Fenugreek Trigonella Foenum-Graecum.Fenugreek Seed Extracts.
- Botanical Basic Data of Fenugreek.
- Narrative History of of Fenugreek.
- Nutritional Profile:Fenugreek Seed,Trigonella foenum-graecum (Leguminosae).
- Legends, Myths and Stories of Fenugreek.
- Description of of Fenugreek.
- Medicinal Action and Uses of Fenugreek.
- Common Uses of Fenugreek.
- Fenugreek Seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum; Hu Lu Ba) 10:1 Extract Powder.
- Pharmacology of Fenugreek Seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum; Hu Lu Ba).
- Safety of Fenugreek.
- Possible side effects and cautions of fenugreek.
- Trigonelline (nicotinic acid betaine) from fenugreek.
- How Search engine think about fenugreek.
- Research Update:Fenugreek.
- Photo Gallery of Foenum-graecum.
Research Update:Fenugreek Trigonella Foenum-Graecum.:
Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants:
Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in chang liver cells.:
The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of EtOH. EtOH treatment suppressed the growth of Chang liver cells and induced cytotoxicity, oxygen radical formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration was significantly elevated in EtOH-treated cells as compared with normal cells. Incubation of FPEt along with EtOH significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, caused a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and normalized GSH/GSSG ratio. The extract dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Apoptosis was observed in EtOH-treated cells while FPEt reduced apoptosis by decreasing the accumulation of sub-G(1) phase cells. The cytoprotective effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. The findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds of fenugreek seeds can be considered cytoprotective during EtOH-induced liver damage.
Evaluation of the potential antifertility effect of fenugreek seeds in male and female rabbits.:
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential antifertility activity of feeding diets containing 30% fenugreek seeds to male and female white New Zealand rabbits.
Results: The data presented in this study clearly demonstrate an antifertility effect of fenugreek seeds in the female rabbits and more of a toxicity effect in the male rabbits. In males, testis weight was reduced, with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathology of testis tissue sections. In addition, the plasma concentration of the androgen hormone and sperm concentrations were halved in the treated animals. In the case of the females, there was evidence of a significant reduction of developing fetuses as observed by reductions of both fetal and placental weights at 20 days of gestation and of the litter size. This was further supported histopathologically by the observed proliferative changes of the endometrial glands. The circulating plasma progesterone concentrations at 10 and 20 days of gestation significantly increased with no significant effect on the prebreeding estrogen concentrations in the treated animals.
Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study:
The effect of supplementation of a powdered mixture of three traditional medicinal plants-bittergourd, jamun seeds, and fenugreek seeds-in raw and cooked form on blood glucose was studied in 60 non-insulin-dependent male diabetics. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 each. The patients of group I were given the raw powdered mixture in the form of capsules; the patients of group II were given this mixture in the form of salty biscuits. Daily supplementation of 1 g of this powered mixture for a 1.5-month period and then a further increase to 2 g for another 1.5 months significantly reduced the fasting as well as the postprandial glucose level of the diabetic patients. A significant decrease in oral hypoglycemic drug intake and decline in percentage of the subjects who were on hypoglycemic drugs were found after the 3-month feeding trial. It was concluded that 2 g of a powdered mixture of traditional medicinal plants in either raw or cooked form can be successfully used for lowering blood glucose in diabetics.
Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.:
Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.
Biochemical study of the anti-diabetic action of the Egyptian plants Fenugreek and Balanites.:
Fenugreek and Balanites are two plants commonly used in Egyptian folk medicine as hypoglycemic agents. In the present study, the effects of 21 days oral administration of Fenugreek seed and Balanites fruit extracts (1.5 g/kg bw) on the liver and kidney glycogen content and on some key liver enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in STZ-diabetic rats were studied. In addition, the effects of these two plant extracts on the intestinal alpha-amylase activity in vitro and starch digestion and absorption in vivo were also examined. Results indicated that single injection of STZ (50 mg/kg bw) caused 5-folds increase in the blood glucose level, 80% reduction in serum insulin level, 58% decrease in liver glycogen and 7-folds increase in kidney glycogen content as compared to the normal levels. The activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was markedly increased, whereas, the activities of both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phospho-fructokinase were significantly decreased in the diabetic rat liver. Administration of Fenugreek extract to STZ-diabetic rats reduced blood glucose level by 58%, restored liver glycogen content and significantly decreased kidney glycogen as well as liver glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Meanwhile, Balanites extract reduced blood glucose level by 24% and significantly decreased liver glucose-6-phosphatase activity in diabetic rats. On the other hand, our results demonstrated that both the Fenugreek and Balanites extracts were able to in vitro inhibit alpha-amylase activity in dose-dependent manner. Fenugreek was more potent inhibitor than Balanites. This inhibition was reversed by increasing substrate concentration in a pattern which complies well with the effect of competitive inhibitors. Furthermore, this in vitro inhibition was confirmed by in vivo suppression of starch digestion and absorption induced by both plant extracts in normal rats. These findings suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of Fenugreek and Balanites is mediated through insulinomimetic effect as well as inhibition of intestinal alpha-amylase activity.
4-hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.:
Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is an annual herbaceous plant. From the seeds of T. foenum-graecum an unusual amino acid, 4-hydroxyisoleucine 5, has been isolated, which significantly decreased the plasma triglyceride levels by 33% (P<0.002), total cholesterol (TC) by 22% (P<0.02), and free fatty acids by 14%, accompanied by an increase in HDL-C/TC ratio by 39% in the dyslipidemic hamster model.
Are Ayurvedic herbs for diabetes effective?:
Objective: To evaluate and synthesize the evidence on the effect of Ayurvedic therapies for diabetes mellitus. Design: Systematic review of trials. Measurements and Main Results: We found no study that assessed Ayurvedic as a system of care. Botanical therapy was by far the most commonly studied Ayurvedic treatment. Herbs were studied either singly or as formulas. In all, 993 titles in Western computerized databases and 318 titles identified by hand-searching journals in India were examined, yielding 54 articles reporting the results of 62 studies. The most-studied herbs were G sylvestre, C indica, fenugreek, and Eugenia jambolana. A number of herbal formulas were tested, but Ayush-82 and D-400 were most often studied. Thirty-five of the studies included came from the Western literature, 27 from the Indian. Seven were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 controlled clinical trials (CCTs) or natural experiments. Twenty-two studies went on to further analysis based on a set of criteria. Of these, 10 were RCTs, CCTs, or natural experiments, 12 were case series or cohort studies. There is evidence to suggest that the herbs C indica, holy basil, fenugreek, and G sylvestre, and the herbal formulas Ayush-82 and D-400 have a glucose-lowering effect and deserve further study. Evidence of effectiveness of several other herbs is less extensive (C tamala, E jambolana, and Momordica charantia). Conclusions: There is heterogeneity in the available literature on Ayurvedic treatment for diabetes. Most studies test herbal therapy. Heterogeneity exists in the herbs and formulas tested (more than 44 different interventions identified) and in the method of their preparation. Despite these limitations, there are sufficient data for several herbs or herbal formulas to warrant further studies.
Supplementation of fenugreek leaves reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats:
Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is a traditional medicinal plant of the Leguminoseae family in India. The antioxidant effect of fenugreek leaves was evaluated in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The antioxidant effect was evaluated by estimating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and reduced glutathione and measuring the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, heart, and kidney in diabetic rats. Fenugreek leaf powder supplementation significantly lowered lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the antioxidant system in diabetic rats. The effect at a dose of 1 g/kg of body weight of fenugreek leaf powder was similar to that of glibenclamide. Insulin restores all the parameters to near normal values. Thus, fenugreek leaf powder reduces oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.
Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.:
It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet.
Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.:
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Role of selected Indian plants in management of type 2 diabetes: a review.:
Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic. Modern medicines, despite offering a variety of effective treatment options, can have several adverse effects. Ayurveda, a science that uses herbal medicines extensively, originated in India. Of considerable interest is the adoption of Ayurveda by the mainstream medical system in some European countries (e.g., Hungary), emphasizing this modality is increasing worldwide recognition. From ancient times, some of these herbal preparations have been used in the treatment of diabetes. This paper reviews the accumulated literature for 10 Indian herbs that have antidiabetic activity and that have been scientifically tested. Few of these herbs, such as Momordica charantia, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Trigonella foenum greacum, have been reported to be beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms such as the stimulating or regenerating effect on beta cells or extrapancreatic effects are proposed for the hypoglycemic action of these herbs.
Fenugreek affects the activity of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase in the colon.:
The effect of fenugreek seeds on the activities of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats was studied. Rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, for 15 weeks. Fenugreek seed powder was weighed depending upon the weight of individual rats and incorporated in the powdered pellet diet at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. After an experimental period of 30 weeks the activity of beta-glucuronidase significantly increased in the colon, intestine, liver and colon contents in DMH administered rats when compared to an untreated control group. Increase in beta-glucuronidase may increase the hydrolysis of carcinogen-glucuronide conjugate, liberating carcinogen and/or co-carcinogen within the colonic lumen. Inclusion of fenugreek seed powder in the diet significantly decreased the activity of beta-glucuronidase in all the tissues studied. This may prevent the free carcinogens from acting on colonocytes. Mucinase helps in hydrolysing the protective mucin. Mucinase activity was increased in the colon content and fecal content of animals given DMH when compared to control, while the activity was significantly reduced in animals given DMH + fenugreek when compared to animals given DMH only. Our study shows that supplementation of fenugreek seeds in the diet inhibits colon carcinogenesis, by modulating the activities of beta-glucuronidase and mucinase. The beneficial effect may be attributed to the presence of fibre, flavonoids and/or saponins.
Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats.:
The soluble dietary fibre (SDF) fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum (Tf-sdf) has previously been shown to reduce postprandial elevation in blood glucose level of Type 2 model diabetic rats by delaying the digestion of sucrose. The Tf-sdf has now been investigated for its chronic effect on serum fructosamine, insulin and lipid levels, and on platelet aggregation in Type 2 diabetic rats. Tf-sdf was administered orally twice daily at a dose of 0.5 g kg(-1) for 28 days. It lowered the serum fructosamine level (P<0.05) with no significant change in the insulin level as compared with the control. Atherogenic lipids, i.e. triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were found to decrease significantly in Tf-sdf fed rats (P<0.01). HDL-cholesterol showed an opposite trend (P=0.024), but serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) values paralleled the atherogenic lipids (P=0.001). No significant effect on platelet aggregation (%) was found although there was a tendency to lower the aggregation (P=0.069). It is concluded that Tf-sdf has a beneficial effect on dyslipidemia and has a tendency to inhibit platelet aggregation in Type 2 model diabetic rats.
In vitro effect of fenugreek extracts on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase A.:
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed) is a food with traditional medicinal use in diabetes. Beneficial effects have been demonstrated in diabetic animals and both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Effects of a lipid extract A, crude ethanolic extract B, further sub-fractions of B (saponin-free C, saponin D and sapogenin E) and a gum fibre fraction F on intestinal sodium-dependent glucose uptake were investigated in vitro using rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. All fractions except A inhibited glucose-uptake at 0.33 and/or 3.3 mg/mL (p < 0.001). Greatest inhibition was observed with fractions D and E. Diosgenin and trigonelline (compounds reported in fenugreek) also inhibited glucose-uptake (IC50 values approximately 3 mg/ml, equivalent to 8 mM and 19 mM respectively) but did not account for the activity of the crude extracts. Fenugreek extracts had no effect on basal levels of glycogen phosphorylase a (HGPa) activity in rat hepatocyte suspensions. However fractions C and E caused a marginal but statistically significant inhibition (18.9 and 15.1% respectively, p < 0.05) of glucagon induction of this enzyme suggesting a glucagon-antagonist effect. Diosgenin (1.65 mg/ml; 4 mM) inhibited glucagon-induced HGPa activity by 20% (p < 0.05), and was more effective than trigonelline (non significant inhibition of 9.4% at 1.65 mg/ml, 10 mM).
Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in diabetic rats.:
The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan diabetic rats was studied. Increased lipid peroxidation and alterations in circulating antioxidants were observed in the diabetic state. The levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene in blood were significantly lowered and alpha-tocopherol content was increased. Supplementation of fenugreek seeds in the diet lowered lipid peroxidation. The contents of glutathione and beta-carotene were increased and the alpha-tocopherol content was lowered. The level of ascorbic acid was unaltered. The level of antioxidants were higher in normal rats which were fed with the fenugreek supplemented diet compared with control animals which were fed commercial rat chow. The study shows that disrupted free radical metabolism in diabetic animals may be normalized by fenugreek seed supplementation in the diet.
Effect of fenugreek, onion and garlic on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.:
Background: Many traditional treatments have been recommended in the alternative system of medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanism of most of the herbals used has not been defined. Aims: This study was carried out to clarify the effect of fenugreek, garlic and onion, recommended in Persian folklore medicine as beneficial in the treatment of diabetes, on blood glucose and their possible effect on pancreatic tissue. Methods and Material: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 out of 25 adult male albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 185 mg/kg BW alloxan. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, three of which were fed a diet containing 12.5% BW Allium sativum (garlic), Allium cepa (onion) or Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) for 15 days. The fourth group (positive control) received an ordinary diet. The remaining non-diabetic rats (negative control group) received neither alloxan nor the mentioned plants. Following consumption of plants, blood glucose was measured every day and on the last day the pancreas were removed and stained with H&E and Gomeri aldehyde fuchsin (GAF). Morphology of the pancreatic sections and the following morphometric factors were studied: volume density of B cells, volume density of islets, percent of B cells, number of islets per square millimeter, average area of islets and average volume density of B cell in whole pancreas. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to evaluate the data. Results and Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that only garlic was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control group (P<0.05). In the control positive group all the mentioned morphometric factors were significantly changed in comparison with the control negative (normal health) group, but the same did not show significant change between treated and untreated diabetics.
The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway.:
The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of a dialysed fenugreek seed extract (FSE) was studied in alloxan (AXN)-induced diabetic mice and found to be comparable to that of insulin (1.5 U kg(-1)). FSE also improved intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in normal mice. The mechanism by which FSE attenuated hyperglycaemia was investigated in vitro. FSE stimulated glucose uptake in CHO-HIRc-mycGLUT4eGFP cells in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was shown to be mediated by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular space to the plasma membrane. These effects of FSE on GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake were inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, and bisindolylmaleimide 1, a protein kinase C (PKC)-specific inhibitor.In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, FSE also induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and p85 subunit of PI3-K, in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and human hepatoma cells, HepG2. However, unlike insulin, FSE had no effect on protein kinase B (Akt) activation. These results suggest that in vivo the hypoglycaemic effect of FSE is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of an insulin signalling pathway in adipocytes and liver cells.
Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics.:
The effect of fenugreek on postprandial glucose and insulin levels following the meal tolerance test (MTT) was studied in non-insulin dependent diabetics (NIDDM). The addition of powdered fenugreek seed (15 g) soaked in water significantly reduced the subsequent postprandial glucose levels. The plasma insulin also tended to be lower in NIDDM given fenugreek but without a statistical difference. Fenugreek had no effect on lipid levels 3 h following the MTT. Fenugreek may have a potential benefit in the treatment of NIDDM.
Antioxidant properties of germinated fenugreek seeds:
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is used as a spice, vegetable and a medicinal plant. Since antioxidant properties have been linked to health benefits of natural products, such properties were studied in germinated fenugreek seeds which are considered to be more beneficial than dried seeds. Different fractions of the germinated seeds were used to determine their antioxidant potential at different levels. The assays employed were ferric reducing antioxidant power, radical scavenging by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferrylmyoglobin/2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, pulse radiolysis, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial preparations from rat liver. An aqueous fraction of fenugreek exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared with other fractions. As the quantity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds can be related to antioxidant activity, the contents from these extracts were measured. HPLC analysis was carried out to detect polyphenols, flavonoids and other components. This study reveals significant antioxidant activity in germinated fenugreek seeds which may be due partly to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols.
Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.:
The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.
Polyphenol-rich extract of fenugreek seeds protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage.:
A polyphenol-rich extract from the seeds of fenugreek was evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide(H202)-induced oxidation in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with increasing amounts of fenugreek seed extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. RBCs from diabetic subjects were more susceptible to oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation than those from normal subjects. However preincubation with the polyphenol-rich extract significantly reduced the oxidative modifications in both the groups. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was concentration-dependent up to 100 microl of extract, which contained 0.75mM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the potent antioxidant properties of the fenugreek seeds.
Chemopreventive activities of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) against breast cancer.:
Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional therapies cause serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Cancer control may therefore benefit from the potential that resides in alternative therapies. There is thus an increasing demand to utilize alternative concepts or approaches to the prevention of cancer. In this report, we show a potential protective effect of Fenugreek seeds against 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats. At 200 mg/kg b.wt., Fenugreek seeds' extract significantly inhibited the DMBA-induced mammary hyperplasia and decreased its incidence. Epidemiological studies also implicate apoptosis as a mechanism that might mediate the Fenugreek's anti-breast cancer protective effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study that suggests significant chemopreventive effects of Fenugreek seeds against breast cancer.
The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.:
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ingesting an oral supplement containing 4-Hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile, isolated from fenugreek seeds [Trigonella foenum-graecum]) with a glucose beverage on rates of post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast (12 hr), subjects completed a 90-minute glycogen depletion ride after which a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis. Immediately and 2 hours after the muscle biopsy, subjects ingested either an oral dose of dextrose (Glu) (1.8 g.kg BW(-1)) or 4-OH-Ile supplement (Glu+4-OH-Ile, including 2.0 mg.kg(-1) 4-OH-Ile with the same oral dose of dextrose) with a second muscle biopsy 4 hours after exercise. Post exercise muscle glycogen concentration was similar for both trials. Overall, there was a significant increase in glucose and insulin concentrations from time 0 throughout the majority of the 4-hour recovery period, with no significant differences between the two trials at any time point. Although muscle glycogen concentration significantly increased from immediately post exercise to 4 hr of recovery for both trials, the net rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis was 63% greater during Glu+4-OH-Ile (10.6+/-3.3 vs. 6.5+/-2.6 g.kg wet wt.(-1).hr.(-1) for the Glu+4-OH-Ile and Glu trials, respectively). These data demonstrate that when the fenugreek extract supplement (4-OH-Ile) is added to a high oral dose of dextrose, rates of post-exercise glycogen resynthesis are enhanced above dextrose alone.
Breeding system in a population of Trigonella balansae (Leguminosae).:
Background and Aims: Although some taxonomic studies in the genus Trigonella have been conducted, there has been no concerted effort to study the breeding system. This paper examines the floral structure and pollination system in a population of T. balansae, an annual pasture legume. Methods: Floral morphology, hand and vector pollination, stigma receptivity, pollen tube growth, using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, were conducted. Key Results: Measurements of floral structure from before to after anthesis indicates an inability for T. balansae to self-pollinate and a requirement for an external vector to effectively transfer pollen from the anthers onto the stigmas of this species. Seed set can be obtained by hand or honeybee manipulation of T. balansae flowers. Conclusions: Trigonella balansae is a self-compatible species, but which requires vectors such as honeybees to bring about pollination.
Spinal serotonergic system is partially involved in antinociception induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) leaf extract.:
It has been reported that Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) extract exerts analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects in different experimental models. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the site and mechanism of the analgesia induced by Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. We studied the analgesic effects of different doses of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract after i.p., i.t. and i.c.v. administration in formalin test, using male NMRI rats (200-250 g). Trigonella foenum-graecum extract showed analgesic effects in i.p. (1 g/kg) and i.t. (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/rat) (P < 0.05 in all groups) but not in i.c.v. (1 and 3 mg/rat) administrations. Based on the similarities between the effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract with those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the role of 5-HT system in analgesic effects of NSAIDs, we tried to investigate the role of spinal 5-HT system in analgesic effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract. After lesioning of spinal 5-HT system by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), it was shown that the analgesic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (0.5 and 3 mg/rat) in the second phase of formalin test, was abolished completely and reduced relatively after using a low-dose (0.5 mg/rat) and a high-dose (3 mg/rat), respectively (P < 0.05). So, the antinociception partially remained (P < 0.05) after using the latter dose. Meanwhile, administration of naloxone (2mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on the Trigonella foenum-graecum extract (1 g/kg, i.p.) analgesia. In conclusion, this study confirms the central action of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and that spinal 5-HT system is partially involved in the analgesia induced by it in the second phase of formalin test and also indicates for co-existence of other analgesic mechanism(s).
Changes in beta-carotene and ascorbic acid content of fresh amaranth and fenugreek leaves during storage by low cost technique.:
Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and their shelf life depends on duration and conditions of storage. A low cost storage structure was used to extend the shelf life of amaranth and fenugreek and their quality was evaluated on the basis of retention of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll during storage. Losses of beta-carotene ranged from 46.5 to 85.0% for amaranth and 24.0 to 73.0% for fenugreek depending on duration and conditions of storage. Similarly ascorbic acid retention varied from 9-32% for amaranth and 23-80% for fenugreek. Results showed that the degradation of quality parameters was faster at ambient conditions and packaging of leaves in low density polyethylene bags was beneficial in improving shelf life and nutritive value. Low cost storage structure was similar to low temperature storage for retention of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll content and enhancement of shelf life.
"Bust enhancing" herbal products.:
"Bust enhancing" herbal products are widely advertised. No clinical trials have been published. These products contain a variety of ingredients, including grains, hops, saw palmetto, dong quai, chaste-tree berry, wild yam, kava, fennel, black cohosh, and fenugreek. Several of these herbs are hormonally active; for example, hops contain 8-prenylnaringenin, a phytoestrogen that is more potent than other dietary phytoestrogens. Many bust-enhancing dietary supplements contain substrates for Fusarium, a fungus that produces zearalenone, a potent estrogen that has been associated with breast enlargement in humans and other species. The use of bust-enhancing products should be discouraged because of lack of evidence for efficacy and long-term safety concerns.
Determination of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum by HPLC:
Objective: A HPLC method is established to determine the content of trigonelline in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Method: The medicinal material was extracted by petholeum ether-ethanol. Asahipak NH2P-50 column was used, mobilephase consisted of acetonitrile-water(75:25) and detection wavelength was set at UV 265 nm. Result: The standard curve was linear in the range of 3.68-73.60 micrograms.mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The average recovery rate and RSD were 97.4% and 1.83% (n = 6) respectively. Conclusion: It provides scientific indexes for quality control of T. foenum-graecum.
Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds.:
Mechanism of action of an orally active hypoglycemic principle isolated from water extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) was investigated in alloxan induced subdiabetic and overtly diabetic rabbits of different severities. The active principle was orally administered to the subdiabetic and mild diabetic rabbits (five in each group) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. The treatment produced significant attenuation of the glucose tolerance curve and improvement in the glucose induced insulin response, suggesting that the hypoglycemic effect may be mediated through stimulating insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta pancreatic cells of Langerhans. Prolonged administration of the same dose of the active principle for 30 days to the severely diabetic rabbits (n = 5) lowered fasting blood glucose significantly, but could elevate the fasting serum insulin level to a much lower extent, which suggests an extra-pancreatic mode of action for the active principle. The effect may also be by increasing the sensitivity of tissues to available insulin. The hypoglycemic effect was observed to be slow but sustained, without any risk of developing severe hypoglycemia.
Effect of T. foenumgraecum on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.:
The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight was significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (P<0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of FG. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by FG. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and FG partially corrected this alteration in PFK, HK and GK.
Immunomodulatory effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) extract in mice.:
Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L., a widely used medicinal and dietary herb, was evaluated in male Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated with three doses of extract (50, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight per os) for 10 days. Body weight, relative organ weight, cellularity of lymphoid organs, delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response, plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay, haemagglutination titre (HT), quantitative haemolysis of SRBC (QHS) assay, phagocytosis, and lymphoproliferation were studied in various groups of animals. At doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in relative organ weight of thymus was observed but there was no effect on kidney and spleen weights. Liver weight also increased significantly at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg. However, no elevation in the levels of liver function test (LFT) enzymes was observed. As regards lymphoid organ cellularity, spleen recorded no significant increase at any dose, whereas cellularities of thymus and bone marrow were significantly increased. T. foenum graecum extract elicited a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the DTH response at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, but the change at higher dose of 250 mg/kg was not statistically significant. Humoral immunity as measured by PFC showed an elevated response at a dose of 100 mg/kg, but at 50 and 250 mg/kg, no significant effect was observed. In the HT test, plant extract also showed modulatory effect at all the doses. Plant extract elicited a significant increase in phagocytic index and phagocytic capacity of macrophages. Stimulatory response of plant extract was also observed in lymphoproliferation assay but the response was weak. Overall, T. foenum graecum showed a stimulatory effect on immune functions in mice. As it is used for a variety of medicinal purposes, its immunostimulatory effect, as reported in this study, strengthens the rationale of its use in several Ayurvedic and Unani drugs.
Transfer specificity of detergent-solubilized fenugreek galactomannan galactosyltransferase.:
The current experimental model for galactomannan biosynthesis in membrane-bound enzyme systems from developing legume-seed endosperms involves functional interaction between a GDP-mannose (Man) mannan synthase and a UDP-galactose (Gal) galactosyltransferase. The transfer specificity of the galactosyltransferase to the elongating mannan chain is critical in regulating the distribution and the degree of Gal substitution of the mannan backbone of the primary biosynthetic product. Detergent solubilization of the galactosyltransferase of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with retention of activity permitted the partial purification of the enzyme and the cloning and sequencing of the corresponding cDNA with proof of functional identity. We now document the positional specificity of transfer of ((14)C)Gal from UDP-((14)C)Gal to manno-oligosaccharide acceptors, chain lengths 5 to 8, catalyzed by the detergent-solubilized galactosyltransferase. Enzymatic fragmentation analyses of the labeled products showed that a single Gal residue was transferred per acceptor molecule, that the linkage was (1-->6)-alpha, and that there was transfer to alternative Man residues within the acceptor molecules. Analysis of the relative frequencies of transfer to alternative Man residues within acceptor oligosaccharides of different chain length allowed the deduction of the substrate subsite recognition requirement of the galactosyltransferase. The enzyme has a principal recognition sequence of six Man residues, with transfer of Gal to the third Man residue from the nonreducing end of the sequence. These observations are incorporated into a refined model for enzyme interaction in galactomannan biosynthesis.
Nematicidal activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:
The aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum caused significant (p < 0.05) mortality of Meloidogyne javanica larvae. The methanol soluble fraction eluted from pure distilled water showed the highest (>92%) nematicidal activity compared with the fractions eluted from pure methanol and different ratios of chloroform and methanol indicate that the nematicidal compound was polar in nature.
Is dietary fiber beneficial in chronic ischemic heart disease?:
Objectives: To evaluate the benefit of a dietary fiber preparation (Fibernat) in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: From January 1997 to March 1998, 114 consecutive patients with chronic IHD were enrolled in this prospective double blind randomized placebo controlled trial. The fiber (F) and placebo (P) groups were comparable at baseline. All patients were given advice regarding dietary and lifestyle modifications. Concomitant drug therapy was not altered. The drug (consisting of soluble and insoluble fibers obtained from fenugreek, guar gum and wheat bran) and placebo were administered for six months (10 grams twice daily). Results: The following parameters improved in both groups: HDL cholesterol (32 to 39 mg/dl, p < 0.0009 in F and 33 to 38, p < 0.007 in P), total: HDL cholesterol ratio (6.7 to 5.6, p < 0.0007 in F and from 7.0 to 6.0, p < 0.01 in P) and weight (64.0 to 63.0 kg, p < 0.002 in F and 60.3 to 59.5, p < 0.002 in P). The Apolipoprotein B increased (101 to 129 mg/dl, p < 0.00001 in F and 98 to 127, p < 0.0008 in P). The following parameters improved only in group F: LDL cholesterol (146 to 134, p < 0.027), Apolipoprotein A-1 (105 to 139, p < 0.001), body mass index (24.9 to 24.5, p < 0.03) and waist circumference (37.2 to 36.7, p < 0.03). Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, hip circumference, W:H ratio, exercise time and blood sugar were unchanged in both groups. Conclusions: Fibernat is well tolerated, safe and had favorable effects on LDL cholesterol, Apolipoprotein A-1, body mass index and waist circumference.
Medicinal foodstuffs. IV. Fenugreek seed. (1): structures of trigoneosides Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb, new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Indian Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:
Six new furostanol saponins called trigoneosides Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb were isolated from a medicinal foodstuff, fenugreek seed, the seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae) originating from India, together with two known saponins, glycoside D and trigofoenoside A. The structures of trigoneosides Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IIIb were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostane-2 alpha,3 beta,22 zeta,26-tetraol 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)- 5 alpha-furostane-2 alpha,3 beta,22 zeta,26-tetraol 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 beta-furostane-3 beta,22 zeta,26-triol 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 beta-furostane-3 beta,22 zeta,26-triol 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostane-3 beta,22 zeta,26-triol 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 alpha-furostane-3 beta,22 zeta,26-triol 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.
Medicinal foodstuffs. XVII. Fenugreek seed. (3): structures of new furostanol-type steroid saponins, trigoneosides Xa, Xb, XIb, XIIa, XIIb, and XIIIa, from the seeds of Egyptian Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.:
Six new furostanol-type steroid saponins called trigoneosides Xa, Xb, XIb, XIIa, XIIb, and XIIIa were isolated from the seeds of Egyptian Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae) together with six known furostanol-type steroid saponins: trigoneosides Ia, Ib, and Va, glycoside D, trigonelloside C, and compound C. The structures of trigoneosides Xa, Xb, Xlb, XIIa, Xllb, and XIIIa were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostane-2alpha+ ++,3beta,22xi,26-tetraol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-,beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostane-2 alpha,beta,22xi,26tetraol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(l -->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostane2alpha++ +,beta,22xi,26-tetraol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(l -->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-ene-3beta,22xi,26- triol 3-O-Ca-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-ene-3beta,22xi+ ++,26-triol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(25S)-furost-5-ene-3beta,22xi,26-t riol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1--4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.
Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.:
Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.
4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion.:
We report the characterization of a new insulinotropic compound, 4-hydroxyisoleucine. This amino acid has been extracted and purified from fenugreek seeds, which are known in traditional medicine for their antidiabetic properties. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine increases glucose-induced insulin release, in the concentration range of 100 micromol/l to 1 mmol/l, through a direct effect on isolated islets of Langerhans from both rats and humans. The stimulating effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine was strictly glucose dependent; indeed, ineffective at low (3 mmol/l) or basal (5 mmol/l) glucose concentrations, the amino acid potentiated the insulin secretion induced by supranormal (6.6-16.7 mmol/l) concentrations of glucose. In addition, in the isolated perfused rat pancreas, we could show 1) that the pattern of insulin secretion induced by 4-hydroxyisoleucine was biphasic, 2) that this effect occurred in the absence of any change in pancreatic alpha- and delta-cell activity, and 3) that the more glucose concentration was increased, the more insulin response was amplified. Moreover, 4-hydroxyisoleucine did not interact with other agonists of insulin secretion (leucine, arginine, tolbutamide, glyceraldehyde). Therefore, we conclude that 4-hydroxyisoleucine insulinotropic activity might, at least in part, account for fenugreek seeds' antidiabetic properties. This secretagogue may be considered as a novel drug with potential interest for the treatment of NIDDM.
Production of iron-fortified bread employing some selected natural iron sources.:
Iron fortification of wheat breads is the optimal approach for reducing the high prevalence of iron deficiency in wheat-eating developing countries as in Egypt. The effectiveness of some natural iron-fortificants for potential use in Egyptian bread was tested. Defatted soybean flour, soybean flour, soybean hull flour, molasses and fenugreek flour at different levels besides FeSO4.7H2O as standard were separately incorporated in the wheat flour dough. Dough characteristics were studied using a Brabender Farinograph, where addition of such fortificants improves significantly (p < 0.05) the water absorption, development time, dough stability and dough weakening. Good breads with high nutritive value, excellent crust color, crumb grain and high overall acceptability were produced by adding either 10% defatted soybean flour, 5% soybean hull flour, 2% molasses or 4% fenugreek flour. Rat feeding trials have shown a good haematological response, i.e. higher haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) values gained. Additional work is needed to identify other fortification options and to develop targeted fortification programes that will supply iron to all segments of a population in greatest need.
Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease:
In a placebo-controlled study the effect of ginger and fenugreek was examined on blood lipids, blood sugar, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity. The subjects included in this study were healthy individuals, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who either had CAD or were without CAD. In patients with CAD powdered ginger administered in a dose of 4 g daily for 3 months did not affect ADP- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Also, no change in the fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen level was observed. However, a single dose of 10 g powdered ginger administered to CAD patients produced a significant reduction in platelet aggregation induced by the two agonists. Ginger did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar. Fenugreek given in a dose of 2.5 g twice daily for 3 months to healthy individuals did not affect the blood lipids and blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). However, administered in the same daily dose for the same duration to CAD patients also with NIDDM, fenugreek decreased significantly the blood lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides) without affecting the HDL-c. When administered in the same daily dose to NIDDM (non-CAD) patients (mild cases), fenugreek reduced significantly the blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). In severe NIDDM cases, blood sugar (both fasting and post prandial) was only slightly reduced. The changes were not significant. Fenugreek administration did not affect platelet aggregation, fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen.
Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol.:
The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification of steroid saponins was carried out. Thereafter, the effects of these steroid saponins were investigated on feeding behavior and metabolic endocrine changes in normal and diabetic rats. All the steroid saponins (furostanol type) were extracted from the seeds and separated from all other constituents of the entire extract by using several purification procedures to give an extract containing at least 90% of steroid saponins. Pharmcological experiments were performed in vivo in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats: steroid saponins were administered chronically mixed with food (12.5 mg/day per 300 g body weight). Our data show that the treatment with steroid saponins significantly increased food intake and the motivation to eat in normal rats, while modifying the circadian rhythm of feeding behavior; it also stabilized the food consumption in diabetic rats, which resulted in a progressive weight gain in these animals, in contrast to untreated diabetic controls. Both in normal and diabetic rats, steroid saponins decreased total plasma cholesterol without any change in triglycerides. In conclusion, the present work reports a clear methodology to obtain all the steroid saponins and demonstrates that these saponins enhance food consumption and motivation to eat, and reduce plasma cholesterol levels in rats.
Grandmothers' influence on mother and child health.:
PIP: This study is based on interviews with grandmothers during July-September 1992-93 in Sudan. The study shows that grandmothers play a significant role in health education and child care within families in the Sudan. Grandmothers, who are not aware of the changes in knowledge, also promote harmful traditions. The authors recommend that health education be directed to elderly women and grandmothers in order to change beliefs and practices that continue to be harmful to children and mothers. Grandmothers were found to give sound advice on child birth, such as movement during labor, breast feeding immediately after birth, and birth intervals of 2-4 years. Grandmothers also gave sound advice on good nutritional practices during pregnancy and use of fermented cereals as weaning foods. Grandmothers recommended use of fenugreek for lactating mothers and use of mint and haharaib for stomach upsets, remedies that are beneficial. Babul is useful after an episiotomy for its antibacterial effects. Harmful advice includes recircumcision after delivery, short birth intervals, and avoidance of contraception. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a major practice that exposes girls and mothers to a greater risk of mortality during childbirth and pregnancy. The sample of grandmothers agreed on the importance of sex education for a girl before marriage. Unfortunately, 57% of grandmothers recommended 14 years as a suitable age for marriage. Grandmothers generally believed wrongly that riding bicycles, drinking coffee, and wearing trousers by girls would increase their sexual desires. Grandmothers explained menstruation to granddaughters and offered home-made remedies for cramps. 45% believed that there were no disadvantages to FGM and recommended FGM at ages 2-5 years. Most viewed fevers as a danger that required a doctor's care. Advice varied among grandmothers according to socioeconomic class.
The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats.:
The hypocholesterolaemic properties of an ethanol extract from defatted fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds were investigated. Purification of the crude extract by dialysis produced an isolated component with haemolytic properties. The dialysate was also found to contain saponins demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography. Experiments in vitro employing the everted-sac technique showed that the ethanol extract had the ability to inhibit taurocholate and deoxycholate absorption in a dose-dependent manner. In two separate feeding experiments, hypercholesterolaemic rats were fed on 30 or 50 g ethanol extract/kg for a 4-week period. Reductions in plasma cholesterol levels ranged from 18 to 26% and a tendency for lower concentrations of liver cholesterol was observed. These results indicate that the ethanol extract from fenugreek seeds contained hypocholesterolaemic components which appear to be saponins that interact with bile salts in the digestive tract.
Changes in some nutrients of fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum graecum L.) seeds during water boiling.:
Fenugreek seeds were boiled in water for various lengths of time (5, 10 and 15 min). Changes in weight, volume, moisture content, total sugars, nitrogen compounds, minerals, phosphorus compounds, phytic acid, amino acids and the in vitro digestibility of the seeds as well as the total solids of the boiling water were determined. Data indicated that there was an increase in both weight and volume as well as the in vitro digestibility of fenugreek seeds especially after the first 5 minutes of boiling. On the other hand, a decrease in the content of total sugars, protein compounds, calcium, magnesium, phytic acid, phosphorus and amino acids was observed. The reduction was accompanied by a gradual increase in the total solids of boiling water.
- Fenugreek Trigonella Foenum-Graecum.Fenugreek Seed Extracts.
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