Grape Seed Extract?Muscat, Red Wine Extract,Vitis Vinefera Seed Extract?A Powerful Antioxidant and More.
- Basic Botanical Data of Grape Seed.
- What Is Grape Seed Extract?
- Phytochemicals and content of Grape Seed?
- History and discovery of Grape Seed Extract?
- Important differences between Grape Seed and Pine Bark
- Health Benefits of Grape Seed Extract?
- What Does OPC Grape Seed Extract Do and How Does It Work?
- Famous benefits and Some known application of Grape Seed Extract.
- Research Summary of Grape Seed Extract.
- Grape Seed Extract, A Potent Antioxidant.
- Grape Seed Extract, Quickly Absorbed.
- About Anthocyanins and Proanthocyanins.
- Grape Seed Extract:Suggestions and Administration.
- Research Update:Grape Seed Extract and Grape Skin Extract.
- Photo Gallery of Vitis vinifera.
Grape Seed Extract:Suggestions and Administration.
Among the waste products from the production of wine or grape juice are grape skins and seeds. Grape seeds may be collected from this residue and ground to release a mild oil that is popular for cooking because it has a high resistance to heat and therefore does not burn as much as other cooking oils. Grape seeds and sometimes grape skins, as well, may also be made into oral dosage forms for use as herbal medications.
Dosage and Administration:
In August 2004, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a scientific advisory warning that little evidence was found for the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease. While acknowledging the benefits of antioxidants, the scientists who prepared the AHA recommendation advise getting natural antioxidants from foods rather than from supplements. Additionally, some evidence from animal studies suggests that very high doses of antioxidants such as those in grape seed extract may actually increase damage from oxidation. Therefore, doses of supplemental antioxidants should be no higher than recommended by the manufacturer of the product.
Oral grape seed extract is available as capsules or tablets usually containing 50 mg or 100 mg. While recommended doses are different for specific uses, a common recommendation for maintaining general health is 50 mg to 200 mg per day. Some manufacturers suggest that doses should be higher for older individuals and some animal studies have found few side effects from extremely high doses. Because the effects of high doses on humans have not been documented, however, dosing should be limited to no more that recommended on the package of the product being taken.
Grape seed oil is available in bulk for use in preparing and cooking foods. No limits are placed on its use, but it does contain about 120 calories per tablespoon?comparable to other cooking oils. If it replaces normal use of other oils, grape seed oil should not present any problems. Adding it to the diet or taking excessive amounts of it may lead to obesity, however.
The prime factor for management of long term preventative treatments is safety.
Leucoanthocyanins are practically devoid of oral toxicity (LD50>4000 mg/kg in rats and mice) and any other toxic effects even at high dosages, in oral chronic toxicity tests (60 mg/kg/day for 12 months in dogs and 6 months in rats). Note: That equates to a 100 kg man taking 60 capsules 100mg strength daily. Leucoanthocyanins are also devoid of any mutagenic and teratogenic effects and are safe as far as fertility, peri- and post-natal toxicity are concerned.
Leucoanthocyanins have been investigated in the treatment of venous-lymphatic insufficiency, and post-surgical lympho-oedema of the breast, at a dosage of 150mg twice daily.
The table above summarises a double blind placebo study in which Leucoanthocyanins were administered 30mg daily for 3 months to patients suffering from venous-lymphatic disease.
In a double blind test for peripheral disease of lower limbs improvement was seen in 87% of the cases using Leucoantho- cyanins compared with 45% with the placebo.
Clinical Sight Indications:
1.Controlled double blind testing was carried out on resistance to night glare and night vision by means of Comberg's nyctometer and ergovision on 100 subjects treated for 5 weeks with twice daily doses of 100mg of Leucoanthocyanins.33 Results showed a marked improvement in visual performance compared to the control group. This was attributed to a faster regeneration of the retinal structures from Leucoanthocyanins.
2.A study on 75 patients suffering from ocular stress caused by their working at a computer screen were treated with Leucoanthocyanins (300 mg/day) for 2 months. Graphs of the results show considerable improvement.34
3.Two further tests on 200 patients with myopic chorioretinosis were conducted for two months with Leucoanthocyanins (150 mg daily). Computerised examination at the start and end of the trials demonstrated a marked global increase on visual functions.35,36
Summary:Oral grape seed extract is most used for strengthening blood vessel to treat conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency and retinopathy. As an antioxidant, it may also have effects against cancer, heart disease, viruses, and cell damage caused by toxic chemicals. Topically, grape seed extract may protect against dental cavities and promote wound healing. Oil pressed from grape seeds is a supplemental source of essential fatty acids.
Risks:Pregnant and breast-feeding women should not take grape seed extract, due to limited information about its potential effects on developing babies or infants.
Side Effects:Cough, headache, and nausea are among the side effects reported by participants in clinical studies of grape seed extract.
Note for Taken Period and Cautions:
To realize a consistent benefit from grape seed extract, you need to take it regularly. Only about 30% of its PCOs remain in your body 24 hours after taking the supplement.
Do not take grape seed without first talking to your doctor if you:
have a bleeding or blood clotting disorder
are taking a medicine to prevent blood clots or that affects blood-clotting such as warfarin and asparin.
are taking a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
are taking other medications, herbs, antioxidants, or health supplements that may affect blood clotting.
are pregnant, breast-feeding or planning a pregnancy. It is not known whether grape seed will harm an unborn baby or a nursing infant.
There is no information available regarding the use of grape seed by children. Do not give any herbal/health supplement to a child without first talking to the child's doctor.
Safety and Acute toxicity:Grape Seed Extract.
Flavonoids in general, and OPCs specifically, are generally free of side effects. They are water- soluble nutrients and excess intake is excreted in the urine.
100 to 200 mg daily maintenance dose for a 150- pound adult. In case of illness, chornic conditions, or a flare-up of alleriges, 200 mg to 300 mg is suggested. Children should receive approximately 50 percent of the above doses.
Acute toxicity(LD50):Grape Seed Extract.OPCs
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-mouse.>4000 mg/kg.
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-rat.>4000 mg/kg.
Chronic toxicity:Grape Seed Extract.OPCs
Chronic toxicity test.Oral.Dogs.Dose/Period:60 mg/kg/day.12 Months.No toxic effects.
Chronic toxicity test.Oral.Rats.Dose/Period:60 mg/kg/day.6 Months.No toxic effects.
Proanthocyanidins are almost completely non-toxic both in acute dosage (LD50>4,000 mg/kg in rats and mice) and high long-term dosage (no toxic effects at 60 mg/kg/day for 12 months in dogs and six months in rats). They have no potential for causing mutations or birth defects, and have no adverse effect on fertility, pregnancy, or nursing.
Acute toxicity(LD50):Grape Skin Extract.
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-mouse.>10000 mg/kg.
LD50-Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-rat.>10000 mg/kg.
Reference:Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine.Volume(issue)/year:03.2002.
- Grape Seed Extract?Muscat, Red Wine Extract,Vitis Vinefera Seed Extract?A Powerful Antioxidant and More.
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