kuai Ji Jun(Kuai Ji Jun was name from ancient official administrative area of Han Dynasty,which means today's Shang Yu City,ZheJiang Province.),there is no records of his life and works in official history.
According to Shen Xian Zhuan(Legends of Immortals,by Ge Hong),Ge Hong noted:"Wei Boyang Zhe,Wu Ren ye.Gao Men Zhi Zi,er Xing Hao Dao Shu,Bu Ken Shi Huan,Xian Ju Yang Xing,Shi Ren Mo Zhi Qi Suo Cong Lai....Bo Yang Zuo Can Tong Qi,Wu Xiang Lei Fan Er Juan,Qi Shuo Ru Si Jie Shi Zhou Yi,Qi Shi Jia Jie Bo Xiang,Yi Lun Zuo Dan Zhi Yi.Er Ru Zhe Bu Zhi Shen Xian Zhi Shi,Duo Zuo Yin Yang Zhu Zhi,Shu Shi Qi Ao Zhi Ye.(in Chinese"魏伯阳者,吴人也。高门之子,而性好道术,不肯仕宦,闲居养性,时人莫知其所从来...伯阳作《参同契》,《五相类》凡二卷,其说如似解释《周易》,其实假借爻象,以论作丹之意。而儒者不知神仙之事,多作阴阳注之,殊失其奥旨也。"which means:Wei Boyang native to Wu,is Son of GaoMen,fond of witchery and alchemy,would not be an official,stay at home idle and practice nature-cultivation,folks do not know where he come from...Boyang written Can Tong Qi,Wu Xiang Lei,all 2 volumes,his theory sounds like interpretation of Zhou Yi,actually discuss matter of alchemy while practise divination.But confucian scholar does not know legend of immortals,so their notes often give interpretation based on Yin-Yang theory,that definitely lost its exact meanings)"(3)
The content of Can Tong Qi,its theory proposed about matter of alchemy and immortals,emphasis that alchemy share same reason as land-sky nature,Yi Dao and Dan Dao(theory of alchemy) has shareness,thus the theory of Yi which explain sky-land nature changes could also help explain alchemy and nature-cultivation.His theory considered that everything changes and come into being,are results of essence development.Thus to be longivity,must listen to changes of Yin-Yang,practice accroding to the running principles of the Qian Kun 64 Gua(or sky-nature 64 Diagrams),thus so called alchemy.This book actually became the classics and reference of ancient alchemy.
Can Tong Qi,according to 朱熹(Zhu Xi),is actually the king book of Nei Dan,which hide superb or great vehicle magic code of Dan method inside it,and edited a book named Zhou Yi Can Tong Qi Kao Yi(《周易参同契考异》) himself solely,and give cautions to scholar at that time that they should not show disdian or denigrate it.
《广汤液论》Guang Tang Ye Lun
《广汤液论》(Guang Tang Ye Lun),or 《汤液广论》(Tang Ye Lun Guang),or 《论广汤液》(Lung Guang Tang Ye),Tang Ye Jing Supplement.written by herbalist 张机(Zhāng jī).
When the years herbalist 皇甫谧(Huangfu Mi) came to the world,herbalist 张机(Zhāng jī) was still alive,皇甫谧(Huangfu Mi) may be one of the herbalist who knows 张机(Zhāng jī) more clear and years very close,and herbalist 皇甫谧(Huangfu Mi) ever written in his classics 《甲乙经序》(Jia Yi Jing-Xu) that "伊尹以元圣之才，撰用《神农本草》以为《汤液》，汉张仲景论广汤液为十数卷，用之多验。",which means "Yi Yin,with his wisdom as Premordial Sage,compiled Shen Nong Ben Cao and wrote Tang Ye,Zhang Zhongjing of Han Dynasty supplemented Tang Ye into dozens of volumes,apply to treatment and very effective.".
Literature evidence from modern TCM scholars seems proved that the original classic copy written by herbalist 张机(Zhāng jī) is not titled as《伤寒杂病论》(Shang Han Za Bing Lun) or 《伤寒卒病论》(Shang Han Zu Bing Lun),instead the most possible name which titled by herbalist 张机(Zhāng jī) himself may be《论广汤液》(Lung Guang Tang Ye,or Tang Ye Jing Supplement).This is a breakthrough literature and textual authentication discovery which devoted by modern Chinese TCM scholars with many years study,they are all serious genuinely learned scholars,and known to today's folks as 杨绍伊(Yáng Shàoyī),钱超尘(Qián Chāochén),李茂如(Lǐ Màorú),胡希恕(Hú Xīshù) and 冯世纶(Féng Shìguān).This big discovery has and will display its far-reaching effects and very big importance for the classical prescription reinterpretation,to better understand the early development of TCM schools,and to reevaluate the importance and affects of ancient herablists.
According to these series of textual authentication discovery(6),the book titled 《伤寒杂病论》(Shang Han Za Bing Lun) or 《伤寒卒病论》(Shang Han Zu Bing Lun),actually is edited by herbalist 王熙(Wang Xi),judged with the book name titled by 王熙(Wang Xi),modern TCM scholars concluded that 王熙(Wang Xi) did not saw the original legacy copy of the Tang Ye Jing supplemented by 张机(Zhāng jī),he used classics 《胎胪药录》(Tai Lu Yao Lu)《平脉辩证》(Ping Mai Bian Zheng),and tried interpret the original book of 张机(Zhāng jī) with 《内经》(Nei Jing),affected with the conception about "伤寒有五"(There are five implications of Shang Han) from ancient classics 《难经》(Nan Jing),when herbalist 王熙(Wang Shuhe) marking the title name of the original book of 张机(Zhāng jī),hard to avoid case that 王熙(Wang Shuhe) confused the term of 伤寒(Shang Han) from the original copy supplemented by 张机(Zhāng jī) with those terms of 伤寒(ShangHan) from 《内经》(Nei Jing) and 《难经》(Nan Jing),and tried interpret the original class of 张机(Zhāng jī) with 《内经》(Nei Jing),and 王熙(Wang Shuhe) may considered the ancient classic 《内经》(Nei Jing) was the classic ancestor of the original classic copy written by 张机(Zhāng jī),and finally herbalist 王熙(Wang Shuhe) compiled those contents related with "三阴三阳"(Three Yin Three Yang) and "诸可与不可"(All those applicables and not applicables) from the original classic of 张机(Zhāng jī) togethor,titled as 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun),also he compiled those contents which he identified related with miscellaneous diseases togethor,titled as 《金匮要略》(Jin Kui Yao Lue),after triple times editing,finally combined these two titles and name them togethor as 《伤寒杂病论》(Shang Han Za Bing Lun).And those description about the literature origin presented in the preface of 《伤寒论》(Shang Han Lun) like "撰用《素问、九卷》、《八十一难》、《阴阳大论》、《胎胪药录》并《平脉辩证》为《伤寒杂病论》。",this sentence actually added by herbalist 王熙(Wang Shuhe) himself,not by by 张机(Zhāng jī).
Shang Han Za Bing Lun
《伤寒杂病论》,or Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases,written by Zhang Zhongjing at the beginning of the 3rd century,edited and named by herbalist Wang Shuhe in which diagnosis and treatment of fevers and other miscellaneous diseases are dealt with.The book was rearranged by Wang Shuhe in the Jin Dynasty,and later in the Song Dynasty it was divided by Jiao Zheng Yi Shu Ju,or Bureau for Rectifying and Publishing Medical Books into two parts:Shang Han Lun,or Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases and Jin Kui Yao Lue Fang Lun,or Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber.
Jin Kui Yao Lue Fang Lun
《金匮要略方论》,or Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber,or simply Jin Kui Yao Lue,or Synopsis of the Golden Chamber,by Zhang Zhongjing at the beginning of the 3rd century.It was named and rearranged by Wang Shuhe in three volumes,dealing mainly with miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine,and some surgical and women's diseases in 25 chapters,including 262 prescriptions.
Zhong Zang Jing
Zhong Zang Jing(《中藏经》),or Hua Shi Zhong Zang Jing(《华氏中藏经》),or Treasured Classic,a comprehensive book on medicine,ascribed to Hua Tuo(华佗) but most probably written by an unknown author during the Six Dynasties.Mordern scholars has some consensus the book may origined from disciples of Hua Tuo,such like Wu Pu(吴普) and Fan A(樊阿),who written it into text according to Tuo's lectures,and spread by copy from followers.The book includes 49 articles on diagnosis and treatment,pulse,internal organs,deficiency and excess syndromes,cold and heat syndromes,etc,as well as a list of prescriptions.Zhong Zang Jing use zang-fu theory or theory of viscera as core,systemly summarized and explained previous theories about life and disease from articles of Nei Jing and Nan Jing,togethor with explains and supplements from author added,form the primary shape of dialectical zang-fu(viscera) theory of TCM,brings very deep and far influence to the development of zang-fu theory later years.Its theory got absorped by later herbalist,like zang-fu theory in Qian Jing Yao Fang by herbalist Sun SiMiao,and zang-fu theory for paediatrics from herbalist Qian Yi,with his classics Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue,and zang-fu theory of herbalist Zhang Yuansu(张元素) in his classics Yi Xu Qi Yuan almost all quoted the zang-fu theory from Hua Tuo.
Shang Han Lun
《伤寒论》,or Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases(200-205),a new edition of Zhang Zhongjing's Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases,rearranged by Wang Shuhe in 10 volumes,in which acute febrile diseases induced by cold are analysed and differentiated in accordance with the theory of the six meridians.This book has been one of the most influential works in the history of Chinese medicine.
Some modern scholar(2) commented that although the listed herbs numbers in Shan Han Lun and Jin Kui Yao Lue are not very big,but these herbs listed are already screened and selected,they are the essence part,thus its author Zhang Zhongjing are respected as "Zhu Fang Zhi Zu"(ancestor of recipes).
Zhen Zhong Hong Bao Yuan Mi Shu
《枕中鸿宝苑秘书》,Zhen Zhong Hong Bao Yuan Mi Shu,according to Han Shu.Chu Yuan Wang Zhuan(《汉书·楚元王传(附刘向)》):“上(宣帝)复兴神仙方术之事，而淮南有枕中《鸿宝》、《苑秘书》，书言神仙使鬼物为金之术，及邹衍重道延命方，世人莫见。”.which means "Emperor Xuan Di(reign title of 刘询,Liu Xun) revive matter of immortal and necromancy arts,and Huai Nan Wang(5) kept private book under his pillow,one named Hong Bao,another named Yuan Mi Shu,its content is about immortal craft which use ghost and things to turn gold,and about breed and life extending method,folks never saw it."
1: see Chun Qiu Fan Lu by Dong Zhongshu,page 503,271-272,249-250,318.Published by Zhonghua Book Company,1975.and Dao Jao Shi,page 8~17,Published by Jiang Su Ren Min Chu Ban She.2009.ISBN 978-7-80648-482-1.Further Note:Dong Zhongshu combined his "Tian Ren Gan Ying" theory(which means human are listening injunctions of the big master or Tian) and witchery,so common folks at that time really does not know wether he was a confucian scholar or a wizard and alchemist,which means in Han Dynasty,the confucianism started to combine with witchcraft,near to end of Western Han Dynasty,ChenWei theory became very popular(谶纬ChenWei,means divination combined with mystical confucianist belief) and also encouraged by Guang Wu Emperor of Eastern Han(Liu Xiu),who got the power and supported benefited from this ChenWei theory at end of the Western Han Dynasty.
2: see Zhong Yao Jian Shi by Zhu Cheng,He Ruisheng,page 3,Guangxi Normal University Press.2007.ISBN 978-7-5633-6514-2.
3: see Dao Zang,volume 22,page 741-742.and Dao Jao Shi,page 35.
4: Li Ming,黎鸣,alias Philosophy Crow,1944~?,famous comtemporary thinker,philosopher,translator of many books,such like:General System Theory,by Von Bertalanffy;Ideology and Utopia,by Karl Mannheim;Social control,by Herbert A. Simon;etc.
5: Huai Nan Wang(淮南王):刘安Liu An,179-122.B.C,belong to imperial family of West Han,grandson of 刘邦(Liu Bang),son of 刘长(Liu Zhang).
6: see classics academic research and books by modern TCM scholars 杨绍伊(Yáng Shàoyī),钱超尘(Qián Chāochén),李茂如(Lǐ Màorú),胡希恕(Hú Xīshù) and 冯世纶(Féng Shìguān).Such like 《考次汤液经序》(Kao Ci Tang Ye Jing Xu),《仲景论广伊尹汤液考》(Zhong Jing Lun Guang Yi Yin Tang Te Kao),《胡希恕讲伤寒杂病论》(Hú Xīshù Jiang Shang Han Za Bing Lun),《杨绍伊研究经方成绩斐然》(Yáng Shàoyī Yan Jiu Jing Fang Cheng Ji Fei Ran),《试论经方的起源及其理论体系的形成》(Shi Lun Jing Fang de Qi Yuan Ji Qi Li Lun Ti Xi de Xing Cheng),《解读伊尹汤液经》(Jie Du Yi Yin Tang Ye Jing),《中国汤液经方伤寒论传真》(Zhong Guo Tang Ye Jing Fang Shang Han Lun Chuan Zhen),《中国汤液经方金匮要略传真》(Zhong Guo Tang Ye Jing Fang Jin Kui Yao Lue Chuan Zhen),etc.
♥The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,gives content composed of articles and literature about TimeLine of TCM Classics,The TCM timeline is a list of events in chronological order.It is a brief history of TCM Classics,its date,brief introduction,and their relations with ancient Herbalists,Taoists and Alchemists.
♣ last edit date: