TCM Classics:Ming Dynasty(1368~April 25th,1644 AD)


 Ming Dynasty(1368~April 25th,1644 AD) Ming Dynasty Icon
 Famous herbal classics of this period:Bin Hu Mai Xue,Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Zhu Zheng Fa Wei,Lei Jing,Lei Jing Tu Yi,Nei Jing Zhi Yao,Ben Cao Gang Mu,Jiu Huang Ben Cao,Pao Zhi Da Quan,Ji Yin Gang Mu,Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng,Jing Yue Quan Shu,etc.Emperor Hongwu (ruled in 1368~98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities in a rigid, immobile system that would have no need to engage with the commercial life and trade of urban centers.Li Shizhen (1518~93),one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history,belonged to the late Ming period. In 1587, he completed the first draft of his Bencao Gangmu, which detailed the usage of over 1,800 medicinal drugs. Although it purportedly was invented by a Daoist hermit from Mount Emei in the late 10th century, the process of inoculation for smallpox patients was in widespread use in China by the reign of the Longqing Emperor (ruled 1567~72), long before it was applied anywhere else.In regards to oral hygiene, the ancient Egyptians had a primitive toothbrush of a twig frayed at the end, but the Chinese were the first to invent the modern bristle toothbrush in 1498, although it used stiff pig hair.

 Yin Shan Zheng Yao Yin Shan Zheng Yao
 Yin Shan Zheng Yao,or Principles of Correct Diet(1330) written by Hu Sihui.It lists the food and drink of the royal family and the nobility,and describes with illustrations,the nature,taste and indications of about 200 different kinds of medicinal herbs which can be used as food.

 Nan Jing Ben Yi Nan Jing Ben Yi
 Nan Jing Ben Yi,or The Genuine Meaning of the difficult Classic,compiled by Hua Shou and published in 1366,a most influential book among commentatorial works on the Nan Jing,or Difficult Classic.

 Pu Ji Fang Pu Ji Fang
 Pu Ji Fang,or Prescriptions for Universal Relief,a most complete collection of prescriptions(61,739 prescriptions and 239 illustrations) in 168 volumes,written by Teng Hong,Liu Chun et al.under the patronage of Zhu Su,and issued in 1406.

 Jiu Huang Ben Cao Jiu Huang Ben Cao
 Jiu Huang Ben Cao: or Herbal for the Relief of Famines,compiled by Zhu Su(1360~1425) in 1406,listing 414 plants which might be used for food in times of famine.

 Qi Xiao Liang Fang Qi Xiao Liang Fang
 Qi Xiao Liang Fang,or Wonderful Well-tried Prescriptions (1470),a book in 69 volumes with authorship ascribed to Dong Su and Fang Xian.According to the principles of treatment,it divides recipes into 64 families,such as wind, cold, heat,etc., which are subdivided into still smaller groups with a list of more than 7,000 prescriptions,chiefly passed down from the Song and Ming Dynasties,and including methods of needling and bone-setting.

 Wan Shi Nü Ke
 Wan Shi Nü Ke,or Wan's Gynecology and Obstetrics(1549),written by Wan Quan of the Ming Dynasty,with discussions on problems of various kinds of gynecological and obstetric diseases.

 Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan
 Yi Xue Zheng Zhuan,or Orthodox Medical Record(1515),a comprehensive medical book compiled by Yu Tuan.At the beginning the book are listed 51 issues that were not fully elucidated by the author's predecessors.The text war written in the light of various medical works of the past generations as well as the author's own experience.

 Zhen Jiu Ju Ying Zhen Jiu Ju Ying
 Zhen Jiu Ju Ying,or A Collection of Gems of Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1529),written by Gao Wu,in which the author brings togethor the theories of various schools concerning acupuncture and moxibustion.

 Zhen Jiu Wen Da Zhen Jiu Wen Da
 Zhen Jiu Wen Da[Dui],or Catechism of Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1530),written by Wang Ji,in which the theories and principles of acupuncture and moxibustion are expounded.

 Ming Yi Za Zhu Ming Yi Za Zhu
 Ming Yi Za Zhu,or Collection of Physicians' Experiences in the Ming Dynasty(1549),written by Wang Lun and annoted by Xue Ji in the Ming Dynasty.

 Jie Wei Yuan Sou Jie Wei Yuan Sou
 Jie Wei Yuan Sou,or Source of Relief,a book specially devoted to leprosy,written by Shen Zhiwen in 1550,which deals with the cause of leprosy,its various manifestations,and relations to meridians,and lists 249 prescriptions.

 Ming Yi Lei An Ming Yi Lei An
 Ming Yi Lei An,or Classified Medical Records of Distinguished Physicians,compiled by Jiang Guan and his son,and completed in 1552.Later Wei Zhixiu revised the book.The book deals with acute and chronic infectious diseases,and miscellaneous diseases concerned with internal medicine,external medicine,gynecology,pediatrics,etc., with detailed medical case records and well chosen methods of treatment and prescriptions.Occasional notes and commentaries are made by the authors.

 Gu Jin Yi Tong Gu Jin Yi Tong
 Gu Jin Yi Tong,or Ancient And Modern Medicine,compiled by Xu Chunfu and completed in 1556.It sums up and classifies the contents of more than 100 medical and related works of the previous generations.

 Bin Hu Mai Xue Bin Hu Mai Xue
 Bin Hu Mai Xue,or Binhu's Sphygmology,written by Li Shizhen in 1564,in which 27 kinds of pulses and their diagnostic value are given in detail in lucid verses.This book has been very popular for centuries.

 Chuang Yang Jing Yan Quan Shu Chuang Yang Jing Yan Quan Shu
 Chuang Yang Jing Yan Quan Shu,or A Complete Manual of Experiences in the Treatment of Sores,usually attributed to Dou Hanqing but was actually written by Dou's grandson.The book appeared in 1569,and deals with all diseases requiring surgical treatment,classified according to the various parts of the body.

 Yi Xue Ru Men Yi Xue Ru Men
 Yi Xue Ru Men,or Introduction to Medicine(1575),compiled by Li Yan,a comprehensive medical book dealing with various branches of medicine.It not only presents the views of various schools,but also expounds the author's own ideas.

 Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Zhu Zheng Fa Wei Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Zhu Zheng Fa Wei
 Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Zhu Zheng Fa Wei,or An Elaboration on Plain Questions of Huangdi's Internal Classic,also called An Elaboration on Plain Questions for short,written by Ma Shi of the Ming Dynasty(1586).

 Ben Cao Gang Mu Ben Cao Gang Mu
 《本草纲目》,Ben Cao Gang Mu,or Compendium of Materia Medica,compiled by Li Shizhen,a gigantic and most comprehensive work,published in 1596,in 52 volumes which took the author 30 years to complete.It lists 1892 medicinal substances,more than 1,000 illustrations and over 10,000 prescriptions with detailed descriptions of the appearance,properties,methods of collection and preparation and use of each substance.This book is far more than a pharmaceutical compendium,it is also a comprehensive work on various branches of natural science,including botany,zoology,mineralogy and metallurgy.

 Zhen Jiu Da Cheng Zhen Jiu Da Cheng
 Zhen Jiu Da Cheng,or Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1601),written by Yang Jizhou,who clarifies confusion over points and meridians and unifies the divergent views concerning them.

 Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng
 Zheng Zhi Zhun Sheng,or Standards for Diagnosis and Treatment(1602),written by Wang Kentang.It gives a detailed and exhaustive description of symptoms and treatment methods.The whole series consists of six branches,namely miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine,cold-induced diseases,ulcers and boils,pediatrics,gynecology,and classified prescriptions.The work sums up the rich experiences of the doctors of previous generations and had its widest circulation in the 17th century.

 Xiao Er Tui Na Mi Zhi Xiao Er Tui Na Mi Zhi
 Xiao Er Tui Na Mi Zhi,or Secret Principles of Massotherapy for Children,written by Gong Yunlin of the Ming Dynasty and edited with a supplement and published by Yao Guozhen in 1604.It is one of the earliest works on this subject.

 Ji Yin Gang Mu Ji Yin Gang Mu
 Ji Yin Gang Mu,or Compendium of Therapies for Women's Diseases,a book on obstetrics and gynecology in 5 volumes,written by Wu Zhiwang(1552-1629) and published in 1620.In 1665,Wang Qi made commentaries on the book and re-edited it into 14 volumes.Troubles with menstruation,leukorrhea,pregnancy and parturition are discussed with prescriptions of practical value.

 Pao Zhi Da Quan Pao Zhi Da Quan
 Pao Zhi Da Quan(Pao Zhi Da Fa),or A Complete Handbook on the Preparation of Drugs(1622),compiled by Miao Xiyong(1546~1627) and Zhuang Ji-guang on the basis of Lei's work on the subject,with some additions made of the new methods then popular among the people.

 Jing Yue Quan Shu Jing Yue Quan Shu
 《景岳全书》,Jing Yue Quan Shu,or Jingyue's Complete Works(1624),in 64 volumes,written by Zhang Jiebin,styled Jingyue.The book includes studies of theories,pulse,cold-induced diseases,internal medicine,gynecology,pediatrics,external medicine,materia medica,modern prescriptions,ancient prescriptions,etc.The author extracted the essence of various schools and made a systemic analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of diseases based on syndrome differentiation.Advocating the theory "yang is ever in excess and yin never sufficient",he recommends using warm tonifying drugs,and wrote two whole volumes of new prescriptions.

 Lei Jing Lei Jing
 《类经》,Lei Jing:Lei Jing,or Classified Canon or Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic,compiled by Zhang Jiebin and published in 1624.It is a rearrangement of the Nei Jing or Canon of Medicine.The book consists of 12 categories,including hygiene,yin-yang,organ pictures,pulse,meridians,sapours,theories of treatment,acupuncture,etc.It has been considered by students of the Nei Jing,or Canon of Medicine,as one of the most important reference books for the study of this classic.

 Lei Jing Tu Yi Lei Jing Tu Yi
 《类经图翼》,Lei Jing Tu Yi,or Illustrated Supplementary to the Classified Canon(1624),a supplementary to the Classified Canon with illustrations,compiled by Zhang Jiebin.

 Yi Zong Bi Du Yi Zong Bi Du
 Yi Zong Bi Du,or Essential Readings in Medicine(1637),compiled by Li Zhongzi in 10 volumes,and one of the most influential introductory books of medicine,including medical history,physiology,zang-fu organs,diagnostic methods,materia medica,syndrome differentiation and treatment of various internal diseases.

 Wen Yi Lun Wen Yi Lun
 Wen Yi Lun,or Treatise on Pestilence(1642),written by Wu Youke(1582~1652),a study of etiology and pathology of epidemic febrile diseases.The author points out it is pestilential factors that get into the human body through the mouth and nose and cause epidemic febrile diseases.

 Nei Jing Zhi Yao Nei Jing Zhi Yao
 Nei Jing Zhi Yao,or Essentials of the Internal Classic or Essentials of the Canon of Medicine(1642),compiled by Li Nian'e.The book is divided into 8 parts,including yin-yang,pulse,meridians,principles of treatment,etc.Combining basic with clinical theories,the author takes extracts from and makes expositions of the Internal Classic.The book is clearly written and well organized.

 Fu Qing Zhu Nü Ke Fu Qing Zhu Nü Ke
 Fu Qing Zhu Nü Ke,or Fu Qing-zhu's Obstetrics and Gynecology,also know as Nü Ke or Obstetrics and Gynecology,a book in 2 volumes written by Fu Shan,in the 17the century and first published in 1827.The book consists of 77 articles dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of obstetrics and gynecology,with simple language and practical prescriptions.The author also wrote the Chan Hou Bian,or Postpartum Care,dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of 43 kinds of diseases within the scope of obstetrics.The combined edition of the two books is called Fu Shi Nü Ke Da Quan or Fu's Complete Works of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

 Ben Cao Jing Shu Ben Cao Jing Shu
 《本草经疏》,Ben Cao Jing Shu,or Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing Shu(1625 AD,Tian Qi 5th Year,Ming Dynasty),edited by Miao Xiyong.Miao Xiyong noted that "药性之道,具在本草,虽代有哲匠演其奥义,然去古弥远,寝失其旨(about the pharmaceutical property,it detailed as the herbs,although generations of scholars give explains about their meanings,but far from ancient classics,almost lost their original meanings).";So,Ben Cao Jing Shu reference to Ben Jing mainly,use Bie Lu and other later herbal classics as notes and 30 vols,including 30 pieces of academic articles,noted 490 kinds of herbs and drugs,classified as different categories,like 玉石(YuShi,stones),草(Cao,grass),木(Mu,wood),人(Ren,human),兽(Shou,animals),禽(Qin,birds),虫(Chong,worms),鱼(Yu,fish),果(Guo,fruits),米谷(MiGu,rice and kernels),菜(Cai,vegetables)etc.Give supplemental notes(疏Shu) and "main for or reference" to every kind of herbs.

 Yao Pin Hua Yi Yao Pin Hua Yi
 《药品化义》,Yao Pin Hua Yi:written by 贾所学(Jia Suoxue),贾九如,come into birth at year end of Ming Dynasty.Total 13 volumes,4 academic articles since content,"本草论about herbs","君臣佐使论about Jun Cheng Zuo Shi","药有真伪论about real and fake","药论about medicine".The first volume is about "药母订例cases of medicine matrix",some TCM scholars supposed the case theory of Jia Jiuru could be traced to theory from herbalist Zhang Yuansu,Li Dongyuan,but more clear and easy to grasp,and used this matrix theory to format the descriptions and narrations of the individual herbs.Jia Suoxue used the matrix theory to identify and classify herbs,set 8 items to identify a herb,they are body体,color色,smell气,taste味,shape形,property or character性,potentiality能,power力;and give 7 sub category under above 8 items.The 2nd to 13th volume classified herbs into 13 kinds according to life essence internal organs and herb property(Qi气,Blood血,Liver肝,Heart心,Spleen脾,Lung肺,Kidney肾,Sputum痰,Heat火,Dryness燥,Feng风,Damp湿,Cold寒),toital 162 kinds.The description of Hua Yi could be characterized as "all core points,simple but with details(得而要,简而详)".It became a legendary herbal book.

 滇南本草Dian Nan Ben Cao Dian Nan Ben Cao
 Dian Nan Ben Cao:Dian Nan Materia Medica,is a herbal classics give herbs from southwest plateau,including the national herbs and precious writings, total 3 volumes still available,give records of 458 kinds drugs,also the first native regional Herbal Monographs of China. Folks told the author Lan Mao is a "folk scientists", in the study of those herb from Yunnan provice,Lan Mao carefully distinguish between the nature of the drug,togethor with their smell, taste, also seriously examine the growth environment, growing conditions of the herbs, then painted graphics with supplemtal detailed descriptions.It recorded those local grass wood vegetables which could be used as herbs,as well as many cases of ethnic minority medicine combined with the Han TCM, also describes the experience of medicinal efficacy and folk recipes.

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