TCM Classics:The Song Dynasty(960~1279 AD):the Northern Song(960~1127 AD),The Southern Song(1127~1279 AD)/Jin Dynasty(Jurchen kingdom in northern China,1115~1234 AD).Back.
BeiSong(960~1127)/NanSong Dynasty(1127~1279)/Jin Dynasty(1115~1234)
Famous herbal classics of this period:Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang,Shang Han Ming Li Lun,Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang,Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang,Ji Sheng Fang,Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,Pi Wei Lun,Lan Shi Mi Cang,Sheng Ji Zong Lu,etc.The Song Dynasty was an era of administrative sophistication and complex social organization. Some of the largest cities in the world were found in China during this period (Kaifeng and Hangzhou had populations of over a million).People enjoyed various social clubs and entertainment in the cities, and there were many schools and temples to provide the people with education and religious services.The Song government supported multiple forms of social welfare programs, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and pauper's graveyards.
- TCM Classics:
- Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang
- Shang Han Ming Li Lun
- Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang
- Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang
- Ji Sheng Fang
- Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao
- San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun
- Yong Yao Fa Xiang
- Pi Wei Lun
- Wei Sheng Jia Bao Chan Ke Bei Yao
- Nü Ke Bai Wen
- Fu Ren Da Quan Liang Fang
- Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue
- You Fu Xin Shu
- Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang Lun
- Wai Ke Jing Yao
- Mi Chuan Yan Ke Long Mu Lun
- Yin Hai Jing Wei
- Yuan Ji Qi Wei
- Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing
- Zhen Jiu Zi Sheng Jing
- Xi Yuan Ji Lu
- Lan Shi Mi Cang
- Sheng Ji Zong Lu
- Tu Jing Ben Cao
- Zhu Jie Shang Han Lun
- Yi Xue Qi Yuan
- Ben Cao Yan Yi
- Kai Bao Ben Cao
Tai Ping Sheng Hui Fang
《太平圣惠方》or Taiping Sacred Remedies(992) or simply Sheng Hui Fang,or Sacred Remedies,compiled by Wang Huaiyin in ten volumes,recording 16,834 prescriptions of various medical branches with discussions of the diagnosis and pathology of various diseases.
Shang Han Ming Li Lun
《伤寒明理论》or Concise Exposition of Cold-induced Diseases(1156),written by cheng Wuji of the Jin Dynasty,a concise reference book for beginners to study the Treatise on cold-induced Diseases in which compatibility of ingredients is stressed.
Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang
《太平惠民和剂局方》,Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang,formulatories of the Bureau of People's Welfare Pharmacy,or simply He Ji Ju Fang,or formularies of the Bureau of Pharmacy,compiled by Chen Shiwen et al,edited since 1107-1110,named He Ji Ju Fang,in 10 volumes,consisting of 788 prescriptions in 14 categories which were popular and effective.Most of the medicines are in pill or powder form,ready for use and storage.Renamed Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang at around 1148.
Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang
《普济本事方》,Pu Ji Ben Shi Fang,or Effective Prescriptions for Universal Relief,also called 《本事方》Ben Shi Fang,or Effective Prescriptions for short,a book in 10 volumes,written by Xu Shuwei of the Southern Song Dynasty and published in the middle of the 12th century.It mainly deals with common diseases related to internal medicine,listing 23 kinds of treatment with more than 300 prescriptions.At the end of each prescription are attached the author's proved case records.
Ji Sheng Fang
《济生方》,Ji Sheng Fang,or Prescriptions for Succouring the Sick,also called Yan Shi Ji Sheng Fang or Yan's Prescriptions for Succouring the Sick,a book in 10 volumes,written by Yan Yonghe(1200~1268) in 1253,which consists of 79 articles dealing with diseases of internal medicine,surgery and gynecology and includes over 450 prescriptions,all proved effective by the author.
Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao
《经史证类备急本草》,Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Ji Ben Cao,or Classic Classified Materia Medica for Emergencies,or Zheng Lei Ben Cao,or Classified Materia Medica for short(1082),compiled by Tang Shen-wei at the end of the 11th century(1082).It lists 1746 kinds of medicine with directions for use and preparation,and many new prescriptions.The book laid a solid foundation for the development of Chinese materia medica.
San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun
《三因极一病证方论》,San Yin Ji Yi Bing Zheng Fang Lun,or Treatise on the Three Categories of Pathogenic Factors and Prescriptions,brief as San Yin Fang, written by Chen Yan(1121~1190) in 1174,it classifies the causes of diseases into external,internal and miscellaneous ones which are regarded as neither external nor internal.
Yong Yao Fa Xiang
《用药法象》,Yong Yao Fa Xiang,or Rules for the Use of Drugs,written by Li Gao(1180~1251),in which drugs are classified according to their therapeutic properties into 4 kinds:ascending,floating and sinking.
Pi Wei Lun
《脾胃论》,Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach,written by Li Gao(Jin,1180~1251) and published in 1249.Based on the nutritional viewpoint expressed in the Internal Classic,the author emphasizes and explains the importance of nourishing the spleen and the stomach.For curing spleen and stomach troubles caused by improper diet or fatigue,he recommendes Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang,or Decoction for Reinforcing the Middle and Replenishing Qi and Sheng Yang Yi Wei Tang,or Decoction for Activating Yang and Replenishing the Stomach.
Wei Sheng Jia Bao Chan Ke Bei Yao
《卫生家宝产科备要》,or A Precious Manual of Obstetrics for Home Use(1184),a valuable book on obstetrics compiled by Zhu Duanzhang.The author pools knowledge of obstetrics and of nursing infants from all previous medical works.
Nü Ke Bai Wen
《女科百问》,Nü Ke Bai Wen, or One Hundred Questions on Women's Diseases(120),written by Qi Zhongfu of the Song Dynasty,in which the main problems of gynecology and obstetrics are dealt with in the form of questions and answers.
Fu Ren Da Quan Liang Fang
《妇人大全良方》,《妇人良方》,Fu Ren Da Quan Liang Fang,or Fu Ren Liang Fang Da Quan,or The Complete Book of Effective Prescriptions for Women,or simply Fu Ren Liang Fang,or Effective Prescriptions for Women(1237),written by Chen Ziming(l190~1270).This is the first and most important book on gynecology and obstetrics.
Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue
《小儿药证直诀》,Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue,or Key to the Therapeutics of Children's Diseases.written by Qian Yi,generally acknowledged as the greatest pediatrist in Chinese medicine.It was edited and published by his pupil Yan Jizhong in 1119 in three volumes--one on diagnosis,one on case recording and one on prescriptions.the author emphasizes the peculiarities of pediatrics and the characteristics of children's physiology and pathology.
You You Xin Shu
《幼幼新书》,You You Xin Shu,or A New Book of Pediatrics(1132).a comprehensive treatise on children's diseases in 40 volumes compiled by Liu Fang,Wang Li and Wang Shi,dealing with the etiology,diagnosis and therapies of various kinds of children's diseases,child care,etc.
Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang Lun
《小儿痘疹方论》,Xiao Er Dou Zhen Fang Lun,or Treatise on Smallpox and Measles in Children(1241),written by Chen Wenzhong,a noted pediatrist of the 13th century.
Wai Ke Jing Yao
《外科精要》Wai Ke Jing Yao,or Essence of External Medicine(1263),written by Chen Ziming,one of the earliest books on external medicine with differential diagnosis and treatment of furuncles,carbuncles,gangrene,ulcers and wounds.
Mi Chuan Yan Ke Long Mu Lun
《秘传眼科龙目论》,Mi Chuan Yan Ke Long Mu Lun,or Long Mu's Secret Treatise on Ophthalmology,an anonymous book in ten volumes which appeared in the 13th century,including 72 kinds of eye diseases,with glaucoma and cataracts as the two chief ailments.
Yin Hai Jing Wei
《银海精微》Yin Hai Jing Wei,or Essence of the Silvery Sea,a book on ophthalmology in 2 volumes,which appeared in the 13th century,with its authorship attributed to Sun Simiao."Silvery sea" is a metaphorical expression for the eyes.
Yuan Ji Qi Wei
《原机启微》,Yuan Ji Qi Wei,or Revealing the Mystery of the Origin(of Eye Diseases)(1370),written by Ni Weide,which gives a systematic exposition of eye diseases not only as a local affliction but as part of defective functioning of the whole body,and often due to unhygienic conditions.
Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing
《铜人腧穴针灸图经》,《铜人经》,Tong Ren Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing,or Illustrated Manual of Acupoints on the Bronze Figure,written by Wang Weiyi,first published in 1027 in 3 volumes.The author made detailed studies of the acupuncture points and marked out a total of 657 points on the famous bronze figure.
Zhen Jiu Zi Sheng Jing
《针灸资生经》,Zhen Jiu Zi Sheng Jing,or Classic of Nourishing life with Acupuncture and Moxibustion(1220),written by Wang Zhizhong,a systemic presentation of acupuncture and moxibustion including the location of meridians and points,and 46 illustrations,based on the author's clinical experience.
Xi Yuan Ji Lu
《洗冤集录》,Xi Yuan Ji Lu,or Instructions to Coroners(1247),a book on forensic medicine written by Song Ci.The original book had 10 volumes,but after the Ming dynasty,only four remained.It systematically sums up the achievements made before the Song Dynasty in this field,and introduces tests for and identifications of toxicity,and measures for surgical operations,etc.This book is of great value,and has been translated into many languages.
Lan Shi Mi Cang
《兰室秘藏》,Lan Shi Mi Cang,or A Secret Book Kept in the Chamber(1276),a comprehensive book on medicine written by Li Gao,which deals with various kinds of diseases classed into 21 groups.In the book the author's Treatise on Diseases of the Spleen and Stomach was especially prized by physicians of later generations;the prescriptions listed were mostly created by the author himself.
Sheng Ji Zong Lu
《政和圣剂总录》,《圣济总录》Sheng Ji Zong Lu,or Complete Record of Holy Benevolence,a monumental work consisting of 200 volumes(only 26 volumes are extant) compiled by a staff of physicians under imperial orders and completed around 1111-1117.It covers every branch of the healing arts,with about 20,000 prescriptions recorded.
Tu Jing Ben Cao
《本草图经》,Tu Jing Ben Cao,or 《图经本草》Tu Jing Ben Cao(Figure of Materia Medica),Called "咽经(Yan Jing)“.Edited by Su Song (1020 -1101), compiled. Aka "Materia Medica",total 20 volumes.Table of Contents 1 volume.Finished at 1061.Collection of native counties' herbal books,reference to Doctrines.Jiayou 3rd year(1058 AD),Emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty arranged Su Song and others compiled this book.The book collecting sorted out herbal Figure from counties,and edited by reference to Doctrine. LiShiZhen commented this book "identification as details and clear,but picture and description sometime not consistent,not accordingly,either a picture without description,either description without picture,or description not consistent with picture...".
This book reference to the previous books and literature more than 200 kinds,as a gathering of ancient the pharmacology writings and culmination of the Chinese drug census,records 300 kinds of medicinal plants and 70 species of medicinal animals or their by-products, as well as a large number of important chemical substances,give explains of preparation method of substances like salt, iron and steel, mercury, silver, mercury compounds, aluminum compounds, etc.Also describes the history and geography, physical geography, economic geography. The book occupies a leading position in the respective disciplines about animal fossils, tidal theory elaborate, drawing of plant specimens. .
It is a great works of the pharmacology,the most complete and most scientific medicine book of the Song dynasty. Inherited the one thousand years of ancient medicine Heritage,added supplement author's own ideas and new findings, draw large number of herb and drugs graphics with text description,accurately documented the origin of a variety of herbal and drugs, shape, nature,collecting season, refining methods, methods of identification and compatibility, taboos,with illustrations, accurate and convenient to use. Unfortunately,this masterpiece vanished since Su Song's death,only scattered descendants of various other Materia Medica, which Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica", made a lot reservations but also failed to see the whole complete origin book.It highly appreciated by Li Shizhen.
Ben Cao Yan Yi
《本草衍义》,Bencao Yanyi;Augmented Materia Medica:edited at year 1116,or the 6th year of Zheng He,(reign title of 宋徽宗赵佶Song Huizong),written by herbalist 寇宗奭(Kou Zongshi),recorded herbs and ingredients 472 kinds,total 20 volumes,the first 3 volumes gives summarized discussion about herbs,the rest 17 volumes gives detailed cases descriptions,classified according to Yu Shi玉石(stones),Cao草(grass herbal),Mu木(wood),QinShou禽兽(birds and beasts),Chong Yu虫鱼(insects and fishes),GuoCai果菜(fruits and vegetables),MiGu米谷(rice and kernels),etc.it gives supplement notes on property and effects to the herbs recorded by Zheng Lei Ben Cao,and attached identification of species.The author give instructions about administration dosage should also consider the age,physical health conditions strong or weak,the sickness development period and other reasons,this suggestion has its importance for clinical applications.The book is a result of years experience and observations from Kou Zongshi,its purpose to detect the unfinished meanings of Jia You Ben Cao and Ben Cao Tu Jing,and give further identification and explainations,its content are majorly herb medicinal theory,and detailed name identification,archeology,preparation,applications and other aspects of single herbs,also kept records of many effective single formula,and summarized his own clinical experiance,which has considerable credibility.The precious point is that,the book tried to explain herbal effects via medicinal theory from Su Wen,such method developed into system at later period,the book has good academic value and an importance in the history of TCM herbalism.
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