If I were an apple,and grew on a tree.Apple Peel and Core Extract.
- Basic Botanical Info of Apple.
- From Findings of Apple Procyanidin B-2.
- Properties and effects of Polyphenol from Apple.
- Processing Method:Concentration of phenolics extracted from apples.
- Apple Polyphenol and Its Application to Tooth coating composition.
- Phloridzin-rich phenolic fraction and use thereof as a cosmetic, dietary or nutraceutical agent.
- Research and Findings:Apple Polyphenol.
- Apple Polyphenol:toxicology and safety.
- How search engine think about Apple.
- Research update of Apple and Apple Phytochemicals.
- Photo Gallery of Pyrus malus.
Research update of Apple and Apple Phytochemicals.:
Cloudy apple juice is more effective than apple polyphenols and an apple juice derived cloud fraction in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 21;55(4):1181-7. Epub 2007 Jan 30.Barth SW, Faehndrich C, Bub A, Watzl B, Will F, Dietrich H, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K.Institute of Nutritional Physiology, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Haid-und-Neu-Strasse 9, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org[PMID: 17261019]
As recently shown, a cloudy apple juice (CloA) was effective to modulate colon cancer associated parameters in rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). To identify the bioactive substance classes in CloA, we fractionated CloA to yield a total polyphenol (PF) and a cloud (CF) fraction consisting of proteins, fatty acids, polyphenols, and cell wall polysaccharides. Rats received water (control (Cont)) or CloA, PF, and CF separate or combined (PF-CF) ad libitum for 7 weeks starting one week before the first DMH-injection. As determined by comet assay, the DMH-induced genotoxicity in colonocytes of controls (Cont/DMH: 7.7 +/- 0.5%) was significantly reduced by CloA (3.3 +/- 0.3%) but not by any of the fractions. The crypt cell proliferation induced by DMH (Cont/NaCl: 7.5 +/- 0.6%; Cont/DMH: 14.9 +/- 0.8%) was significantly decreased by CloA (9.4 +/- 0.4%), PF (12.4 +/- 0.7%), CF (11.6 +/- 0.4%), and PF-CF (12.4 +/- 0.6%). Although not statistically significant, CloA tended to reduce the number of large aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (Cont/DMH: 19.0 +/- 3.7; CloA/DMH: 12.3 +/- 1.9), while none of the fractions affected ACFs. Neither CloA nor the fractions changed mRNAs of colonic cyclooxygenases (COX-1, COX-2), glutathione-associated enzymes (GST-M2, gamma-GCS, GST-P), the splenocyte CD4/CD8 ratio, natural killer cell activity, and plasma antioxidant status. These results demonstrate that CloA had a higher cancer-preventive potential than the fractions and further, besides PF, identified CF as an additional bioactive fraction of CloA.
Clinical effects of apple polyphenols on persistent allergic rhinitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel arm study.:J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;16(5):283-9.[PMID: 17039666]
BACKGROUND: We often encounter persistent allergic rhinitis due to house dust mites in the practice of otolaryngology, and its prevalence in Jp is high (18.7%). Persistent allergic rhinitis is usually treated with antihistamines and local steroids, but they often cause adverse effects such as sedation and drowsiness. Polyphenols derived from apples have been reported to suppress histamine release from rat cells, reduce auricular swelling in allergic mice, and alleviate skin inflammation in atopic patients. These effects suggest that apple polyphenols are effective for the treatment of various allergic disorders, but the results of their clinical use have not been reported. Objective: To assess the effect of drinks containing apple polyphenols on clinical symptoms of persistent allergic rhinitis. METHODS: Thirty-three patients aged 15 to 65 years with moderate or severe persistent allergic rhinitis in whom the symptoms persisted for 3 years or longer were treated without apple polyphenols (control group), with a low dose of apple polyphenols, or with a high dose of apple polyphenols, and changes in the clinical symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed in sneezing attacks (P<.05) and nasal discharge (P<.01) in the high-dose group and in sneezing attacks (P<.05) in the low-dose group. Compared with the control group, an improvement was observed in sneezing attacks and nasal discharge in many patients of the polyphenol-treated groups. In terms of intranasal findings, a significant improvement was observed in swelling of the nasal turbinate in the low-dose group (P<.05). The percentage of patients who showed an improvement in swelling of the nasal turbinate was higher in the polyphenol-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that apple polyphenols are effective in alleviating symptoms of persistent allergic rhinitis.
Modulation of key elements of the Wnt pathway by apple polyphenols.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7041-6.Kern M, Pahlke G, Ngiewih Y, Marko D.Institute of Applied Biosciences, Section of Food Toxicology, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.[PMID: 16968061]
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is one of the key elements of the Wnt pathway involved in the regulation of beta-catenin homeostasis. The inhibition of GSK3beta kinase activity might lead to the onset of beta-catenin/TCF/LEF-mediated gene transcription, representing a potentially mitogenic stimulus. Apple polyphenols have been shown to mediate several biological effects that might be of interest with respect to chemoprevention. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether apple polyphenols also modulate key elements of the Wnt pathway, an effect that might limit the usefulness of these compounds for the prevention of carcinogenesis. A polyphenol-rich apple juice extract (AE02) was found to effectively inhibit the kinase activity of GSK3beta, immunoprecipitated from HT29 cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with AE02 for 24 h resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease of the cellular GSK3beta kinase activity. The inhibition of the kinase activity in HT29 cells was observed at polyphenol concentrations corresponding to the concentration of the constituents in the original apple juice. The apple characteristic dihydrochalcone glycoside phloridzin was found to be inactive up to 500 muM. The free aglycon phloretin as well as the flavonol quercetin effectively inhibited isolated GSK3beta, but did not affect the respective kinase activity within HT29 cells. In accordance with the inhibition of GSK3beta kinase activity by AE02, treatment of HT29 cells resulted in a significant decrease of phosphorylated beta-catenin. However, the total intracellular beta-catenin level was also found to be diminished, indicating that the interference of the apple constituents with GSK3beta was not associated with a stabilization of beta-catenin in HT29 cells. In line with these results, TCF/LEF-mediated gene transcription remained unaffected by treatment with AE02 as shown in a reporter gene approach. We can assume from the results that at consumer-relevant concentrations apple polyphenols do not mediate growth-stimulating effects in HT29 cells via the Wnt pathway.
Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.:J Nutr. 2006 Sep;136(9):2368-73.Brat P, George S, Bellamy A, Du Chaffaut L, Scalbert A, Mennen L, Arnault N, Amiot MJ. Universite Mediterranee Aix-Marseille 2, Faculte de Medecine, IPHM-IFR 125, Marseille, F-13385 France.[PMID: 16920856]
The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Societe d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicite (SECODIP) and Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet.
Effects of dietary apple polyphenol on adipose tissues weights in Wistar rats.:Exp Anim. 2006 Jul;55(4):383-9.[PMID: 16880686]
In this study, we investigated whether dietary apple polyphenol (APP) had an effect on adipose weights.Twenty-four Wistar male rats (10 weeks of age) were assigned to three groups: (1) the 5%APP group (diet containing 5% APP, N=8); (2) the 0.5%APP group (diet containing 0.5% APP, N=8); and (3) the control group (N=8) so that average weights of the groups were the same. After a three-week experimental period, adipose tissue weights were measured. Pathological and plasma characteristics were also examined. Retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights in the 5%APP group were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05). Pathological examination showed that form-like cells were observed only in the control group, suggesting the existence of proliferating pre-adipocytes only in the control group. Lipid-related plasma profiles showed no statistical differences. Dietary polyphenol did not induce any anorectic effects as reported in studies concerning tea polyphenol. We conclude that dietary APP has an anti-adipogenic effect in Wistar rats without any anorectic phenomenon.
Urinary flavonoids and phenolic acids as biomarkers of intake for polyphenol-rich foods.:Br J Nutr. 2006 Jul;96(1):191-8.Mennen LI, Sapinho D, Ito H, Bertrais S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Scalbert A.UMR INSERM U557/INRA/CNAM, ISTNA-CNAM, 5 rue du Vertbois, 75003 Paris, France. email@example.com[PMID: 16870009]
Estimation of dietary intake of polyphenols is difficult, due to limited availability of food composition data and bias inherent to dietary assessment methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the intake of polyphenol-rich foods and the urinary excretion of several phenolic compounds and therefore explore whether these phenolic compounds could be used as a biomarker of intake. Fifty-three participants of the SU.VI.MAX study (a randomised primary-prevention trial evaluating the effect of daily antioxidant supplementation on chronic diseases) collected a 24 h urine and a spot urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 2 d period. Thirteen polyphenols and metabolites, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, m-coumaric acid, gallic acid, 4-O-methylgallic acid, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, phloretin, enterolactone and enterodiol, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionisation-MS-MS. In spot samples apple consumption was positively correlated to phloretin, grapefruit consumption to naringenin, orange to hesperetin, citrus fruit consumption to both naringenin and hesperetin, with r coefficients ranging from 0.31 to 0.57 (P < 0.05). The combination of fruits and/or fruit juices was positively correlated to gallic acid and 4-O-methylgallic acid, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin and phloretin (r 0.24-0.44, P < 0.05). Coffee consumption was positively correlated to caffeic and chlorogenic acids (r 0.29 and 0.63, P < 0.05 respectively). Black tea and wine consumption were positively correlated with gallic and 4-O-methylgallic acids (r 0.37-0.54, P < 0.001). The present results suggest that several polyphenols measured in a spot urine sample can be used as biomarkers of polyphenol-rich food intake.
Effect of thermal treatment on the quality of cloudy apple juice.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jul 26;54(15):5453-60.Krapfenbauer G, Kinner M, Gossinger M, Schonlechner R, Berghofer E.Department of Fruit Processing, Federal College and Institute for Viticulture and Pomology, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org[PMID: 16848531]
Apple juice from eight different varieties of apples was heated at high-temperature (60-90 degrees C) and short-time (20-100 s) (HTST) combinations. To determine the effect of heating conditions on enzymatic browning and cloud stability in apple juices, the activity of polyphenol oxidase and pectinesterase was analyzed and correlated with the thermal treatment conditions and the quality of the juice. Additional investigations included the measurement of pH value, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, color, and turbidity after 3 and 6 months. The results showed that HTST treatment at 80 degrees C already inactivated polyphenol oxidase, whereas pectinesterase activity was reduced to half and could even at 90 degrees C not be inactivated completely. In fact, highest residual pectinesterase activity was found at 60 degrees C. Heating at 70 degrees C caused stable pectinesterase activity and even a slight increase for 50 and 100 s heating times. Turbidity and lightness increased after HTST treatment. In particular, differences in cloud stability between the varieties were measured. HTST parameters did not correlate with the residual cloud stability after 6 months. The sensory evaluation revealed that only a few combinations were distinguishable. The best stability of cloud and color in relation to heat impact was achieved by HTST treatment between 70 degrees C/100 s and 80 degrees C/20 s.
Potential polyphenol markers of phase change in apple (Malus domestica).:J Plant Physiol. 2006 Apr 27;Zhang XZ, Zhao YB, Li CM, Chen DM, Wang GP, Chang RF, Shu HR. Changli Institute of Pomology, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science, Changli, PR China.[PMID: 16647787]
In order to identify potential biochemical markers that can be used as indicators for phase change, the dynamics of polyphenolic compounds across apple seedlings (Malus domestica, JonathanxGolden Delicious) were analyzed in this study by high performance liquid chromatography. Precocious flowering was induced by foliar sprays of plant growth regulators. Qualitative changes in the concentration of polyphenols were observed at node nos. 50, 80 and 120. Spontaneous and induced flowering was found at node nos. 122 and 77. It was reasonable to conclude that node no. 77 represented the point of transition between the juvenile phase and the adult vegetative phase, which was marked by the presence of phloridzin in the buds. The disappearance of myricitrin in the bark and the absence of caffeic acid in the aboveground tissues were qualitative markers of the reproductive phase, which was reached at node no. 122.
Studies on apple and blueberry fruit constituents: do the polyphenols reach the colon after ingestion?:Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Apr;50(4-5):418-23.Kahle K, Kraus M, Scheppach W, Ackermann M, Ridder F, Richling E.Department of Food Chemistry, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, Germany.[PMID: 16548015]
The aim of our studies was to determine the amount of polyphenols reaching the colon after oral intake of apple juice and blueberries. After a polyphenol-free diet healthy ileostomy volunteers consumed a polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice while others consumed anthocyanin-rich blueberries. Ileostomy effluent was collected and polyphenols were identified using HPLC-DAD as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS; quantification was performed with HPLC-DAD. Most of the orally administered apple polyphenols were absorbed from or metabolized in the small intestine. Between 0 and 33% of the oral dose was recovered in the ileostomy bags with a maximum of excretion after 2 h. A higher amount of the blueberry anthocyanins under study (up to 85%, depending on the sugar moiety) were determined in the ileostomy bags and therefore would reach the colon under physiological circumstances. Such structure-related availability has to be considered when polyphenols are used in model systems to study potential preventive effects in colorectal diseases.
Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 22;54(4):1271-6.Loots DT, van der Westhuizen FH, Jerling J. School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Science and School for Chemistry and Biochemistry, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa. email@example.com[PMID: 16478247]
The polyphenolic and ascorbate (ASC) components as well as the antioxidant capacity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice were analyzed and compared to three other fruit juices. The Kei-apple juice had significantly the highest total polyphenolic concentrations (1013 mg gallic acid equivalent/L), and solid phase (C(18)) fractionation identified the majority of these polyphenols to be phenolic acids. The Kei-apple juice also had significantly the highest ASC concentrations (658 mg/L), which showed exceptional heat stability with very little conversion to dehydroascorbate (DHA). Antioxidant capacities of both the unfractionated fruit juices and their solid phase-extracted fractions, as determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses, correlated well to the polyphenol concentrations. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed caffeic acid as the most abundant polyphenol present (128.7 mg/L) in the Kei-apple juice; it contributed to 63% of the total antioxidant capacity (of all of the individual compounds identified). Other notable polyphenols identified in higher concentrations included p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid. Our results therefore support the putative high antioxidant value linked to this fruit and better define this potential in terms of the major antioxidants that exist in the Kei-apple.
Apple- and hop-polyphenols protect periodontal ligament cells stimulated with enamel matrix derivative from Porphyromonas gingivalis.:J Periodontol. 2005 Dec;76(12):2223-9.[PMID: 16332233]
BACKGROUND: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is a tissue regenerative agent used clinically as an adjunct to periodontal surgery. It was previously demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, significantly diminished the efficacy of EMD with periodontal ligament (PDL) cells through the proteolytic actions of Arg- and Lys-gingipains (Rgp and Kgp). Thus, antiproteolytic supplements are considered clinically desirable for effective periodontal regenerative therapies. In the present study, we examined apple- (AP) and hop-polyphenols to determine their ability to protect EMD-stimulated PDL cells from P. gingivalis. METHODS: AP, apple condensed tannin (ACT), hop bract polyphenol (HBP), high and low molecular weight fractions of HBP (HMW-HBP and LMW-HBP), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) were used. PDL cells were grown on EMD-coated dishes and infected with P. gingivalis, and cellular migration and proliferation were evaluated with an in vitro assay of wound healing assay in the presence or absence of the polyphenols. RESULTS: Each polyphenol significantly enhanced the viability of PDL cells infected with P. gingivalis, whereas only EGCg demonstrated cytotoxicity. Further, all polyphenols significantly inhibited Rgp activity, with AP, ACT, and HBP more effective toward Kgp. P. gingivalis markedly diminished the migration and proliferation of EMD-stimulated PDL cells, whereas the addition of AP, ACT, HBP, and HMW-HBP significantly protected the cells from bacterial cytotoxicity. In contrast, EGCg and LMW-HBP did not show protective effects. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AP, ACT, AP, HBP, and HMW-HBP protect EMD-stimulated PDL cells from P. gingivalis and may be therapeutically useful supplements for EMD therapy.
Prevention of bone loss by phloridzin, an apple polyphenol, in ovariectomized rats under inflammation conditions.:Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 Nov;77(5):311-8. Epub 2005 Nov 16.Puel C, Quintin A, Mathey J, Obled C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Kati-Coulibaly S, Horcajada MN, Coxam V.Unite des Maladies Metaboliques et Micronutriments, INRA Theix, 63122, Saint Genes-Champanelle, France.[PMID: 16307390]
Aging and sex hormones related changes lead to inflammatory and oxidant conditions, which are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent studies have suggested that polyphenols may exert a protective effect in such conditions. We assessed the effect of phloridzin (Phlo), a flavonoid exclusively found in apple, on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SH) rats with and without inflammation. Six-month-old Wistar rats were allocated to two equal groups that received either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.25% Phlo for 80 days. Three weeks before necropsy, inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of talc in 10 animals of each group. At necropsy, ovariectomy decreased both total (T-BMD) and metaphyseal (M-BMD) femoral bone mineral density (P < 0.01). Inflammation conditions, checked by an increase in the spleen weight and alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration in OVX rats, exacerbated the decrease in T-BMD (g/cm2) (as well as M-BMD) observed in castrated animals (P < 0.05). Daily Phlo intake prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in conditions of inflammation as shown by T-BMD and M-BMD (P < 0.05). At the diaphyseal site, BMD was improved by Phlo in OVX rats with or without inflammation (P < 0.05). These results could be explained by changes in bone remodeling as the increased urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion in OVX and OVXinf animals was prevented by the polyphenol-rich diet (P < 0.001), while plasma osteocalcin concentration was similar in all experimental groups. In conclusion, Phlo consumption may provide protection against ovariectomy-induced osteopenia under inflammation conditions by improving inflammation markers and bone resorption.
Examination of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose and the enolone ascopyrone P, metabolites of the anhydrofructose pathway of glycogen and starch degradation, for their possible application in fruits, vegetables, and beverages as antibrowning agents.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9491-7.Yuan Y, Mo S, Cao R, Westh BC, Yu S. Agricultural Produce Quality and Safety Laboratory, Laiyang Agricultural University, 266109 Qingdao, China. [PMID: 16302767]
The anhydrofructose pathway describes the degradation of glycogen and starch to 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5AnFru) and its further conversion to the enolone ascopyrone P (APP) via the transit intermediate ascopyrone M. The two products, 1,5AnFru and APP, were examined in this study for their effects in controlling the browning of selected fruits, vegetables, and beverages. The results showed that 1,5AnFru had an antibrowning effect in green tea and was able to slow turbidity development in black currant wine. APP proved to be an antibrowning agent comparable to kojic acid. It showed an antibrowning effect in a range of agricultural products, such as various cultivars of apple, pear, potato, lettuce, and varieties of green tea in an efficacy concentration range from 300 to 500 ppm. Mechanism studies indicated that, like kojic acid, APP showed inhibition toward plant polyphenol oxidase and was able to decolor quinones.
Aminoparathion: a highly reactive metabolite of parathion. 1. Reactions with polyphenols and polyphenol oxidase.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 16;53(23):9140-5.Rung B, Schwack W.Institut fur Lebensmittelchemie, Universitat Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.[PMID: 16277414]
Spiking of tomato and apple fruits with parathion at different levels of about 1-4 mg/kg irradiation and under simulated sunlight conditions resulted in nearly complete photodegradation within 13 h, but extractable parathion degradation products could not be found in any case. However, after irradiation of an unrealistically spiked apple (134 mg/kg) different photoproducts including aminoparathion (AP) were detectable by HPLC, proving that the hitherto postulated photochemistry of parathion indeed takes place in the fruit cuticle environment. Besides the photoreduction pathway it was shown for the first time that AP is also easily formed by reduction of the primary photoproduct nitrosoparathion with thiols (cysteine, glutathione), while ascorbic acid only leaves hydroxylaminoparathion. In the presence of polyphenols, AP was effectively bound to quinone intermediates formed by both silver oxide and polyphenol oxidases. For pyrocatechol, a disubstituted o-quinone derivative could be isolated as a dark red addition product and structurally be elucidated. However, in the presence of caffeic acid, catechol, naringin, and quercetin, respectively, insoluble dark colored polymers precipitated within 48 h, while in the supernatants AP was not detectable any more. Polymer-bound and nonextractable AP was proven by transesterification with sodium ethoxide releasing O,O,O-triethyl thiophosphate which was determined by GC. Additionally, AP itself was a substrate for polyphenol oxidases, resulting in a quinone imine intermediate which in turn reacted with excessive AP yielding deep red colored di- and trimerization products.
Colonic availability of apple polyphenols--a study in ileostomy subjects.:Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Dec;49(12):1143-50.Kahle K, Kraus M, Scheppach W, Richling E. Department of Food Chemistry, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.[PMID: 16252309]
Nutrition is thought to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. It is well known that plant ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids show anticarcinogenic effects both in vitro and in animal experiments, and may thus reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in man. The aim of the study was to determine the amount of polyphenols reaching the colon after oral intake of apple juice. After consumption of a polyphenol-free diet 11 healthy ileostomy volunteers drank 1 L of a polyphenol-rich cloudy apple juice. Ileostomy effluent was collected immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after consumption of apple juice. A broad spectrum of polyphenols was identified using HPLC-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) as well as HPLC-ESI-MS/MS; quantitation was performed with HPLC-DAD. Most of the orally administered apple polyphenols were absorbed from or metabolized in the small intestine. Between 0 and 33% of the oral dose was recovered in the ileostomy bags with a maximum of excretion after 2 h. Phloretin glucuronide as product of polyphenol metabolism was detected in the ileostomy effluent. The present results show that most of the apple juice polyphenols are absorbed in the small intestine. Minor amounts of unmetabolized polyphenols are recovered in the ileostomy effluent, which would reach the colon under physiologic circumstances. These data have to be considered when polyphenols are used in model systems to show preventive effects in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Inhibitory effect of polyphenol-enriched apple extracts on mast cell degranulation in vitro targeting the binding between IgE and FcepsilonRI.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Oct;69(10):1974-7.[PMID: 16244451]
Extracts from immature fruit of the apple (Rosaceae, Malus sp.), which contain procyanidins (polymers of catechins) as the major ingredients, are known to inhibit histamine release from mast cells. We analyzed in this study the mechanism for the anti-allergic activity of two polyphenol-enriched apple extracts. These extracts, termed "crude apple polyphenol (CAP)" and "apple condensed tannin (ACT)", reduced the degranulation of mast cells caused by cross-linking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) with IgE and the antigen in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of the intracellular signal-transduction molecules caused by cross-linking of FcepsilonRI was markedly decreased by the addition of CAP or ACT. We then analyzed the effects of CAP and ACT on the binding of the IgE antibody to FcepsilonRI on mast cells, which is the first key step in the allergic reaction mediated by mast cells, and found that this binding was markedly inhibited by both CAP and ACT. These results indicate that the inhibition of binding between FcepsilonRI and IgE by either CAP or ACT was the probable cause of the suppression of mast cell activation. This is the first report demonstrating the molecular mechanism for the anti-allergic effect of procyanidin-enriched extracts from apples.
1-Methylcyclopropene interactions with diphenylamine on diphenylamine degradation, alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienol concentrations, and polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in apple fruit.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 21;53(19):7565-70.Apollo Arquiza JM, Hay AG, Nock JF, Watkins CB.Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.[PMID: 16159187]
1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a new technology that is applied commercially to inhibit ethylene action in apple fruit, but its interactions with existing technologies such as diphenylamine (DPA) for control of superficial scald development in fruit during and after storage is unknown. To investigate possible interactions between 1-MCP and DPA, Delicious apples were untreated or treated with 2 g L(-1) DPA, and then with or without 1 microL L(-1) 1-MCP. Ethylene production and respiration rates of fruit were measured immediately following treatment, and fruit was stored at 0.5 degrees C for 12 weeks. Internal ethylene concentrations (IEC), alpha-farnesene and conjugated trienol (CTol) concentrations, activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and DPA levels in the skin of the fruit were measured at intervals during storage. 1-MCP reduced the rate of DPA loss from peel tissue so that by 12 weeks of storage concentrations of the chemical were 25% higher than in untreated fruit. 1-MCP, with and without DPA, markedly inhibited ethylene production and respiration rates, maintained low IEC and alpha-farnesene and CTol concentrations, while DPA had little effect on these factors except inhibition of CTol accumulation. Treatment effects on peroxidase and PPO activities were inconsistent.
Dietary unripe apple polyphenol inhibits the development of food allergies in murine models.:FEBS Lett. 2005 Aug 15;579(20):4485-91.[PMID: 16081068]
The incidence of type I allergic disorders has been increasing worldwide, particularly, the hypersensitivity to food. We first showed that apple condensed tannin (ACT) intake would inhibit the development of the oral sensitization and that the inhibition could correlate with the rise in the population of TCR(gamma)delta-T cells in the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) using W/W(V) mice and B10A mice which were ovalbumin (OVA)-orally sensitized. Serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G1 titers in the OVA-orally sensitized W/W(V) and B10A mice ad libitium fed ACT were extremely inhibited compared to those of the control. The ACT intakes of OVA-sensitized W/W(V) and B10A mice inhibited the immediate reduction of the body temperature or the rise in serum histamine induced by active systemic anaphylaxis. The proportions of the TCR(gamma)delta-T cells in the IEL of the OVA-orally sensitized W/W(V) and B10A mice ad libitium fed ACT were significantly greater than that in the controls. Furthermore, ACT feeding by itself could induce the rise in the percentage of the TCR(gamma)delta-T cells among the IEL of the W/W(V) and B10A mice. This suggests that the ACT intake may prevent the development of food allergies and this effect could be correlated with the rise in the percentage of TCR(gamma)delta-T cells among the IEL.
Procyanidin trimers to pentamers fractionated from apple inhibit melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jul 27;53(15):6105-11.[PMID: 16029003]
The effects of apple polyphenols on melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated. The inhibitory effect of apple polyphenols was stronger than that of arbutin or kojic acid. Three polyphenol fractions (phenolic acid derivatives, procyanidins and other flavonoids) were isolated, and the procyanidins were fractionated according to the degree of polymerization using normal-phase chromatography. The procyanidin trimer-to-pentamer fractions were found to have the most pronounced effect on melanogenesis. Furthermore, each procyanidin fraction inhibited mushroom tyrosinase. No correlation between the degree of procyanidin polymerization and tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed. Nevertheless, these observations suggest that procyanidins are effective inhibitors of tyrosinase.
Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.:Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Aug;49(8):797-806.Kahle K, Kraus M, Richling E.Food Chemistry, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany. [PMID: 15991215]
Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.
Clinical efficacy of apple polyphenol for treating cedar pollinosis.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Apr;69(4):829-32.[PMID: 15849424]
A double-blind comparative study was conducted on cedar pollinosis patients in order to evaluate the treatment efficacy of apple polyphenol (Ap). Ap was administered (500 mg) once daily for 12 weeks, starting about 2 weeks prior to cedar pollen dispersion. Pollinosis symptoms during the study were evaluated according to the classification in the guidelines for allergic rhinitis diagnosis and treatment. The results show that the sneezing score was significantly lower for the Ap group than with the placebo group during the early period of pollen dispersion and during the main dispersion period. In addition, no adverse reactions were induced by Ap during the study. These results suggest that Ap may alleviate the symptoms of cedar pollinosis.
Suppression of apple polyphenol oxidase by double-stranded RNA (RNAi):Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2004 Dec;37(6):487-93.Cao YH, Zhang Z, Yao QH, Peng RH, Xiong AS, Li X.Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing 210095, China.[PMID: 15789769]
Antisense and sense gene fragments (710 base pairs) of apple polyphenol oxidase (APPO) gene were obtained by RT-PCR amplification, using the total RNAs isolated from ripen apple fruit as the template. These two fragments were ligated with a 1000 bp spacer, YYT (crtW+crtY fusion) gene, which is relative to carotenoid synthesization in subcocci. The full-length 2446 bp-target gene was then inserted into plant binary vector pYPX145 to generate the recombinant plasmid pYF7704, which carried the expression unit, of APPO dsRNA. pYF7704 was transformed to apple (Malus x domestica) var. Red Fuji via agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated leaf disc transformation. With the selection of Karamycin and GUS detection assays, transgenic shoots of A PPO dsRNA were obtained. The results of FQ-RT-PCR indicated that APPO mRNA level was suppressed to 91.69% in transgenic shoots compared to wide shoots. The data suggested that dsRNAi technology on apple polyphenol oxidase is feasible to be utilized in transgenic shoots.
Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor in apple juice extract.:Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Apr;49(4):317-28.Kern M, Tjaden Z, Ngiewih Y, Puppel N, Will F, Dietrich H, Pahlke G, Marko D.Department of Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.[PMID: 15759309]
The polyphenol-rich extract of a consumer-relevant apple juice blend was found to potently inhibit the growth of the human colon cancer cell line HT29 in vitro. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its subsequent signaling cascade play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation in HT29 cells. The protein tyrosine kinase activity of an EGFR preparation was effectively inhibited by the polyphenol-rich apple juice extract. Treatment of intact cells with this extract resulted in the suppression of the subsequent mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Amongst the so far identified apple juice constituents, the proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as quercetin-3-glc (isoquercitrin) and quercetin-3-gal (hyperoside) were found to possess substantial EGFR-inhibitory properties. However, as to be expected from the final concentration of these potential EGFR inhibitors in the original polyphenol-rich extract, a synthetic mixture of the apple juice constituents identified and available so far, including both proanthocyanidins and the quercetin glycosides, showed only marginal inhibitory effects on the EGFR. These results permit the assumption that yet unknown constituents contribute substantially to the potent EGFR-inhibitory properties of polyphenol-rich apple juice extract. In summary, the polyphenol composition of apple juice possesses promising growth-inhibitory properties, affecting proliferation-associated signaling cascades in colon tumor cells.
Plant genotype affects total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents in fruit.:Nutrition. 2005 Feb;21(2):207-13.Scalzo J, Politi A, Pellegrini N, Mezzetti B, Battino M. Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali e delle Produzioni Vegetali, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Marche, Italy.[PMID: 15723750]
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to determine the total antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid equivalent antioxidant assay; TEAC) of different species and cultivars (strawberry and apple) and to characterize the TEAC among fruits of the same varieties (peach and apricot) but grafted on different rootstocks. METHODS: The study was carried out with wild strawberry, six varieties of cultivated strawberry, and five varieties of apple and with apricot and peach grafted on five different rootstocks that are known to induce different plant vigor and fruit qualitative features. The TEAC (considering lipophilic and hydrophilic contributions) was determined for all fruit varieties, and total polyphenol contents were assayed. One-way analysis of variance was used to test differences among fruits and to identify possible correlations of TEAC versus total phenolics. RESULTS: The following hierarchy of antioxidant activities was found: wild strawberries >> cultivated strawberries >> kiwifruit = apples = apricots = peaches. Further, differences were found among strawberries with different genotypes and in apricots and peaches grafted from different rootstocks. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest the importance of genotype for determining antioxidant potential and phenolic contents. Variety manipulation may be a powerful tool for modifying antioxidant fruit patterns and contents.
Apple polyphenol extracts prevent damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo.:Gut. 2005 Feb;54(2):193-200.Graziani G, D'Argenio G, Tuccillo C, Loguercio C, Ritieni A, Morisco F, Del Vecchio Blanco C, Fogliano V, Romano M.Dipartimento di Scienza degli Alimenti, Universita di Napoli, Italy.[PMID: 15647180]
BACKGROUND: Fresh fruit and vegetables exert multiple biological effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa. AIM: To assess whether apple extracts counteract oxidative or indomethacin induced damage to gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Apple extracts were obtained from freeze dried apple flesh of the "Annurca" variety. Cell damage was induced by incubating MKN 28 cells with xanthine-xanthine oxidase or indomethacin and quantitated by MTT. In vivo gastric damage was induced by indomethacin 35 mg/kg. Intracellular antioxidant activity was determined using the (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) method. Malondialdehyde intracellular concentration, an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. RESULTS: (1) Apple extracts decreased xanthine-xanthine oxidase or indomethacin induced injury to gastric epithelial cells by 50%; (2) catechin or chlorogenic acid (the main phenolic components of apple extracts) were equally effective as apple extracts in preventing oxidative injury to gastric cells; and (3) apple extracts (i) caused a fourfold increase in intracellular antioxidant activity, (ii) prevented its decrease induced by xanthine-xanthine oxidase, (iii) counteracted xanthine-xanthine oxidase induced lipid peroxidation, and (iv) decreased indomethacin injury to the rat gastric mucosa by 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Apple extracts prevent exogenous damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to the rat gastric mucosa in vivo. This effect seems to be associated with the antioxidant activity of apple phenolic compounds. A diet rich in apple antioxidants might exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric diseases related to generation of reactive oxygen species.
Characteristics and physiological functions of polyphenols from apples.:Biofactors. 2004;22(1-4):311-4.[PMID: 15630302]
Apples contain many kinds of polyphenols, and the main components are oligomeric procyanidins. Applephenon is apple polyphenol extract produced commercially from unripe apples, and has been used as food additive in order to prevent oxidation of components in foods and its application in functional foods is expected. In a lipid metabolism regulation study, administration of Applephenon has the potential to exert strong anti-oxidative activity and to inhibit consumption of vitamin E and anti-oxidative enzymes. Double blind clinical trials of Applephenon on pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, and tests using type I allergic model mice suggested that Applephenon might regulate allergic reactions. We found the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of Applephenon is greater than 2000 mg/kg in a 90~day consecutive oral administration toxicity test in rats, and Applephenon is safe and acceptable based on mutagenicity tests.
Comparative content of total polyphenols and dietary fiber in tropical fruits and persimmon.:J Nutr Biochem. 1999 Jun;10(6):367-71.Gorinstein S, Zemser M, Haruenkit R, Chuthakorn R, Grauer F, Martin-Belloso O, Trakhtenberg S.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.[PMID: 15539312]
Recent studies have shown that dietary fiber and polyphenols of vegetables and fruits improve lipid metabolism and prevent the oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which hinder the development of atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to measure the total polyphenol and dietary fiber contents of some tropical fruits (i.e., pineapple, wax apple, rambutan, lichi, guava, and mango) and compare the results to the content of these substances in the better characterized persimmon. It was found that lichi, guava, and ripe mango (cv. Keaw) have 3.35, 4.95, and 6.25 mg of total polyphenols in 100 g fresh fruit, respectively. This is significantly higher than in persimmon, pineapple, wax apple, mature green mango, and rambutan [P < 0.0005 for pineapple (Smooth Cayene variant), wax apple, persimmon, rambutan, mature green mango (cv. Keaw); the value of P < 0.001 is found only for pineapple (Phuket, Queen variant)]. The same relationship was observed for the contents of gallic acid and of dietary fiber. It can be supposed that among the studied fruit, lichi, guava, and ripe mango may be preferable for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis.
Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 20;52(21):6532-8.Vrhovsek U, Rigo A, Tonon D, Mattivi F. Istituto Agrario di San Michele, via E. Mach 2, 38010 San Michele all'Adige, Italy.[PMID: 15479019]
Forty-one apple samples, representing eight of the most widely cultivated varieties in western Europe, were collected in Trentino, Italy. Samples were extracted from fresh fruit with a mixture of acetone/water to achieve a good extraction of polyphenols, including proanthocyanidin oligomers which were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC. Up to 20 compounds including catechin, epicatechin, B2 procyanidin, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC and LC-MS. Total polyphenol content was independently measured with an optimized Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The mean content of total polyphenols lay between 66.2 and 211.9 mg/100 g of FW depending on the variety. With chromatographic analysis, it was possible to explain the whole amount of total polyphenols measured by the FC assay. Flavanols (catechin and proanthocyanidins) are the major class of apple polyphenols (71-90%), followed by hydroxycinnamates (4-18%), flavonols (1-11%), dihydrochalcones (2-6%), and in red apples anthocyanins (1-3%). Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society.
Influence of variety and storage on the polyphenol composition of apple flesh.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 20;52(21):6526-31.Napolitano A, Cascone A, Graziani G, Ferracane R, Scalfi L, Di Vaio C, Ritieni A, Fogliano V.Dipartimento di Scienza degli alimenti, Universita di Napoli "Federico II", Parco Gussone, 80055 Portici, Napoli, Italy.[PMID: 15479018]
Apple is among the most consumed fruits worldwide. It is available on the market for the whole year being a major source of dietary polyphenols. Several studies suggested that apple polyphenols could play a role in prevention of degenarative diseases. The action of these compounds has been partially ascribed to their antioxidative ability, and fruit antioxidants profile is influenced by apple variety and by the postharvest storage. In this work, the polyphenols composition of the flesh of four apple varieties cultivated in southern Italy were investigated by HPLC, and a flow injection MS/MS procedure to quantify cholorogenic acid and catechins was set up. Phenolic composition and the radical scavenging activity were monitored during a postharvest storage of four months. The quantification by flow injection procedure gives results comparable to those obtained by HPLC, and the increase of the antioxidant activity during storage correlated with an increase of the concentration of catechin and phloridzin. This trend is particularly evident for the variety "Annurca" which is a typical product cultivated in the area around Naples. The genetic characteristics of the Annurca variety together with the anticipated harvest time and the peculiar postharvest conditions are likely responsible for this increase of the antioxidant activity.
The toxicology and safety of apple polyphenol extract.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Jun;42(6):959-67.[PMID: 15110105]
Apple polyphenol extract has strong antioxidant activity and various physiological functions, and is used in China as a food additive and nutritional supplements. Here, we tested the consumption safety of Applephenon, which is a polyphenol extract produced from unripe apples. The Ames test without S9 mixture revealed that Applephenon, had slight mutagenicity at a high concentration of 2500 microg/plate; however, both chromosomal aberration test and the micronucleus test found no significant mutagenicity. Furthermore, an acute oral-toxicity test, and a 90-day subchronic-toxicity test showed no significant hematological, clinical, chemical, histopathological, or urinary effects at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. These results confirm that Applephenon is safe and no toxic at average dietary level.
Inhibition of apple polyphenol oxidase activity by procyanidins and polyphenol oxidation products.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jan 14;52(1):122-30.Le Bourvellec C, Le Quere JM, Sanoner P, Drilleau JF, Guyot S.Unite de Recherches Cidricoles, Biotransformation des Fruits et Legumes, INRA, Domaine de la Motte, BP 35327, 35653 Le Rheu Cedex, France. firstname.lastname@example.org[PMID: 14709024]
The rate of consumption of dissolved oxygen by apple polyphenol oxidase in cider apple juices did not correlate with polyphenol oxidase activity in the fruits and decreased faster than could be explained by the decrease of its polyphenolic substrates. The kinetics parameters of a crude polyphenol oxidase extract, prepared from apple (Braeburn cultivar), were determined using caffeoylquinic acid as a substrate. Three apple procyanidin fractions of n 80, 10.5, and 4 were purified from the parenchyma of cider apples of various cultivars. Procyanidins, caffeoylquinic acid, (-)-epicatechin, and a mixture of caffeoylquinic acid and (-)-epicatechin were oxidized by reaction with caffeoylquinic acid o-quinone in order to form oxidation products. All the fractions were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Native procyanidins inhibited polyphenol oxidase activity, the inhibition intensity increasing with n. The polyphenol oxidase activity decreased by 50% for 0.026 g/L of the fraction of n 80, 0.17 g/L of the fraction of n 10.5, and 1 g/L of the fraction of n 4. The inhibitory effect of oxidized procyanidins was twice that of native procyanidins. Oxidation products of caffeoylquinic acid and (-)-epicatechin also inhibited polyphenol oxidase.
Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Oct 8;51(21):6240-7.Guyot S, Marnet N, Sanoner P, Drilleau JF.Unite de Recherches Cidricoles, Biotransformation des Fruits et Legumes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, B.P. 35327, 35653 Le Rheu Cedex, France. email@example.com[PMID: 14518950]
Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.
Lower crop load for Cv. Jonagold apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) increases polyphenol content and fruit quality.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Mar 13;50(6):1643-6.Stopar M, Bolcina U, Vanzo A, Vrhovsek U.Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Matej.Stopar@KIS-h2.si[PMID: 11879050]
The influence of crop load on fruit quality was investigated on 7-year-old slender spindle cv. Jonagold/M.9 apple trees. In mid June five different crop loads per tree were prepared by reducing the fruit number to average 30, 59, 104, 123, and 157 fruits per crown. The fruit from low-cropping trees had more red blush, a higher percentage of soluble solids in fruit flesh, and better flesh firmness in comparison to fruit from high-cropping trees. As the crop load decreased, the concentration of all phenolic compounds in the fruit samples (cortex plus skin) increased; concentrations of the most important individual fruit phenolics were also higher. When crop load fell from 157 to 30 fruits per crown, total polyphenols increased from an average of 1300 to 1680 mg/kg of fruit fresh weight (FW) (+29%), low molecular weight polyphenols increased from 1140 to 1570 mg/kg of FW (+38%), and high molecular weight polyphenols increased from 1740 to 2070 mg/kg of FW (+19%). The average increases in single polyphenols were even greater: chlorogenic acid (+82%); 4'-p-coumaroylquinic acid (+22%); catechin (+178%); and epicatechin (+71%). Ascorbic acid was not significantly dependent on crop load.
Investigation of topical application of procyanidin B-2 from apple to identify its potential use as a hair growing agent.:Phytomedicine. 2000 Dec;7(6):529-36.[PMID: 11194183]
Procyanidin B-2 is a polyphenol compound we have identified in apple which acts as a hair-growing factor in the murine model both in vitro and in vivo. This report describes our investigation of the effects of 1% procyanidin B-2 tonic on human hair growth after sequential use for 6 months. A double-blind clinical test involving a total of 29 subjects was performed. Nineteen men in the procyanidin B-2 group and 10 men in the placebo control group were subjected to analyses. No adverse side effects were observed in either group. The hair-growing effect was evaluated using a macrophotography technique combined with measurements of the hair diameter of clipped hairs. The increase in number of total hairs in the designated scalp area (0.5 cm square = 0.25 cm2 area) of procyanidin B-2 group subjects after the 6-month trial was significantly greater than that of the placebo control group subjects (procyanidin B-2, 6.68 +/- 5.53 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; placebo, 0.08 +/- 4.56 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; P < 0.005, two-sample t test). The increase in number of terminal hairs, which are defined as hairs more than 60 microm in diameter, in the designated area (0.5 cm square = 0.25 cm2 area) of the procyanidin B-2 group subjects after the 6-month trial was significantly greater than that of the placebo control group subjects (procyanidin B-2, 1.99 +/- 2.58 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; placebo, -0.82 +/- 3.40 (mean +/- SD)/0.25 cm2; P < 0.02, two-sample t test). Procyanidin B-2 therapy shows potential as a safe and promising cure for male pattern baldness.
Cholesterol oxidation in meat products and its regulation by supplementation of sodium nitrite and apple polyphenol before processing.:J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Sep;48(9):3823-9.[PMID: 10995277]
The levels of cholesterol oxidation derivatives (OxChol) in eight commercial species of meat products were examined. These products contained more than 1 mg/100 g of OxChol, and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol + 5beta-epoxycholesterol (111-1092 microg/100 g), 5alpha-epoxycholesterol (80-712 microg/100 g), cholestanetriol (0-368 microg/100 g), and 7-ketocholesterol (708-1204 microg/100 g) were detected. To know the interaction of sodium nitrite supplementation against cholesterol oxidation in meat products, sausage was produced with or without varying levels of sodium nitrite and stored in the refrigerator for 15 days. As a result, cholesterol oxidation in sausage was inhibited by addition of sodium nitrite in a dose-dependent manner. This observation may be associated with inactivation of O(2)(-) radical and stabilization of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the levels of OxChol in sausage increased, accompanying the decrease of coexisting linoleic acid when sodium nitrite was not added to sausage meat. Thus, cholesterol oxidation in meat products seems to be considarably promoted by the oxidation of coexisting PUFAs. On the other hand, additive apple polyphenol also inhibited linoleic acid oxidation in sausage and then suppressed cholesterol oxidation through its radical scavenging effects. Therefore, apple polyphenol, having a large amount of an oligomer of catechin, may interfere with cholesterol oxidation in meat processing or storage of meat products through its antioxidative action and be useful as a new antioxitant for meat products when it is added to the original meat before processing.
Polyphenol profiles of French cider apple varieties (Malus domestica sp.).:J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Dec;47(12):4847-53.Sanoner P, Guyot S, Marnet N, Molle D, Drilleau JP. Laboratoire de Recherches Cidricoles, Biotransformation des Fruits et Legumes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, BP 29, 35650 Le Rheu, France.[PMID: 10606541]
The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.
Inhibitory effects of apple polyphenol on induced histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells and rat mast cells.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 Jul;62(7):1284-9.[PMID: 9720210]
The anti-allergic activities of polyphenol fractions extracted from immature fruits of apple (Rosaceae, Malus sp.) were evaluated by in vitro assays. A crude apple polyphenol (CAP) fraction, which had been obtained from the juice of immature apples by reverse-phase column chromatography, was further purified by LH-20 column chromatography to obtain an apple condensed tannin (ACT) fraction consisting of linear oligomeric epicatechins from the dimer to pentadecamer. ACT strongly inhibited the release of histamine from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated by the antigen-stimulation and from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80. The IC50 values for histamine release were 30 micrograms/ml and 25 micrograms/ml, respectively. ACT also inhibited hyaluronidase activity and the increase in intracellular free calcium concentration in RBL-2H3 cells stimulated with the antigen. These results suggest that ACT affected early signal transduction including the calcium influx.
- If I were an apple,and grew on a tree.Apple Peel and Core Extract.
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