TCM Classics:Min Guo/Republic of China(1911-1949 AD-?).Back.
Min Guo/Republic of China(1911-1949 AD-?).
Famous herbal classics of this period:Yi Xue Zhong Zhong Can Xi Lu,Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Ci Dian,Zhong Guo Yao Xue Da Ci Dian,Zhen Ben Yi Shu Ji Cheng,etc.
The Republic of China was formally established on 1 January 1912 on mainland China following the Xinhai Revolution which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911, and replaced the tsing and ended over two thousand years of imperial rule in China,In the 1890’s Sun Yat-sen formed a secret,anti-tsing society and by 1895 there was a bounty placed for his head by the corrupted tsing-rulers which forcing him to have to leave the land.His dream was to see the establishment Republic of China and to make this happen he formed the Revolutionary League in the year 1905.
In 1903~1905 Sun Yat-sen announced that his organizations goal was "驱除鞑虏，恢复中华，创立民国，平均地权！To expel the Tatar barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people."Sun Yat-sen declared,“To restore our national independence, we must first restore the Chinese nation.To restore the Chinese nation,we must drive the barbarian manchus back to the Changbai Mountains.To get rid of the barbarians,we must first overthrow the present tyrannical, dictatorial, ugly, and corrupt tsing government.Fellow countrymen,a revolution is the only means to overthrow the tsing government!"It pushed forward new advancement in culture and in TCM.
As a great leader and forerunner of China Revelotion,a very handsome Gentleman,a BRAVE Man with conscience,also a Taoist,Prof.Sun Yat Sen inherited the essence of Taoism tradition,introduced "Mr.Democracy" and "Mr.Science" to China,according to Prof.Hu Fuchen(1),the Three People's Principles(Nationalism,Democracy,the People's Livelihood,三民主义) and Constitution of Five Powers(五权宪法),correct the corruptive practice of western politics,and comform to China's real condition.The Outline(《建国大纲》) issued at April 12th,1924,also negated the patriarchical bureaucracy tradition,give a blue print of transformation from the subject society to Civil society and Constitutional Government,the first time marking "中华共和国。自由，平等，博爱(China Republic.Freedom,Equality,Universal Fraternity)" on the city gate of China.
The Revolution of 1911(the XinHai Revolution) aimed at overthrowing the tsing government,is a great National Independence Movement of the Han Chinese and other minority nationality folks gainst the tsing-government founded by the different race "tungusic barbarians(通古斯野蛮人)",ended the 267 years cruel degenerate and barbaric inhuman rule of the tungusic barbarian tribes since the invasion happened at year 1644 around.
As one of the important leaders of the Chinese Revolutionary League(同盟会Tung Meng Hui) and the 1911 Revolution,big scholar 章炳麟(Zhang Binglin,Jan 12th,1869~June 14th,1936),also a wellknown herbalist,the chief compiler of the League's newspaper Minbao,reminded at that epoch the racial difference between the tsing tungusic barbarians and the Han Chinese and other minority Chinese of HuaXia area,as he reminded that "夫满洲种族，是曰东胡，西方谓之通古斯种，固与匈奴殊类。虽以匈奴言之，彼既大去华夏，永滞不毛，言语政教，饮食居处，一切自异于域内，犹得谓之同种也耶？",which means "the manchuria tribe,is called east north barbarian tribes in ancient China,the west people called them tungusic barbarians,a different tribe not same as the Xiongnu(huns) tribe,very far away from and lower than HuaXia area,always stay at the barren land,their language,religion and politics,eat and habitat,all different from HuaXia area,how could they be called the same race?",Dr.Zhang Binglin clearly pointed out the tsing tungusic tribe is not the same as the race of HuaXia which composed of Han Chinese and other minority living at HuaXia area,the tsing-govment and tungusic barbarian tribes should be Hated as Enemy,and clearly declared that the Anti-tungusic purpose is to establish a Democratic Nation in which the Han nationality as main part and each nationalities are equal,the republic states naturally is not an optimal state,but compare to other states,such like the monarchy,the democratic repblic is better,so he proposed that “若夫民族必有国家，国家必有政府，而共和政体于祸害为差轻， 固不得已而为之矣。”,which means "nationalities must have a state,a state must has a govenment,and the republic states do the least harm compare with other forms of states,so it is an unavoidable choice."
The Revolution of 1911(the XinHai Revolution) pushed forward social progress,like:
1st.With the constitutionalists cooperation and support,political power transfered peacefully in most provinces,without firing a shot to achieve the alternation from the old to the new political system. Central government and provinces have established "tripartite" political system. The democracy and constitutional government already in experiment.Only in the one year of 1912,or the 1st year of the Min Guo(Republic of China),the newly occured political parties,the registered numbers already reached to 85,and political organizations number reached to 22.All the paties co-exist legitimately,competite with eachother in peace,the tripartite political system state regime basically sustained,law and political schools spread allover the state area.The political thought freedom and competition brings freedom of News Public Opinion,non - government and privately-run newpapers flourished,only till the July of year 1913 the various kinds of privately-run newspaper numbers already reached up to 500 more,the pluralism of democracy public opinion substitute the mouthpiece of the tyranny opinion.
2nd.Military chaotic period is very short,the economy continues to grow.
3rd.the emperor abdicated,autocratic monarchy system overthrowed,the three cardinal guides collapsed,the spiritual pillar of patriarchal authoritarian regime crumbling.One marking event is that at July of year 1912,蔡元培(Cai Yuanpei,January 11,1868~March 5,1940),as the first education minister of the Min Guo gov,proposal his recommendation to Ban confuciusm,‘各级学校不应祭孔’,"all grade schools should Not worship confucius",instead aesthetic education should be practiced.In China history,it is the first time confucianism got banned publicly and declared as illegal.
In the ideological and cultural fields,China entered into the most liberal era of the 20th century,freedom of speech,till it interrupted by the KMT's cultural despotism at year1928.
The Revolution of 1911(the XinHai Revolution),which is a revolution different from the Lenin's "Revolution", is an unfinished liberal democratic revolution:
But ironically,theorists educated by modern discipline scientific system rise up to against traditional herbalism,such like their reprensentative Yu Yunyou(1879～1954) who got educated by modern science when he was young and only believe in sciencism,launched some famous act called Fei Zhi Zhong Yi An at year 1929,as an official of the MinGuo government,before that,he wrote some book named Ling Su Shang Dui at 1917,announced that "the origin of Ling Su(means Ling Shu,Su Wen of HuangDi Nei Jing),actually are witchery",he hold some famous saying that TCM is “a convenience store sells myths,ancient classical phylosophy,Chineseism,subjective materialism,and vulgar empiricism.”and he suggested again to abandon TCM system at year 1949 for the new government.
Yi Xue Zhong Zhong Can Xi Lu
Yi Xue Zhong Zhong Can Xi Lu,or Records of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Combination,by Zhang Xichun and published from 1918 to 1934.There were altogethor 30 volumes in seven issues.The revised edition consists of five parts,viz,prescriptions,medical substances,medical theories,notes and case records.The author attempted to integrate traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine.
Zhong Guo Yao Xue Da Ci Dian
Zhong Guo Yao Xue Da Ci Dian,or A Dictionary of Chinese Pharmaceuticals,published in 1935,and including all kinds of medicinal substances recorded in the medical literature of previous generations.
Zhen Ben Yi Shu Ji Cheng
Zhen Ben Yi Shu Ji Cheng,or Collection of Precious Medical Works,a collection of medical works compiled by Qiu Qingyuan,and published in 1936.Of more than 3,000 books on medicine,the author chose 90,which were classified into 12 subjects,viz,medical classics,herbals,pulses,cold-induced diseases,internal medicine,external medicine,gynecology,pediatrics,general treatment,prescriptions,medical case records and miscellaneous.
Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Cheng
Zhong Guo Yi Xue Da Cheng,or A Great Collection of Chinese Medical Works(1936),compiled by Cao Bingzhang on the basis of 128 important medical works.The collection covers 13 subjects,including medical classics,medical substances,diagnoses,prescriptions,general treatment,various clinical subjects,medical case records and miscellaneous topics,with abstracts and notes attached to each book.
Ben Cao Zheng Yi
The book 《本草正义》(Ben Cao Zheng Yi) was a textbook compiled by Zhang Shou Yi at Lanxi TCM school.The book classified herbs into grass, wood, fruit, vegetables,gold, stone, birds, beasts, insects, fish,human and other categories. For every kind herb or drug, the first part listed the quoted original text from 《本经》Ben Jing and 《别录》Bie Lu,then comes part with title "正义Zheng Yi",which identify and explain the meaning of the original text.,followed with part with title "广义Guang Yi",listed classics quote about herb property and applications from other classics after Ben Jing and Bie Lu;then comes part with title "发明Faming,or Invention",which give explain and own view on the herb from herbalist Zhang himself.The last part comes with title "正讹Zheng Zha",which gives corrections about possible not proper explains from previous classics.The contents of the book, its unique, available for reference.
1: see 《道学通论》,written by 胡孚琛(Hu Fuchen),ISBN978-7-5097-0814-9.page 139;section title "全球化浪潮下的民族文化:四".
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