What is Echinacea Purpurea?Good function and application of Polyphenols and Chicoric acid from Echinacea Purpurea Extract?
- Botanical Data of Echinacea Purpurea.
- General Plant Description of Echinacea Purpurea.
- Native and Species of Echinacea Purpurea.
- Medicinal Parts of Echinacea Purpurea:Roots, flowerheads.
- Phytochemistry and constituents of Echinacea Purpurea.
- Narrative History of Echinacea Purpurea.
- Archeology and traditional application of Echinacea Purpurea in Old Native Indian Tribes.
- More Application,health benefits and uses of Echinacea Purpurea:Super antibiotics.
- Pharmacology of Echinacea Purpurea.
- Echinacea Purpurea extracts as hereb Remedies.
- Dosage and Administration of Echinacea Purpurea extracts.
- Dosage of related extracts.
- Safety Profile:Echinacea Purpurea extracts.
- Precautions of Echinacea Purpurea.
- Photo Gallery of Echinacea purpurea.
Applications and Properties:
Echinacea, also known as the purple coneflower, is an herbal medicine that has been used for centuries, customarily as a treatment for the common cold, coughs, bronchitis, upper respiratory infections, and some inflammatory conditions. Commonly Echinacea species used including seven species:E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. simulata, and E. tennesseensis,among which four of them got more attentioned:E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. simulata, E. tennesseensis.
The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections.Increases the "non-specific" activity of the immune system,the overall activity of the cells responsible for fighting all kinds of infection.Echinacea was considered as an alternative antibiotics since late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
Anti-inflammatory activity and cicatrizing activity:
Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity comes mainly via:inhibited oedema, antihyaluronidase activity,COX-I and COX-II enzymes inhibition,cytokine antibody stimulation,inhibite rhinovirus induced secretion of IL-6 (interleukin-6) and IL-8 (chemokine CXCL-8),PGE(2) inhibition with a synergistic manner,Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition,Inflammatory response mediators(such like Nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta) inhibition.Comparative study identified the Anti-inflammatory activity of different Echinacea spp which E. sanguinea maybe greater than others,E. pallida fraction got identified strong PGE(2) inhibition,alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors,Bauer ketones 23,24 and Bauer alkylamide 11 from E. pallida fraction got identified as responsible for PGE(2) inhibition.
Anti-inflammatory principles of Echinacea got identified major comes from high-molecular weight polysaccharides(molecular weight between 30,000 and 100,000), echinacoside(caffeoyl derivative),alkamides,such like dodeca-2Z,4E,10Z-trien-8-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1) from E. angustifolia and dodeca-2Z,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (2) from E. purpurea and E. pallida;others such like 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (1) and 2Z,4E-undeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynoic acid isobutyl amide (5).Alkylamides and ketones as PGE(2) inhibitors identified as Bauer ketones 23,24 and Bauer alkylamide 11 from E. pallida fraction,and works in a synergistic manner which attention paid to species E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea.Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibitors got identified as eight different alkamides from E. angustifolia roots:undeca-2Z-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (A5), dodeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (A7), and dodeca-2E,4Z-diene-8,10-diynoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (A8).Inflammatory response mediators inhibited species got identified to EPA(E. purpurea) and EP(E. pallida).etc.Alkamides got studied show anti-inflammatory activity via PGE2 inhibition with a synergistic manner,species got attentioned including E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea.E. angustifolia n-hexane extract (alkamide fraction) got found ability inhibition the enzyme cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activity at considerably high effecient ratio which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory property.Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibition got attentioned as one mechanisms and target of anti-inflammation,the specific components related got identified as eight different alkamides from E. angustifolia roots:undeca-2Z-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (A5), dodeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (A7), and dodeca-2E,4Z-diene-8,10-diynoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (A8). Inflammatory response mediators(such like Nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta) got inhibited by EPA(E. purpurea) and EP(E. pallida) in vitro, and switch macrophage activation via alternative activation by certain Echinacea species(Echinacea pallida) multiple active metabolites are thought contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of Echinacea.
Immunological activities and immunomodulator:
Mechanisms of immunomodulation activity comes mainly via:Phagocytosis stimulation,macrophages activating,immunostimulatory effect on peritoneal macrophages,lymphoid cells stimulation,leucocytes and lymphocytes increase,cellular immune function enhancement and nonspecific cellular immune system effect,antigen-specific immunoglobulin production increase,increase nonspecific immunity mediators,increase NK cell numbers, stimulate murine macrophage cytokine secretion,reducing chemotherapy-induced leukopenia,increased circulating total white cell counts and IL-2 levels,CB2 interactions,IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha augmentation,Wide-spectrum Innate and adaptive immune responses modulation, activated Jurkat T cells,CB (2) receptors binding,pro-inflammatory cytokines trigger,NFkappaB levels inhibition which induce immune response,decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated NF-kappaB levels,decrease TNF-alpha production,decreased LPS stimulated NO production,alveolar macrophage function stimulation.Combinative synergistic immunological effects,triggered IL-1 and TNFalpha,boost specific antibody response,splenic plaque forming cells increase,activating immune cells such like CD4 and CD8 T cells,DCs(dendritic cells) imudulatory,Mucosal immune response modulation via activiting NF-kappa B, Humoral Immunity enhancement,PRL(prolactin) inhibition,macrophage activating,T cell IL-2 secretion(IL-2) inhibition property,genes expression modulation,Macrophage antiviral activity,multiple cytokines modulation,coccidia infection immunity etc got attentioned.
Immunomodulator principles of Echinacea got identified major comes from components identified as:ethanol fractions of 3 species Echinacea spp(Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots),ethanol fraction of Echinacea gloriosa L and Echinacea angustifolia DC,purified polysaccharide named acidic arabinogalactan,upport part of E. purpurea and alcoholic extracts of the roots of E. pallida, E. angustifolia and E. purpurea,Echinacea herb and root powders,Cichoric acid and Dodeca 2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (alkamides 8, 9),polysaccharide fraction,Echinacea alkamides.For the immunity parts specified,root instead of overground parts got attentioned for immunity parts application especially its water-soluble fractions and polysaccharides,purified polysaccharide and alkylamide,water soluble extract,Echinacea angustifolia roots hydroethanolic extract standardized to echinacoside and high molecular polysaccharide,isobutylamide fraction,alkylamides, arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) isolated from E. pallida,Cichoric Acid and Alkylamide(2,4-diene alkylamide and 2-ene alkylamide),Echinacea Premium Liquid (EPL) and EPL alkylamide fraction (EPL AA),butanol fraction of stem and leaves Echinacea purpurea,melanin from E.purpurea,glycerine extract of E. purpurea,polysaccharides and alkylamides and caffeic acid derivatives,and some others.
For the immunity parts specified,root instead of overground parts got attentioned,for leucocytes and lymphocytes increase,50% ethanol tinctures, E. angustifolia extracts,water-soluble fractions and polysaccharides etc got identified.
Species differnetiation and immunity related got identified as:seven Echinacea species: E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. purpurea, E. sanguinea, E. simulata, and E.tennesseensis. which works significantly via augmented IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production but Not modulated IL-2.
Innate and adaptive immune responses modulation got identified as property of Echinacea extracts as to wide-spectrum criteria and explained as a syngestic mechanisms composed of multifactors,specific species got identified as E. angustifolia or E. pallida.
Classic study identified following components from Echinacea spp as main stimulator of immunity or works to boost immunomodulation via other ways:purified polysaccharide and alkylamide,water soluble extract,Echinacea angustifolia roots hydroethanolic extract standardized to echinacoside and high molecular polysaccharide,isobutylamide fraction,alkylamides, arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) isolated from E. pallida,Cichoric Acid and Alkylamide(2,4-diene alkylamide and 2-ene alkylamide),Echinacea Premium Liquid (EPL) and EPL alkylamide fraction (EPL AA).Related mechanisms of immunity stimulation or activation got attentioned as majorly via:activated Jurkat T cells,CB (2) receptors binding,pro-inflammatory cytokines trigger,NFkappaB levels inhibition which induce immune response,decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated NF-kappaB levels,decrease TNF-alpha production,decreased LPS stimulated NO production,alveolar macrophage function stimulation,etc.
Combinative synergistic immunological effects got identified from Echinacea spp(Echinacea purpurea,Echinaceae pallidae) and other various herbs(such like Glycyrrhiza glabra root,Thujae summitates, Baptisiae tinctoriae radix,Astragalus membranaceus) displays synergistic immunological effects, triggered IL-1 and TNFalpha,significant boost antibody response against sheep red blood cells,increase in the numbers of splenic plaque forming cells and the titers of specific antibodies,activating immune cells such like CD4 and CD8 T cells,etc.
Other immunomodulator effects included Antibody response,DCs(dendritic cells) imudulatory effects got identified from butanol fraction of stem and leaves Echinacea purpurea and component cichoric acid,Mucosal immune response modulation got identified from some herbal combination(Echinacea purpureae root and others),and further research identified melanin as an effective components as a mucosal immune modulator with ability of activiting NF-kappa B.Liver enzyme-mediated oxidation affect on alkylamides immunomodulatory activity,Humoral Immunity enhancement got identified from glycerine extract of E. purpurea,for its potency strong or weak there is still contradictive test results on this.PRL(prolactin) inhibition effect which plays an important role for immune system regulation got identified from herb combination of Echinacea and Hypericum perforatum.Macrophage activating properties,Macrophage antiviral activities,:genes expression modulation effects,Cytokine-related diseases modulation,
Immunosuppressive effects got identified from Echinacea spp.
Animal immunity application:Echinacea purpurea got identified with immune stimulating efficiency in pigs and higher feed-gain-conversion benefit,and increase the resistance effect on tilapia.
Anti-Tumor and Anti-Cancer effects:
Related antitumor study concluded Echinacea complex may works on tumor inhibition via lymphocytes activity,abates leukemia,tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression modulation etc,related effective components identified and attentioned as Echinacea complex and combinative herb blend,alkylamides named as dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (A1) and dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide (A2),etc.
AntiCancer effects and related mechanisms of Echinacea spp got identfied via human cancer cells viability reduction,apoptosis induction via prompting caspase 3/7 activity and nuclear DNA fragmentation,direct cytotoxicity on cancer cells,cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines(including T cell leukaemia cancer line,leukemia Jurkat and leukemia HL-60,breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and melanoma (MeWo) cells); Composition and fractions got attentioned to:hexanic root extract of 3 Echinacea spp(Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea.),Echinacea purpurea extracts,E. pallida lipophilic extracts,five components isolated from E. pallida roots n-hexane fractions such like two polyacetylenes (namely, 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyn-2-one (1) and pentadeca-(9E)-ene-11,13-diyne-2,8-dione (3)) and three polyenes (namely, 8-hydroxy-pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (2), pentadeca-(9E,13Z)-dien-11-yne-2,8-dione (4) and pentadeca-(8Z,13Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one (5));a dienone isolated from Echinacea pallida root namely (8Z,11Z)-pentadeca-8,11-dien-2-one;acetylenic constituent isolated from Echinacea pallida roots named pentadeca-(8 Z,13 Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one.etc.HIV-1 integrase inhibitor got proposed maybe attributed to l-Chicoric acid (l-CA).
Antioxidant activity of Echinacea spp got considered a compositive mechanism via: scavenging hydroxyl radical(including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS radical,DPPH radical solution),human low-density lipoprotein oxidation suppression,and synergistic antioxidant effects.Compositions related got attentioned to:echinacea root extract of 3 species(Root extracts of E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea),phenolic composition,cichoric acid,echinacoside,Echinacea tincture,Echinacea purpurea aerial parts chloroform extract. Photodamage of skin by UVA/UVB radiation and free-radical induced injury of Type III collagen protection property got proved from caffeoyl derivatives of Echinacea specis(including echinacoside, chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, cynarine, and caffeic acid),via a mechanisms may related with direct scavenging various free radicals(such like superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals,and secondary radicals such as C-, N-, or S-centred radicals). Antioxidant property free radical scavenging assay and in a lipid peroxidation assay proved showd 3 specific Echinacea spp (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida) and specific components identified.Antioxidant property on broiler meat quality and lipid oxidation control got approved.
Common Cold(acute viral respiratory tract infection) Treatment:
Acute treatment of common cold ability got identified with Echinacea purpurea herba radix preparation,alleviating symptoms more rapidly,reduced symptom severity, inhibiting viral growth and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines,reduce duration and intensity of cold and flu symptomss;echinacea herb combinations got attentioned for its rapid onset of improvement of cold symptoms and for its significant syngestic co-higher efficacy, Negative result got reported as for fluid echinacea extract and its effect on common cold is not fully consistent may for parts and fraction origin difference,components such like alkamides, cichoric acid and polysaccharides got attentioned for their faster resolution of the cold symptoms.Echinacea preparations got attentioned negative or "No statistically significant difference" for the treatment of URI symptoms from some related studies,the tested sample in these studies included Echinacea purpurea,E purpurea aerial part juice,E. purpurea capsules. Present rhibinovirus cold treatment study with Echinacea preparation got both negative and positive results.
Other Applications and Findings:
Other interesting new findings of Echinacea spp and its fraction included Inhibition of human sperm motility,Prostate gland effect,BPH Prevention,Female idiopathic large hypotonic bladders,Mammary gland activity,Ocular Disease treatment,Autoimmune idiopathic uveitis,Upper respiratory tract infections prevention,Leukemia inhibition,Weakens the immune system,Anti-Herpetic effects,Peritoneal inflammatory modulation and cytoprotective action,Wound healing effects,GI microbiota effects,Erythropoietin effects,Activation of PPARgamma and insulin resistance management,Acute sore throats combinative treatment,some of them got briefed followed:
Anti-Bacteria:Anti-bacteria activity got observed from Echinacea extract and combination complex and seems show bactericidal against:S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. faecalis in serial dilutions etc which may correlated with its immunity and respiratory infection treatment property.
Antifungal activity and phototoxic antimicrobial activity:Antifungal activity of Echinacea got identified majorly comes from its phototoxic antimicrobial activity attributed to components and fractions such like the ketoalkenes and ketoalkynes,acetylenic isobutylamides and polyacetylenes,hexane extracts and its isolated component named trideca-1-ene-3,5,7,9,10-pentayne;approved effective against fungi such like:clinically relevant pathogenic fungi,yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida shehata, C. kefyr, C. albicans, C. steatulytica and C. tropicalis,treatment of mycoses etc.
Infectious Diseases Prevention:E. purpurea Polysaccharides got identified owns excellent protection against lethal infections from Lysteria monocytogens and Candida albicans9 which show 100~90% protection ratio if admined at the point of infection or within 18 hours,and prolonged life.
Antiviral activity: Echinacea fraction and componet got found show Antiviral activity against:Herpes simplex (HSV) virus Type I,Influenza A virus,inhibiting viral growth and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such like IL-6 and IL-8 caused by rhinoviruses 1A and 14, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus types 3 and 11, and herpes simplex virus type 1,its mechanisms may comes via activiating key mediators of antiviral immunity T lymphocytes.Also Echinacea got found inhibit the IV replication and dissemination of Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV) of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1).The fraction and components got attentioned are these:E. pallida (70 % ethanol) inflorescence extract,standard Echinacea preparation,Echinacea purpurea n-hexane root extract,cichoric acid,alkenes and amides contained in the n-hexane extract,Alkylamides,polyphenolic compounds,and herb combinations.As discussed in detailed study attached.
Deleterious effects on myeloid cells and myelopoiesis: Significant myelopoiesis perturb got proved from a combination of E.purpurea and melatonin togethor but any component seperately seems not works.
Haematinic effects:Haematinic effects of Echinacea standardized extract got proved via increasing haemoglobin levels and number of erythrocytes.
Hepatoprotective action/Liver Antioxidant:Echinacea herb combinations got identified with property on Hepatoprotective via hepatocytolysis and steatosis reduction,liver toxicity reduction via auto immunity and counteracting on CA(Cyproterone Acetate) induced oxidative stress.
Type 1 diabetes treatment:Echinacea's proved immunostimulant of NK cell seems open a way for modulating autoimmune related disease such as Type 1 diabetes.
Anti-Radiation and Radio-Protective Effects:Radio-Protective property of Echinacea Extract got identified as composed of radio-protective and radio-recovery effects,increase apoptotic cells etc,may be useful for workers exposed to ionising radiation.
Antimutagenic effect:Sodium azide induced Mutagenic inhibition property got identified from some phytochemicals,yet unfortunately Cichoric acid from Echinacea got negative effect and on the contrary it boost the mutagenic effect of 5NFAA.
Skin improvement:Echinacea purpurea cream and gel application got found effectivly improving skin hydration and reducing wrinkle,inflammatory skin conditions such like psoriasis,but the activity period is short as 2 and 3 months at 4 Deg C,can be extended to 7 months if added alpha-tocopherol or disodium editate.
Neuroprotective Effects:Echinacoside got attentioned valuable for neurodegenerative diseases for its significant neuroprotective effects on HIPCs through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Animal Application:canine upper respiratory tract infections treatment and treatment of strangles in horses.
Components stability study proposed its findings about the storage stability and degrading conditions of related:Cichoric acid (2R,3R-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutyl amide,Chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid derivatives,2-O-Feruloyl-tartaric acid,phenolic acids,which maybe valuable for its application and commercial storage conditions.
Safety and Toxicity:
Acute Toxicity:LD50 (dose at which half of experimental animals are killed) was incalculable.injection of varying doses of concentrated echinacea polysaccharide fractions in 18 mice did allow calculation of LD50 at 2,500 mg/kg.LD50 of fresh-pressed E. purpurea juice in mice has been measured at 50 mL/kg, i.v. (Bauer and Wagner, 1991). The polysaccharides from the aerial portions of E. purpurea showed an LD50 of 1,000 to 2,500 mg/kg i.p. in mice.
Safety between the typical doses consumed orally (200 to 2,000 mg in 50~80 kg adults = from 2.5 to 40 mg/kg) and the estimated intravenous lethal dose of 2,500 mg/kg.
Allergic reactions(reversible skin reactions) maybe a problem for the person hypersensibility,allergic plant contact dermatitis,increased risk of rash,Caution should be used when echinacea is coadministered with drugs dependent on metabolizing enzymes CYP3A or CYP1A2 for their elimination for its drug interaction risks,cautions for early/mid stages of pregnancy,may increase the risk of acute otitis media,other adverse effects such like ocular adverse effects,angiogenic activity which cautions the application for pregnant women,and risks of Cadmium (Cd) toxicity accumulation which has potential danger to cause liver-kidney damage and neoplasia formation.Other adverse effects needed to be considered when apply including:Ocular adverse effects,Angiogenic activity and Safety for pregnant women,Cadmium (Cd) toxicity accumulation.
CYP inhibition: CYP isoforms inhibition property got identified from Echinacea Extract and effective component related identified attentioned to:alkylamides dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetranoic acid isobutylamide (1) and dodeca-2E,4E-dieonoic acid isobutylamide (2);Echinaforce extract,putative molecular formula C (18)H (36) NO (+),etc.Inhibition on CYP isoforms 3A4,1A2, 2C19, 2D9,2D6 etc got proved.
Interactions:Interactions of Echinacea got attentioned to hepatoxic drugs,warfarin,MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin,prescription cardiovascular medications,acetaminophen,antiretroviral drugs,interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) etc need got attentioned for applications.
- 1.What is Echinacea Purpurea?Good function and application of Polyphenols and Chicoric acid from Echinacea Purpurea Extract?
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