TCM Classics:The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD);The Tang Dynasty(618~907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907~960/979 AD).

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 The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD);The Tang Dynasty(618~907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907~960/979 AD). Sui Tang Five Dynasties Icon
 Famous herbal classics of this period:Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun,Xiu Xi Zhi Guan Zuo Chan Fa Yao,Shi Liao Ben Cao,Tang Ben Cao,Ben Cao Shi Yi,Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang,Qian Jin Yi Fang,Wai Tai Mi Yao,Jing Xiao Chan Bao,Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang,etc.The Tang era were also very interested in the benefits of officially classifying all of the medicines used in pharmacology. In 657, Emperor Gaozong of Tang (r. 649–683) commissioned the literary project of publishing an official materia medica, complete with text and illustrated drawings for 833 different medicinal substances taken from different stones, minerals, metals, plants, herbs, animals, vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops.In addition to compiling pharmacopeias, the Tang fostered learning in medicine by upholding imperial medical colleges, state examinations for doctors, and publishing forensic manuals for physicians.

 《诸病源候总论》Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun《诸病源候总论》
 《诸病源候总论》(《巢氏病源》Chao Shi Bing Yuan),or Treatise on Causes and Symptoms of Disease(610),compiled by Chao Yuanfang et al.in 50 volumes with detailed discussions on the etiology and symptomology of various diseases.It consists of 67 categories with 1720 entries and many brilliant expositions frequently cited by authors of later generations.
 

 《黄帝内经太素》Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su HuangDiNeiJingTaiSu《黄帝内经太素》
 《黄帝内经太素》(Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su),edited by herbalist 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan),total 30 volumes,which kept some earlier version of the original class of Nei Jing,with own content classification system by Yang,it has academic values of the text meaning,interpretation and reference quotation of lost classics.

 Herbalist杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) first started the classification method study with Nei Jing,is the first scholar who gave classification study of Nei Jing,he gave comparatively scientific classification of Nei Jing,broke original text of the classics Su Wen and Ling Shu,classify them into 19 major categories,then divide further under each categories,which brought more clear and system content of Nei Jing.Except the content classification,herbalist杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) identified and corrected errors of the content,which offered great help and convenience for later generations understand this classics,herbalist 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) never change the original text easily,instead only gave supplemented noted and annotations attached even the original text showed errors,so the edit style of him tried to reserve the orignal content and style of Nei Jing,this provide credible proof for compilation by later generations;herbalist 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) also gave detailed meaning interpretation and pronunciation interpretations of the classics Nei Jing,with his own professional academic knowing about ancient classics of Taoism and Buddism,杨上善(Yang Shang-shan)gave aboundant very huge amount supplements annotations and notes of the pronounciations and meaning interpretations,gave suspension on individual difficult words,also showed his rigorous scholarship in the related field.

 Later herbalist 林亿(Lin Yi) of Song Dynasty ever wrote in the preface of classics 《素问补注》(Su Wen Bu Zhu):“及隋杨上善,纂而为太素,时则有全元起者,始为之训解,阙第七一通。”The classics 《黄帝内经太素》(Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su) ever lost after North Song Dynasty.
 

 Xiu Xi Zhi Guan Zuo Chan Fa Yao Xiu Xi Zhi Guan Zuo Chan Fa Yao《修习止观坐禅法要》
 《修习止观坐禅法要》,or Principles of Buddhist Cultivation,written by Zhi Kai,a famous Buddhist monk of the Sui Dynasty,in which methods of adjustment of posture,breathing and mentality are dealt with.
 

 Shi Liao Ben Cao Shi Liao Ben Cao《食疗本草》
 《食疗本草》,or Materia Medica of Diet Therapy,(other names:Treatise on Dietetic Therapy,dietetic materia medica)a monograph recording herbs which can be used as both food and drugs by Meng Shen(612~713) of the Tang dynasty.The original has been lost,but its text can be found in Lei Zheng Ben Cao or Classified Materia Medica.

 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao,or A Diatetic Materia Medica) is an academic work about diatetic,a system summaryof the herbs used for diatetic and experience before Tang Dynasty,the original book lost in ancient epoch.Ancient history classics 《旧唐书·孟诜传》(Jiu Tang Shu·Meng Shen Zhuan,or Old Tang Book·Legend of Meng Shen) and 《新唐书·艺文志》(Xin Tang Shu·Yi Wen Zhi,or New History of the Tang Dynasty) all recorded this classics was written by 孟诜(Meng Shen).Later classics 《嘉裕本草》(Jia You Ben Cao,or Herbal Classics of Jia You)of Song Dynasty quoted other classes ever scripted this book,it text read:“《食疗本草》唐同州刺史孟诜撰,张鼎补其不足者八十九种,并为二百二十七条,凡三卷。",张鼎为唐开元间(公元713年—公元741年)was also a Taoist lived during KaiYuan years of Tang Dynasty(year 713~741AD),also good at medicine.History classics 《宋史·艺文志》(Song Shi·Yi Wen Zhi) ever recorded“《吾玄子安神养生方》一卷,张鼎撰。”,the title “吾玄子Wu Xuanzi” should be the Taoist monastic name of 张鼎(Zhang Ding).After the appear of 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao),it spread over 400 years,the earliest quote from it ever recorded in the ancient classics 《本草拾遗》(Ben Cao Shi Yi) which written by herbalist 陈藏(Cheng Zang) at Kai Yuan 27 years(开元二十七年,year 739AD),and later 《嘉裕本草》(Jia You Ben Cao,or Herbal Classics of Jia You,year 1061AD) of North Song Dynasty,《重修政和经史证类备用本草》(Chong Xiu Zheng He Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Yong Ben Cao,brief as 《证类本草》or Zheng Lei Ben Cao,year 1249AD)of South Song Dynasty.History classics 《宋史·艺文志》(Song Shi·Yi Wen Zhi) also recorded this book.Till later history classics 《补元史·艺文志》(Bu Yuan Shi·Yi Wen Zhi)and《明史·艺文志》(Ming Shi·Yi Wen Zhi),there was no record of this classics.So,the lost of this classics may happen at the end of Song Dynasty,herbalist 李时珍(Li Shizhen) ever quoted some articles from it which recorded in 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao).At the beginning of 20th century,historians found survived copy of 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao) in the Mo Kao Grotto at Dunhuang,and the classics was stolen by a british thief named stein.Year 1984,People's Medical Publishing House published the compilation copy 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao) which edited by modern scholar 谢海洲(Xie Haizhou),马继兴(Ma Jixing) etc,which according to the survival copy from Mo Kao Grotto and other classics like 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) etc.
 

 Tang Ben Cao Tang Ben Cao《唐本草》
 《唐本草》,or The Tang Materia Medica(659),also called Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or 《新修本草》Newly Compiled Materia Medica (of Tang),compiled by Su Jing and 22 other scholars.It lists 844 medical substances.Since it was sponsored by the Tang court,it is considered to be the earliest pharmacopoeia published officially in the world.
 

 Ben Cao Shi Yi Ben Cao Shi Yi《本草拾遗》
 《本草拾遗》,or A Supplement to the Herbal(741),in 10 volumes by Chen Cangqi of the Tang Dynasty(8th century).It mainly adds medicinal substances not included in Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or Newly Compiled Materia Medica of Tang.
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 Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang《备急千金要方》
 《备急千金要方》,or Invaluable Prescriptions for Emergencies,or Qian Jin Yao Fang,or Invaluable Prescriptions for short(652),compiled by Sun Simiao(581~682) at the end of the 7th century in 30 volumes,with a general introduction,prescriptions of varioous clinical branches,diet,pulse-taking,acupuncture,etc.
 

 Qian Jin Yi Fang Qian Jin Yi Fang《千金翼方》
 《千金翼方》,or Supplement to the Invaluable Prescriptions,compiled by Sun Simiao at the end of the 7th century in 30 volumes,including various medical branches such as herbal lore,febrile diseases,obstetrics and gynecology,pediatrics,miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine,pulse-taking,acupuncture and diet,which,togethor with Qian Jin Yao Fang,or Invaluable Prescriptions,is considered a compendium of the medical achievements made before the Tang Dynasty.
 

 Wai Tai Mi Yao Wai Tai Mi Yao《外台秘要》
 《外台秘要》,or Medical Secrets of an Official(752),compiled by Wang Tao in 40 volumes in which a comprehensive and exhaustive study of medicine is made,with 1,104 issues of medical problems discussed and over 6,000 prescriptions recorded.
 

 Jing Xiao Chan Bao Jing Xiao Chan Bao《经效产宝》
 《经效产宝》,or Tested Treasure of Obstetrics,or simply Chan Bao,or Treasures of Obstetrics written by Zan Yin(797-859) in 852-856.It is the earliest book exclusively on obstetrics in which diseases during pregnancy,at the time of parturition and after delivery are diagnosed and treated.

 我国很早就注意妇女妊娠胎产问题,并积累了一定的知识。甲骨文中“育疾”是有关妇产科生育疾病的最早记载。战国时已有治妇科病的带下医。《汉书·艺文志》中所载《妇人婴儿方》19卷,是妇产科最古的文献,可惜已经亡佚了。马王堆出土的帛书中有一本《胎产书》,记述了胚胎形态变化、妊娠期护理及疾病的治疗方法。

 南北朝时,北齐名医徐之才的“十月养胎法”,在《脉经》、《诸病源候论》、《千金方》、《外台秘要》均有专卷论述。隋唐时期的妇产科在汉代奠定的基础上有了迅速发展,产生了现存最早的妇产科专著《经效产宝》。

 《经效产宝》作者昝殷,是唐代著名妇产科学家。原书是因昝殷为四川节度使白敏中的家人医治难产,白敏中询问昝殷,于是他将收集的有关经闭、带下、妊娠等内容撰成《产宝》三卷,藏在府中,后来周颋得到这本书,加入序以及三篇小论,即《经效产宝》(《经效产宝》书影)。原书早佚,现存的是从朝鲜《医方类聚》等书中的辑传本。书中论及妊娠期杂病、难产诸病及产后病症,并具体介绍治疗方法。作者最早提出用秤铊烧红沏醋薰蒸,以防治产妇血晕;并提出用猪蹄通乳。

 昝殷于产科主张妊娠期以养胎保胎为要,治疗上重视调理气血、补益脾肾.并重点讨论了难产中的横产、倒产、胎衣不下等。他对妊娠、难产、产后诸病证治的论述.均有一定的水平。如论妊娠反应:“夫阻病之候,心中愦愦.头旋眼眩,四肢沉重,懈怠,恶闻食气,好吃酸咸果实”、“多卧少起。三月四月多呕逆,肢节不得自举者”。详尽而且扼要。所附3首处方,用人参厚朴白术茯苓之类健脾利水,橘皮生姜竹茹等化痰止呕,对于妊娠恶阻的疗效较为可靠。

 对胎动不安,提出“安胎有二.因母病以动胎,但疗母疾.其胎自安;又缘胎有不坚。故胎动以母病.但疗胎则母瘥”。

 认识到流产原因有二,一是孕妇有病.因而胎动流产;二是胎儿先天发育不良,引起流产。这与现代的认识是相一致的。其所拟安胎方,用续断、艾叶、当归、干地黄、阿胶之属.有补肾、滋阴、安胎作用。咎殷对胎衣不出的论述和分析,亦堪称合理.指出“凡胎衣不出者,世谓之息胎,由产时用力过度,已产而体已疲顿,不能更用力”,“所有产时看生人(隔离不好).不用意谨护,而牵揽胎系,断其胞,上掩心而夭命也”。

 在论述救治难产时,主张“内宜用药,外宜用法”,意即用滋补强壮的药物给产妇内服,以增强体力,再加上外治手术助产,使胎儿娩出。其原则至今也有指导意义。咎氏对产后病因的分析认识,也很科学,指出产后烦渴,是因产时“水血俱下”,伤津所致;产后小便数,是“由产用气·伤于膀胱”所致;产后乳痈,是因“产后不曾乳儿,亦结成痈”。对产后热结,大便不通,他不主张内服攻下药,而采用蜜煎导坐药通大便,审慎而有效。尤其是对产后血晕的急救,指出“须速投方药,若不急疗,即危其命也”,并可用烧红秤砣淬醋熏蒸,颇合实际而简便易行。

 昝殷于食疗亦颇有研究,著有《食医心鉴》一书,论述中风、脚气、消渴.淋病等内科病及部分妇儿科病的食治诸方.一般先述病因、病机、分类、症状,然后附以食治方及其适应证,简明实用.论述精辟.尤其对治疗之论述更为细致精炼。如真心痛,指出主要为风冷邪气乘于心,如伤正经则旦发夕死,夕发旦死。治疗用活血祛瘀法,主以桃仁粥方。其他的心腹冷痛中,则随脏腑经络,兼证不同而用药不同。如兼肋痛,则用吴茱萸、葱白温经通阳.疏肝解郁;中焦冷痛,则用高良姜温胃散寒止痛;心腹胀满,用紫苏子理气消胀等,都很切实、廉便。

 咎氏十分重视脾胃的生理功能.认为脾失健运,则“万病辐凑”:引《千金方》“凡欲治病.且以食疗.不愈.然后用药”.故治此病.多用血肉有情,营养丰富的食物治疗。其“酿猪肚方”配伍精妙,以猪肚、猪睥“以脏补脏”.人参益气健脾.以饭养胃尤妙.少加桔皮行气.使补而不滞.对脾胃气弱不多下食者甚宜。咎氏食疗方法也很多.有羹、煎、粥、馄饨、饼、茶、酒等.大多取材容易,符合简、便、廉、验之原则。如痔疮之用槐叶茶方.消痰化食之用开桔皮汤方,产后虚损乳汁不下之猪蹄粥疗等。在配用血肉有情之品的食疗中。体现了昝氏“以形补形”的思想,如风眩之用羊头肉.骨节疼痛之用虎胫骨浸酒,产后心惊之用猪心羹方等。

 《食医心鉴》 原书宋代尚存,后失传,现在流传的本子是日本人从《医方类聚》中辑出,共1卷。书中载方211首,治疗16类病症,其中在论中风疾状、心腹冷痛、五种噎病、七种淋病、小便数、五痢赤白肠滑、五种痔病下血、妇人妊娠诸病及产后、小儿诸病食治诸方中载粥疗方46首,每方叙述主治病症,药粥组成、制服法。此书较为系统地总结了唐以前药粥方监床应用经验,其中高良姜粥、黄雌鸡粥、黄芪粥、糯米阿胶粥、竹沥粥、地黄粥、猪蹄粥、马齿粥、淡竹叶粥、梨粥、生芦根粥、人参粥、鸡子粥、郁李仁粥、紫苏子粥等方,一直沿用至今,经久不衰。

 Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang《理伤续断秘方》
 《理伤续断秘方》,or Secrets of Treating Wounds and Rejoining Fractures,also called Xian Shou Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang(《仙授理伤续断秘方》),or Secrets of Treating Wounds and Rejoining Fractures Handed Down by the Fairy,the earliest book on bone-setting,written by Taoist Priest Lin(蔺道人) in about 846 A.D., with remarks on traction,reunion and fixation of fractured and dislocated bones.
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 Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao《日华子诸家本草》
 《日华子诸家本草》,Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao:Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao is a famous herbal classics at time Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.Original copy named Wu Yue Ri Hua Zi Ji(吴越日华子集),total 20 volumes.According to identification of Zhang YuXi(掌禹锡) of Song Dynasty,it collected herbs more than 600 kinds.The original copy already vanished.The anecdotes could be found from some related later classics.The exact years of its author could not be identified clearly.According to Zhang YuXi(掌禹锡) of Song Dynasty:the author notes “国初开宝中四明人撰,不着姓氏,但云日华子大明序集诸家本草近世所用药,各以寒、温、性、味。华、实、虫、兽为类,其言功用甚悉,凡甘卷。”(which means "written by a folk herbalist from SiMing,at time around year 968~975(1),not known family name,but called Ri Hua Zi Da Ming,its preface summarized herbs used by recent classics,and classfied according to cold 寒、warm温、character性、taste味。Flower华、Fruit实、Bugs虫、Beasts兽 different kinds.The notes of property and applications are in details,totally 20 volumes.).Herbalist Li Shizhen of Ming Dynasty thinks there are big family name from Qian Jia Xing(《千家姓》,a record of Chinese family names),and noted “日华子盖姓大名明也(Ri Hua Zi maybe has family name 大Da,and named Ming明)”,according to Li Shizhen's notes,this classics also called Da Ming Ben Cao(《大明本草》),or Da Ming Herbal Classic.Some of its contents got quoted in later classics,like Zheng Lei Ben Cao and Ben Cao Gang Mu.

 药性论Yao Xing Lun Yao Xing Lun《药性论》
 《药性论》,Yao Xing Lun:.written by Zhen Quan, the original book is lost,later scholars gathered its lost articles 403 pieces,edited and divided into four volumes, according to Tang Ben Cao herb content index tables.
 The herbs got listed with correct and identified names,characters and taste,and ingredients roles order(sovereign[chief] ingredient,minister[associate] ingredient,adjuvant[assistant] ingredient,courier[guide] ingredient),forbidden and cautions,main for,prepare method,recipes and formulas.
 As the major content of the book is about properties of the herbs recorded,it kept information about roles like sovereign[chief] ingredient,minister[associate] ingredient,adjuvant[assistant] ingredient,courier[guide] ingredient,and cautions etc in details.It recorded chief ingredient 76 kinds,associate ingredient 72 kinds,adjuvant ingredient 108kinds.Also recorded some herb sinple formula,or combinative precautions.It also make records about taken precautions,most cases recorded avoidance of goat blood or sheep blood.The book give new explain about toxicity of ingredients,like recorded cinnabar is toxic,"本经以丹砂为无毒,故多炼 治服食,鲜有不为药患者。(Ben Jing recorded cinnabar has no toxicity,thus those who work alchemy and taken it regularly,only few of them could not suffering with potential harmful effects of it.)"
 The book give compound formula(prescriptions) for most of the single herbs,these compound formulas ever rerecorded by Ben Cao Gang Mu.
 The book also collected another lost herbal classics,named Si Sheng Ben Cao(《四声本草》),which written by Xiao Bing(萧炳,alias "兰陵处士",or Lan Lin Hermit) of Tang.

 Reference:
 1: 李煜Li Yu about the year of Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao,"开宝" is the reign title of king 李煜(Li Yu) of South Tang period,reign period(961~975AD),reign title"建隆(Jian Long)" from lunar July of year 961 to lunar November of year 963,reign title "乾德(Jian De)" from lunar November of year 963 to lunar November of year 968年,reign title "开宝(Kai Bao)" from lunar November of year 968 to lunar November of year 975,"开宝中" means around this period 968~975.李煜(Li Yu),as the last king of South Tang Kingdom(南唐国后主),more known as a talented and romantic poet than a king.
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