TCM Classics:The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD);The Tang Dynasty(618～907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907～960/979 AD).Back.
The Sui Dynasty(581~618 AD);The Tang Dynasty(618～907 AD);Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907～960/979 AD).
Famous herbal classics of this period:Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun,Xiu Xi Zhi Guan Zuo Chan Fa Yao,Shi Liao Ben Cao,Tang Ben Cao,Ben Cao Shi Yi,Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang,Qian Jin Yi Fang,Wai Tai Mi Yao,Jing Xiao Chan Bao,Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang,etc.The Tang era were also very interested in the benefits of officially classifying all of the medicines used in pharmacology. In 657, Emperor Gaozong of Tang (r. 649–683) commissioned the literary project of publishing an official materia medica, complete with text and illustrated drawings for 833 different medicinal substances taken from different stones, minerals, metals, plants, herbs, animals, vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops.In addition to compiling pharmacopeias, the Tang fostered learning in medicine by upholding imperial medical colleges, state examinations for doctors, and publishing forensic manuals for physicians.
《诸病源候总论》Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Zong Lun
《诸病源候总论》(《巢氏病源》Chao Shi Bing Yuan),or Treatise on Causes and Symptoms of Disease(610),compiled by Chao Yuanfang et al.in 50 volumes with detailed discussions on the etiology and symptomology of various diseases.It consists of 67 categories with 1720 entries and many brilliant expositions frequently cited by authors of later generations.
《黄帝内经太素》Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su
《黄帝内经太素》(Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su),edited by herbalist 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan),total 30 volumes,which kept some earlier version of the original class of Nei Jing,with own content classification system by Yang,it has academic values of the text meaning,interpretation and reference quotation of lost classics.
Herbalist杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) first started the classification method study with Nei Jing,is the first scholar who gave classification study of Nei Jing,he gave comparatively scientific classification of Nei Jing,broke original text of the classics Su Wen and Ling Shu,classify them into 19 major categories,then divide further under each categories,which brought more clear and system content of Nei Jing.Except the content classification,herbalist杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) identified and corrected errors of the content,which offered great help and convenience for later generations understand this classics,herbalist 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) never change the original text easily,instead only gave supplemented noted and annotations attached even the original text showed errors,so the edit style of him tried to reserve the orignal content and style of Nei Jing,this provide credible proof for compilation by later generations;herbalist 杨上善(Yang Shang-shan) also gave detailed meaning interpretation and pronunciation interpretations of the classics Nei Jing,with his own professional academic knowing about ancient classics of Taoism and Buddism,杨上善(Yang Shang-shan)gave aboundant very huge amount supplements annotations and notes of the pronounciations and meaning interpretations,gave suspension on individual difficult words,also showed his rigorous scholarship in the related field.
Later herbalist 林亿(Lin Yi) of Song Dynasty ever wrote in the preface of classics 《素问补注》(Su Wen Bu Zhu):“及隋杨上善，纂而为太素，时则有全元起者，始为之训解，阙第七一通。”The classics 《黄帝内经太素》(Huang Di Nei Jing Tai Su) ever lost after North Song Dynasty.
Xiu Xi Zhi Guan Zuo Chan Fa Yao
《修习止观坐禅法要》,or Principles of Buddhist Cultivation,written by Zhi Kai,a famous Buddhist monk of the Sui Dynasty,in which methods of adjustment of posture,breathing and mentality are dealt with.
Shi Liao Ben Cao
《食疗本草》,or Materia Medica of Diet Therapy,(other names:Treatise on Dietetic Therapy,dietetic materia medica)a monograph recording herbs which can be used as both food and drugs by Meng Shen(612~713) of the Tang dynasty.The original has been lost,but its text can be found in Lei Zheng Ben Cao or Classified Materia Medica.
《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao,or A Diatetic Materia Medica) is an academic work about diatetic,a system summaryof the herbs used for diatetic and experience before Tang Dynasty,the original book lost in ancient epoch.Ancient history classics 《旧唐书·孟诜传》(Jiu Tang Shu·Meng Shen Zhuan,or Old Tang Book·Legend of Meng Shen) and 《新唐书·艺文志》(Xin Tang Shu·Yi Wen Zhi,or New History of the Tang Dynasty) all recorded this classics was written by 孟诜(Meng Shen).Later classics 《嘉裕本草》(Jia You Ben Cao,or Herbal Classics of Jia You)of Song Dynasty quoted other classes ever scripted this book,it text read:“《食疗本草》唐同州刺史孟诜撰，张鼎补其不足者八十九种，并为二百二十七条，凡三卷。",张鼎为唐开元间（公元713年—公元741年）was also a Taoist lived during KaiYuan years of Tang Dynasty(year 713~741AD),also good at medicine.History classics 《宋史·艺文志》(Song Shi·Yi Wen Zhi) ever recorded“《吾玄子安神养生方》一卷，张鼎撰。”,the title “吾玄子Wu Xuanzi” should be the Taoist monastic name of 张鼎(Zhang Ding).After the appear of 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao),it spread over 400 years,the earliest quote from it ever recorded in the ancient classics 《本草拾遗》(Ben Cao Shi Yi) which written by herbalist 陈藏(Cheng Zang) at Kai Yuan 27 years(开元二十七年,year 739AD),and later 《嘉裕本草》(Jia You Ben Cao,or Herbal Classics of Jia You,year 1061AD) of North Song Dynasty,《重修政和经史证类备用本草》(Chong Xiu Zheng He Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Yong Ben Cao,brief as 《证类本草》or Zheng Lei Ben Cao,year 1249AD)of South Song Dynasty.History classics 《宋史·艺文志》(Song Shi·Yi Wen Zhi) also recorded this book.Till later history classics 《补元史·艺文志》(Bu Yuan Shi·Yi Wen Zhi)and《明史·艺文志》(Ming Shi·Yi Wen Zhi),there was no record of this classics.So,the lost of this classics may happen at the end of Song Dynasty,herbalist 李时珍(Li Shizhen) ever quoted some articles from it which recorded in 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao).At the beginning of 20th century,historians found survived copy of 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao) in the Mo Kao Grotto at Dunhuang,and the classics was stolen by a british thief named stein.Year 1984,People's Medical Publishing House published the compilation copy 《食疗本草》(Shi Liao Ben Cao) which edited by modern scholar 谢海洲(Xie Haizhou),马继兴(Ma Jixing) etc,which according to the survival copy from Mo Kao Grotto and other classics like 《证类本草》(Zheng Lei Ben Cao) etc.
Tang Ben Cao
《唐本草》,or The Tang Materia Medica(659),also called Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or 《新修本草》Newly Compiled Materia Medica (of Tang),compiled by Su Jing and 22 other scholars.It lists 844 medical substances.Since it was sponsored by the Tang court,it is considered to be the earliest pharmacopoeia published officially in the world.
Ben Cao Shi Yi
《本草拾遗》,or A Supplement to the Herbal(741),in 10 volumes by Chen Cangqi of the Tang Dynasty(8th century).It mainly adds medicinal substances not included in Xin Xiu Ben Cao,or Newly Compiled Materia Medica of Tang.
Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang
《备急千金要方》,or Invaluable Prescriptions for Emergencies,or Qian Jin Yao Fang,or Invaluable Prescriptions for short(652),compiled by Sun Simiao(581~682) at the end of the 7th century in 30 volumes,with a general introduction,prescriptions of varioous clinical branches,diet,pulse-taking,acupuncture,etc.
Qian Jin Yi Fang
《千金翼方》,or Supplement to the Invaluable Prescriptions,compiled by Sun Simiao at the end of the 7th century in 30 volumes,including various medical branches such as herbal lore,febrile diseases,obstetrics and gynecology,pediatrics,miscellaneous diseases of internal medicine,pulse-taking,acupuncture and diet,which,togethor with Qian Jin Yao Fang,or Invaluable Prescriptions,is considered a compendium of the medical achievements made before the Tang Dynasty.
Wai Tai Mi Yao
《外台秘要》,or Medical Secrets of an Official(752),compiled by Wang Tao in 40 volumes in which a comprehensive and exhaustive study of medicine is made,with 1,104 issues of medical problems discussed and over 6,000 prescriptions recorded.
Jing Xiao Chan Bao
《经效产宝》,or Tested Treasure of Obstetrics,or simply Chan Bao,or Treasures of Obstetrics written by Zan Yin(797-859) in 852-856.It is the earliest book exclusively on obstetrics in which diseases during pregnancy,at the time of parturition and after delivery are diagnosed and treated.
Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang
《理伤续断秘方》,or Secrets of Treating Wounds and Rejoining Fractures,also called Xian Shou Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang(《仙授理伤续断秘方》),or Secrets of Treating Wounds and Rejoining Fractures Handed Down by the Fairy,the earliest book on bone-setting,written by Taoist Priest Lin(蔺道人) in about 846 A.D., with remarks on traction,reunion and fixation of fractured and dislocated bones.
Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao
《日华子诸家本草》,Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao:Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao is a famous herbal classics at time Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.Original copy named Wu Yue Ri Hua Zi Ji(吴越日华子集),total 20 volumes.According to identification of Zhang YuXi(掌禹锡) of Song Dynasty,it collected herbs more than 600 kinds.The original copy already vanished.The anecdotes could be found from some related later classics.The exact years of its author could not be identified clearly.According to Zhang YuXi(掌禹锡) of Song Dynasty:the author notes “国初开宝中四明人撰,不着姓氏,但云日华子大明序集诸家本草近世所用药,各以寒、温、性、味。华、实、虫、兽为类,其言功用甚悉,凡甘卷。”(which means "written by a folk herbalist from SiMing,at time around year 968~975(1),not known family name,but called Ri Hua Zi Da Ming,its preface summarized herbs used by recent classics,and classfied according to cold 寒、warm温、character性、taste味。Flower华、Fruit实、Bugs虫、Beasts兽 different kinds.The notes of property and applications are in details,totally 20 volumes.).Herbalist Li Shizhen of Ming Dynasty thinks there are big family name from Qian Jia Xing(《千家姓》,a record of Chinese family names),and noted “日华子盖姓大名明也(Ri Hua Zi maybe has family name 大Da,and named Ming明)”,according to Li Shizhen's notes,this classics also called Da Ming Ben Cao(《大明本草》),or Da Ming Herbal Classic.Some of its contents got quoted in later classics,like Zheng Lei Ben Cao and Ben Cao Gang Mu.
药性论Yao Xing Lun
《药性论》,Yao Xing Lun:.written by Zhen Quan, the original book is lost,later scholars gathered its lost articles 403 pieces,edited and divided into four volumes, according to Tang Ben Cao herb content index tables.
The herbs got listed with correct and identified names,characters and taste,and ingredients roles order(sovereign[chief] ingredient,minister[associate] ingredient,adjuvant[assistant] ingredient,courier[guide] ingredient),forbidden and cautions,main for,prepare method,recipes and formulas.
As the major content of the book is about properties of the herbs recorded,it kept information about roles like sovereign[chief] ingredient,minister[associate] ingredient,adjuvant[assistant] ingredient,courier[guide] ingredient,and cautions etc in details.It recorded chief ingredient 76 kinds,associate ingredient 72 kinds,adjuvant ingredient 108kinds.Also recorded some herb sinple formula,or combinative precautions.It also make records about taken precautions,most cases recorded avoidance of goat blood or sheep blood.The book give new explain about toxicity of ingredients,like recorded cinnabar is toxic,"本经以丹砂为无毒,故多炼 治服食,鲜有不为药患者。(Ben Jing recorded cinnabar has no toxicity,thus those who work alchemy and taken it regularly,only few of them could not suffering with potential harmful effects of it.)"
The book give compound formula(prescriptions) for most of the single herbs,these compound formulas ever rerecorded by Ben Cao Gang Mu.
The book also collected another lost herbal classics,named Si Sheng Ben Cao(《四声本草》),which written by Xiao Bing(萧炳,alias "兰陵处士",or Lan Lin Hermit) of Tang.
1: about the year of Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao,"开宝" is the reign title of king 李煜(Li Yu) of South Tang period,reign period(961~975AD),reign title"建隆(Jian Long)" from lunar July of year 961 to lunar November of year 963,reign title "乾德(Jian De)" from lunar November of year 963 to lunar November of year 968年,reign title "开宝(Kai Bao)" from lunar November of year 968 to lunar November of year 975,"开宝中" means around this period 968~975.李煜(Li Yu),as the last king of South Tang Kingdom(南唐国后主),more known as a talented and romantic poet than a king.
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