What is CoQ10?Heart Energy Engine and More.
- What is CoQ10? Chemical Structure of Coenzyme Q10.
- Introduction: Coenzyme Q10.
- Benefits of Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10(Co Q 10).
- Actions and Pharmacology for CoQ10(Co Q 10).
- Coenzyme Q10 in food.
- Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency.
- Effects of Statin Drugs on CoQ10(Co Q 10).
- Supplementation and Safety.
- Commercial Production of CoQ10(Co Q 10) Supplements.
- Biochemistry of CoQ10(Co Q 10).
- Indications and Usage.
- Research Update and Findings of Coenzyme Q10.
Benefits of Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10(Co Q 10).:
The most important role CoQ10 plays in the body is to support the production and function of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, the metabolic energy on which the body runs. CoQ10 is found primarily within the membrane of a cell organelle called the mitochondrion, which is often referred to as the "power house" of the cell. Mitochondria are affectionately known as this because of their ability to drive the production of ATP. CoQ10 is an important rate-limiting nutrient that is a cofactor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain,the biochemical pathway in cellular respiration from which ATP is derived. It serves as an electron transport carrier during the processes of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Since nearly all cellular activities are dependent upon energy, coenzyme Q10 is essential for the health of all human tissues and organs.
The heart is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, thus it requires large amounts of uninterrupted energy. Heart muscle cells have the greatest concentration of mitochondria, and subsequently, more CoQ10 than any other type of cell. Each heart cell can have thousands of mitochondria (5,000 per cell) to meet these energy demands.
COQ10 is needed by every cell in the body to produce energy. This energy is used in countless crucial ways, such as breaking down and digesting our food, healing wounds, and maintaining healthy muscles. Because Coenzyme Q10 is central to the production of energy, it's not surprising that it is found in especially high concentrations in the heart muscle, which requires a tremendous amount of energy to perform its incessant functions.
Coenzyme Q10 or Co Q10 works together with our body's enzymes, especially those in cells that demand large amounts of energy such as heart cells.This popular supplement has many health benefits for the heart: it helps keep the heart muscle strong so it can beat properly more than 100,000 times a day for decades!
Cardiovascular system engine:
Numerous studies indicate coenzyme Q10 also plays an important role in the maintenance of the entire cardiovascular system. As previously mentioned, CoQ10, in its reduced form, plays an important role as an antioxidant nutrient. The antioxidant potential of CoQ10 helps our bodies prevent or delay cellular deterioration. It is this deterioration that is one of the predominant causes of heart disease. CoQ10 is essential for healthy heart function, as well as to protect the veins and arteries from free radical damage. Research has shown that CoQ10 supplementation exerts a sparing effect on vitamin E in healthy subjects. It also reduces levels of lipid peroxidation, the pivotal step in the cause of atherosclerosis, thereby decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Much has been attributed to COQ10's ability to strengthen the heart muscle, and prevent heart attacks and heart disease. Indeed, unlike some other nutritional supplements, which have scant scientific evidence of efficacy, Coenzyme Q10 has been proven in multiple major studies to significantly improve the health of patients with congestive heart failure.
Coenzyme Q10 can also help treat heart disease. In a 12-month placebo-controlled study of more than 2,500 patients suffering from heart disease, those who took coenzyme Q10 were shown to have improved symptoms as compared to those who took only placebo.
Studies have also suggested that taking coenzyme Q10 can help those suffering from high blood pressure by lowering the elevated pressure and preventing complications of this condition.
In addition, other studies have revealed that people suffering from cardiovascular disease tend to have low levels of this crucial nutrient, strongly suggesting a link.
Antioxidant and oxidative stress inhibitor:
In addition to its heart-friendly benefits, coenzyme Q10 is also a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize harmful free-radicals. There are studies that suggest that coenzyme Q10 can boost the immune system and help prevent and treat certain forms of cancers.
Several clinical trials have provided evidence supporting the use of supplementation with CoQ10 in the prevention and treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress. It has been shown that CoQ10's antioxidant properties and its central role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation make it useful as adjunct therapy for cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure (a disease in which the heart does not adequately maintain circulation), hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease), angina pectoris (chest pain), drug-induced cardiotoxicity, and ventricular arrhythmia. A significant deficiency of CoQ10 was detected in patients with hypertension. A pilot study showed that CoQ10 supplementation at dosages that ranged from 30 to 360 mg/day to patients with hypertension led to an increase in CoQ10 levels and statistically significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
CoQ10 is also gaining notoriety as a helpful dietary supplement for non-cardiac conditions including diabetes, Parkinson's disease, periodontal disease, compromised immune systems, cancer, muscular dystrophy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is substantial evidence that oxidative damage may play a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In a recent study, the percent content of the oxidized form of CoQ10 (a marker of oxidative stress) in total CoQ10 (both oxidized and reduced forms) was found to be slightly elevated in Parkinson's disease patients, when compared with normal subjects, suggesting elevated oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease patients.
CoQ10 supports a broad range of functions in the body leading many experts to suggest that CoQ10 should be an integral part of any dietary supplementation program.
Coenzyme Q10 also acts as a nutrient with powerful antioxidant properties. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, which are highly reactive chemical substances that can damage cellular material, leading to premature aging and disease. Because of the protection it affords, some experts believe it may have a role in treating or preventing certain types of cancers. Indeed, some studies, although not major in scope, have shown this nutrient can help survival rates in those with prostate and breast cancer.
Coenzyme Q10 for a healthy heart:
Ubiquinone, or coenzyme Q10, is an important nutrient. 2 of its primary uses are for those who are taking high cholesterol pills (the statin drugs in particular). Certain lipid-lowering drugs, such as the 'statins' - lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin - and gemfibrozil as well as oral agents which lower blood sugar, such as tolazamide and glyburide, cause a decrease in serum levels of coenzyme Q10 and reduce the effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation. These drugs inhibit the production of coenzyme Q10 by the liver and will cause serious complications unless one supplements coenzyme Q10 back into the diet. A prescription for lipid-lowering statin drugs should always be accompanied with a recommendation to take coenzyme Q10, because if a person is deficient in coenzyme Q10, heart failure is more likely.
Beta-blockers (drugs which slow the heart rate and lower blood pressure) can inhibit coenzyme Q10-dependent enzyme reactions.
The 2nd major use of Coenzyme Q10 would be in the case of congestive heart failure, where it is particularly effective. Its importance to the human heart is illustrated by the fact that the heart may cease to function as coenzyme Q10 levels fall by 75%.
In congestive heart failure, the heart cannot pump efficiently, which slows the flow of blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. The heart can temporarily maintain the blood in several ways. It can enlarge to pump extra blood; it can beat faster; or the ventricular walls can become thicker, which can strengthen the pumping ability.
So how does Coenzyme Q10 work? To better understand this, we need to go back to a term from high school biology that you may have forgotten: adenosine triphosphate, also known as 'ATP'.
ATP, occurring in every cell of your body, serves as a source of energy for many of your body's biochemical processes and represents the reserve energy in your muscles. Your heart for example, being a muscle which is continually in motion, needs a constant supply of ATP. This is where the importance of Coenzyme Q10 comes into play: ATP cannot be produced without Coenzyme Q10. Coenzyme Q10 is the catalyst for the creation of ATP. This means that Coenzyme Q10 plays a vital role in the inner workings of your body and, for obvious reasons, is found in the highest concentration in the heart.
High blood pressure (hypertension):
Preliminary research suggests that CoQ10 causes small decreases in blood pressure (systolic and possibly diastolic). Low blood levels of CoQ10 have been found in people with hypertension, although it is not clear if CoQ10 "deficiency" is a cause of high blood pressure. It is not known what dose is safe or effective. CoQ10 is less commonly used to treat hypertension than it is for other heart conditions such as congestive heart failure. Well-designed long-term research is needed to strengthen this recommendation.
Coenzyme Q10 and Parkinson's disease:
Low levels of natural coenzyme Q-10 have been observed in individuals with muscle-wasting diseases (conditions that result in decreased muscle size and efficiency). Therefore, coenzyme Q-10 is being studied as a possible treatment for conditions, such as Parkinson disease (PD), that affect muscle function. Coenzyme Q-10 possible energy-enhancing effects may prevent the deterioration of muscle activity. Additionally, in animal and human studies, increasing amounts of coenzyme Q-10 also seemed to increase levels of a neurotransmitter known as dopamine. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry messages from nerve cells to other cells. Individuals with PD generally have low dopamine levels, so raising dopamine may relieve their PD symptoms. Additionally, coenzyme Q-10 may reduce other factors, such as inflammation and damage by oxygen free radicals, that may cause or worsen PD. Studies are less conclusive, however, for coenzyme Q-10 possible effectiveness for other muscle-wasting conditions such as Huntington disease and muscular dystrophy. While these and similar conditions may have a connection to low coenzyme Q-10 levels, it is not known if the lowered levels of coenzyme Q-10 contribute to the conditions or result from them. Much more research is needed in these areas.
Results of the first placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial of the compound coenzyme Q10 suggest that it can slow down disease progression in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease. While the findings must be confirmed in a larger study, they provide hope that coenzyme Q10 may ultimately provide a new way of treating Parkinson's disease.
The phase II study, led by Clifford Shults, M.D., of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, looked at a total of 80 Parkinson's disease patients at 10 centers across the U.S. to determine whether coenzyme Q10 is safe and whether it can slow down the rate of functional decline. The study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and appears in the October 15,
2002 issue of the Archives of Neurology.
"This trial suggests that coenzyme Q10 can slow the rate of deterioration in Parkinson's disease," says Dr. Shults. "However, before the compound is used widely, the results need to be confirmed in a larger group of patients."
The researchers believe that coenzyme Q10 works by improving the function of mitochondria, the 'powerhouses' which produce energy in cells. Coenzyme Q10 is an important link in the chain of chemical reactions which produces this energy. It's also a potent antioxidant - a chemical that "mops up" harmful free radicals generated during normal metabolism. Previous studies carried out by Dr. Shults, Richard Haas, M.D., of UCSD and Flint Beal, M.D., of Cornell University have shown that coenzyme Q10 levels in mitochondria in Parkinson's disease patients are reduced and that mitochondrial function in these patients is impaired.
Animal studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 can protect the area of the brain which is damaged in Parkinson's disease. Dr. Shults and his colleagues also conducted a pilot study with Parkinson's disease patients which showed that consumption of up to 800 mg/day of coenzyme Q10 was well tolerated and significantly increased the level of coenzyme Q10 in the bloodstream.
However, in terms of Parkinson's disease, prevention is clearly the best option. The single best thing one can do is avoid pesticide and insecticide exposure.
Coenzyme Q10 and exercise performance Basic biochemistry:
Coenzyme Q10 and related ubiquinones were first discovered in 1955 by RA Morton and associates in Liverpool, England. F.L. Crane and colleagues extracted and isolated ubiquinone from mitochondria and dubbed the term coenzyme Q.The number of side chain isoprenoid units determines the nomenclature. Coenzyme Q6 is found in bacteria whereas CoQ10 is found in mammalian mitochondria. CoQ10 is one part of complex series of reactions that occur within mitochondria -- ultimately linked to the generation of energy within a cell.
With virtually all cofactors and vitamins, deficiency results in poor athletic performance and/or disease. However, in a population of healthy, exercising adults in the U.S. it is rare to find vitamin deficiencies. The concept that, "more vitamin intake will improve performance" has been around a long time. It seems that every time a new factor or biochemical mechanism is discovered, a new product quickly finds its way to the store shelves. Coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) is one of several important mitochondrial enzymes required for electron transport, and is thus a critical part of the process of generating energy within cells. Supplementation with Co Q10 has occurred for over a decade, despite the lack of firm evidence to support its role a reputed performance enhancer.
To investigate the effects of Co Q10 supplementation it is necessary to look at some of the scientific literature published over the past 10 years. The studies differ in their methods and type of athlete being studied, but all have small sample sizes. These small numbers limit the power of these studies and make far reaching conclusions difficult. Additionally, the studies don't always agree.
A 1997 study from Finland, which looked at 25 elite cross-country skiers, found significant improvement in physical performance and subjective impressions of the quality of training. Although the results of this study look good,almost too good to be true,there are a few points to consider. First, although it was a placebo controlled trial no effort was made to determine if the skiers were able to tell placebo from the "real" supplement. More rigorous studies often include a post-test questionnaire, because the results of any study will be greatly influenced if athletes are able to identify the placebo and the test supplement. In this study the athletes' performance dropped on placebo versus baseline exercise testing. Placebo should make no difference, unless the athletes' figured out it was placebo. A second point is that other studies have failed to demonstrate performance enhancement with Co Q10.
A 1999 study looked at supplementation with Co Q10, vitamin E, and vitamin C. For the seven well trained male triathletes examined there was no change in VO2 max, muscle energy metabolism, or muscle fatigue in the supplement group versus placebo. Another study from 1996 looked at untrained middle-aged men and found no improvement in exercise capacity with Co Q10 supplementation, although the supplemented group felt more "vigorous". Finally, going back to 1992, a study sponsored by a company that sells a "coenzyme athletic performance system",consisting of Co Q10, vitamin E, cytochrome C, and inosine,tested 11 highly trained male triathletes. This study used an interesting exhaustive performance test, which consisted of 90 minutes of treadmill running (70% VO2 max) followed by cycling (70% VO2 max) until exhaustion. Much to the company's dismay there were no benefits versus placebo. Not surprisingly, the company has criticized this study as "flawed".
What are the principal uses of CoQ10(Co Q 10)?
CoQ10 supplementation is used primarily in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as elevated cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, mitral valve prolapse, coronary artery bypass surgery, and angina. Considerable scientific studies have validated these uses. CoQ10 has also been shown to be helpful in diabetes; periodontal disease; immune deficiency; cancer; as a weight-loss aid; and muscular dystrophy. Since the response of CoQ10 can take time, a noticeable improvement might not occur until 8 or more weeks after therapy is begun.
Several clinical trials and case series have provided evidence, supporting the use of CoQ10 in the prevention and treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress. (Table 1) It has been shown that CoQ10's antioxidant properties and central role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation make it useful as adjunct therapy for cardiovascular diseases such as CHF, hypertension, stable angina, drug-induced cardiotoxicity, and ventricular arrhythmia, and non-cardiac conditions including cancer, periodontal disease, compromised immune systems, COPD, and muscular dystrophy. Therefore, healthcare professionals are advocating its use as a supplement.
Promising preliminary evidence from human research suggests that CoQ10 supplements may slow down, but not cure, dementia in people with Alzheimer's disease. Additional well-designed studies are needed to confirm this result before a firm recommendation can be made.
Angina (chest pain from clogged heart arteries):
Preliminary small human studies suggest that CoQ10 may reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance in people with clogged heart arteries. Better studies are needed before a firm recommendation can be made.
Anthracycline chemotherapy heart toxicity:
Anthracycline chemotherapy drugs, such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin?), are commonly used to treat cancers such as breast cancer or lymphoma. Heart damage (cardiomyopathy) is a major concern with the use of anthracyclines, and CoQ10 has been suggested to protect the heart. However, studies in this area are small and not high quality and the effects of CoQ10 remain unclear.
Several studies in women with breast cancer report reduced levels of CoQ10 in diseased breast tissue or blood. It has been suggested by some researchers that raising CoQ10 levels with supplements might be helpful. However, it is not clear if CoQ10 is beneficial in these patients, or if the low levels of CoQ10 may actually be a part of the body's natural response to cancer, helping to fight disease. Supplementation with CoQ10 has not been proven to reduce cancer, and has not been compared to other forms of treatment for breast cancer.
Studies of women with breast cancer suggest that CoQ10 supplements (in addition to conventional treatment and a nutritional regimen including other antioxidants and essential fatty acids) may shrink tumors, reduce pain associated with the condition, and cause partial remission in some individuals. It is important to recognize that the beneficial effects these women experienced cannot be attributed to CoQ10 alone. Additional antioxidants used in these studies include vitamins C, E, and selenium.
Cardiomyopathy (dilated, hypertrophic):
CoQ10 may also help people with some forms of cardiomyopathy. Patients should consult their physician about the possible benefits of supplementation for this condition.There is conflicting evidence from research on the use of CoQ10 in patients with dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Different levels of disease severity have been studied (New York Heart Association heart failure classes I through IV). Some studies report improved heart function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac index, exercise tolerance), while others find no improvements. Most trials are small or not well designed. Better research is needed in this area before a recommendation can be made.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF):
Levels of CoQ10 are low in people with CHF, a debilitating disease that occurs when the heart is not able to pump blood effectively. This can cause blood to pool in parts of the body such as the lungs and legs. Information from many research studies suggests that CoQ10 supplements help reduce swelling in the legs, enhance breathing by reducing fluid in the lungs, and increase exercise capacity in people with CHF. Not all studies agree, however. As a result, some experts conclude that CoQ10 supplements do not contribute any benefit to the usual conventional treatment for CHF. More conclusive research will help resolve the debate.
Preliminary evidence suggests that CoQ10 does not affect blood sugar levels in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and does not alter the need for diabetes medications.
CoQ10 supplements may improve heart health and blood sugar and help manage high cholesterol and high blood pressure in individuals with diabetes. (High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease are all common problems associated with diabetes). Despite some concern that CoQ10 may cause a sudden and dramatic drop in blood sugar (called hypoglycemia), two recent studies of people with diabetes given CoQ10 two times per day showed no hypoglycemic response. The safest bet if you have diabetes is to talk to your doctor or registered dietitian about the possible use of CoQ10.
The effects of CoQ10 on exercise performance have been tested in athletes, normal healthy individuals, and in people with chronic lung disease. Results are variable, with some research suggesting benefits, and other studies showing no effects. Most trials have not been well-designed. Better research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
Preliminary research reports promising evidence for the use of CQ10 in the treatment of Friedreich's ataxia. Further evidence is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
Gum disease (periodontitis):
Preliminary human studies suggest possible benefits of CoQ10 taken by mouth or placed on the skin or gums in the treatment of periodontitis. Improvements in bleeding, swelling, and pain are reported. However, available studies are small and not high quality. Better research is needed before a conclusion can be drawn.
Researchers believe that the beneficial effect of CoQ10 in the prevention and treatment of heart disease is due to its ability to improve energy production in cells, inhibit blood clot formation, and act as an antioxidant. One important study, for example, found that people who received daily CoQ10 supplements within 3 days of a heart attack were significantly less likely to experience subsequent heart attacks and chest pain. In addition, these same patients were less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not receive the supplements.
Heart attack (acute myocardial infarction):
There is preliminary human study of CoQ10 given to patients within three days after a heart attack. Reductions in deaths, abnormal heart rhythms, and second heart attacks are reported, although better research is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.
The evidence for CoQ10 in the treatment of heart failure is controversial and remains unclear. Different levels of disease severity have been studied (New York Heart Association classes I through IV). Several studies have shown benefits of coenzyme Q10 in people who have been diagnosed with chronic heart failure (with or without cardiomyopathy), including in transplant recipients. Some studies report improved heart function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac index, exercise tolerance), while others find no improvements. Most trials are small or not well designed. In some parts of Europe, Russia, CoQ10 is considered a part of standard therapy for congestive heart failure patients. Better research is needed in this area, studying effects on quality of life, hospitalization, death rates, before a recommendation can be made. C
Based on results from several studies, coenzyme Q-10 appears to be safe for helping to treat heart diseases in individuals with diabetes; but whether it affects blood sugar levels is not known conclusively. Results from some studies may show a small decrease in blood sugar levels when coenzyme Q-10 is taken by individuals with diabetes, but other studies have found no effects on insulin production or utilization. Coenzyme Q-10 may be slightly effective for individuals with an inherited type of diabetes known as maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness (MIDD).
Heart protection during surgery:
Several studies suggest that the function of the heart may be improved after major heart surgeries such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or valve replacement when CoQ10 is given to patients before or during surgery. Better studies that measure effects on long-term heart function and survival are necessary before a recommendation can be made.
Research indicates that introducing CoQ10 prior to heart surgery, including bypass surgery and heart transplantation, can reduce damage caused by free radicals, strengthen heart function, and lower the incidence of irregular heart beat (arrhythmias) during the recovery phase.
High Blood Pressure:
Several studies involving small numbers of people suggest that CoQ10 may lower blood pressure. However, it may take 4 to 12 weeks before any beneficial effect is observed. More research with greater numbers of people is needed to assess the value of CoQ10 in the treatment of high blood pressure.
Levels of CoQ10 tend to be lower in people with high cholesterol compared to healthy individuals of the same age. In addition, certain cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins (such as atorvastatin, cerivastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin) appear to deplete natural levels of CoQ10 in the body. Taking CoQ10 supplements can correct the deficiency caused by statin medications without affecting the medication's positive effects on cholesterol levels.
There is limited evidence that natural levels of CoQ10 in the body may be reduced in people with HIV/AIDS. There is no reliable scientific research showing that CoQ10 supplements have any effect on this disease. C
Mitochondrial diseases and Kearns-Sayre syndrome:
COQ10(Co Q 10) is often recommended for patients with mitochondrial diseases, including myopathies, encephalomyopathies, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Several early studies report improvements in metabolism and physical endurance in patients with these conditions after treatment with CoQ10, although most available research is not high quality or definitive. Better studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. C
Preliminary studies in patients with muscular dystrophy taking COQ10 supplements describe improvements in exercise capacity, heart function, and overall quality of life. Additional research is needed in this area. C
Summary:Preliminary studies also suggest that CoQ10(Co Q 10) may:
Coenzyme Q10 Improve immune function in individuals with immune deficiencies (such as AIDS) and chronic infections (such as yeast and other viral infections).
Coenzyme Q10 Increase sperm motility leading to enhanced fertility.
Coenzyme Q10 Be used as part of the treatment for Alzheimer's disease.
Coenzyme Q10 Reduce damage from stroke.
Coenzyme Q10 Boost athletic performance.
Coenzyme Q10 Enhance physical activity in people with fatigue syndromes.
Coenzyme Q10 Improve exercise tolerance in individuals with muscular dystrophy.
Coenzyme Q10 is a fat-soluble compound primarily synthesized by the body and also consumed in the diet.
Coenzyme Q10 is required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis and functions as an antioxidant in cell membranes and lipoproteins.
Endogenous synthesis and dietary intake appear to provide sufficient coenzyme Q10 to prevent deficiency in healthy people.
Oral supplementation of coenzyme Q10 increases plasma, lipoprotein, and blood vessel levels, but it is unclear whether tissue coenzyme Q10 levels are increased, especially in healthy individuals.
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation has resulted in clinical and metabolic improvement in some patients with hereditary mitochondrial disorders.
Although coenzyme Q10 supplementation may be a useful adjunct to conventional medical therapy for congestive heart failure, additional research is needed.
Roles for coenzyme Q10 supplementation in other cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes require further research.
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation does not appear to improve athletic performance.
Although coenzyme Q10 supplements are relatively safe, they may decrease the anticoagulant efficacy of warfarin (Coumadin).
Presently, it is unclear whether individuals taking cholesterol-lowering medications, known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), would benefit from coenzyme Q10
Uses based on tradition or theory:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), antioxidant, asthma, Bell's palsy, breathing difficulties, cancer, cerebellar ataxia, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deafness, decreased sperm motility (idiopathic asthenozoospermia), gingivitis, hair loss (and hair loss from chemotherapy), heart irregular beats, hepatitis B, high cholesterol, Huntington's chorea/disease, immune system diseases, infertility, insomnia, kidney failure, leg swelling (edema), life extension, liver enlargement or disease, lung cancer, lung disease, macular degeneration, MELAS syndrome, MIDD (maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness), mitral valve prolapse, nutrition, obesity, Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome, Parkinson's disease,physical performance, prevention of muscle damage from "statin" cholesterol-lowering drugs, psychiatric disorders, QT-interval shortening; reduction of phenothiazine drug side effects, reduction of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drug side effects, stomach ulcer.
- What is CoQ10?Heart Energy Engine and More.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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