Hawthorn Berry Extract.Hawthorn Leaf Extract.
- Basic Botanical Info of Hawthorn.
- Hawthorn Medicinal Uses.
- Relieve chronic heart conditions.
- Active Component and Structure.
- Physiological Functions of Hawthorn.
- Common Benefit of Hawthorn.
- Dosage and Administration.
- Hawthorn:Witches' Ointments.
- Hawthorn:Research Update
- How Search engine think about Hawthorn.
- Research update of Hawthorn Fruit Extracts Hawthorn Leaves Extracts.
- Photo Gallery of Crataegus monogyna.
Research update of Hawthorn Fruit Extracts Hawthorn Leaves Extracts:
Intestinal absorption of hawthorn flavonoids--in vitro, in situ and in vivo correlations.:
Life Sci. 2006; 79(26):2455-62 (ISSN: 0024-3205).Zuo Z; Zhang L; Zhou L; Chang Q; Chow M.School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, SAR, PR China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Our previous studies identified hyperoside (HP), isoquercitrin (IQ) and epicatechin (EC) to be the major active flavonoid components of the hawthorn phenolic extract from hawthorn fruits demonstrating inhibitory effect on in vitro Cu(+2)-mediated low density lipoproteins oxidation. Among these three hawthorn flavonoids, EC was the only one detectable in plasma after the oral administration of hawthorn phenolic extract to rats. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanisms of these three hawthorn flavonoids by in vitro Caco-2 monolayer model, rat in situ intestinal perfusion model and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rats. In addition, in order to investigate the effect of the co-occurring components in hawthorn phenolic extract on the intestinal absorption of these three major hawthorn flavonoids, intestinal absorption transport profiles of HP, IQ and EC in forms of individual pure compound, mixture of pure compounds and hawthorn phenolic extract were studied and compared. The observations from in vitro Caco-2 monolayer model and in situ intestinal perfusion model indicated that all three studied hawthorn flavonoids have quite limited permeabilities. EC and IQ demonstrated more extensive metabolism in the rat in situ intestinal perfusion model and in vivo study than in Caco-2 monolayer model. Moreover, results from the Caco-2 monolayer model, rat in situ intestinal perfusion model as well as the in vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rats consistently showed that the co-occurring components in hawthorn phenolic extract might not have significant effect on the intestinal absorption of the three major hawthorn flavonoids studied.
Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials.:
Am J Med. 2003; 114(8):665-74 (ISSN: 0002-9343).Pittler MH; Schmidt K; Ernst E.Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter EX2 4NT, United Kingdom. M.H.Pittler@exeter.ac.uk
The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the evidence from rigorous clinical trials of the use of hawthorn extract to treat patients with chronic heart failure. We searched the literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, CISCOM, and AMED. Experts on and manufacturers of commercial preparations containing hawthorn extract were asked to contribute published and unpublished studies. There were no restrictions about the language of publication. Two reviewers independently performed the screening of studies, selection, validation, data extraction, and the assessment of methodological quality. To be included, studies were required to state that they were randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled, and used hawthorn extract monopreparations. Thirteen trials met all inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, hawthorn was used as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Eight trials including 632 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I to III) provided data that were suitable for meta-analysis. For the physiologic outcome of maximal workload, treatment with hawthorn extract was more beneficial than placebo (weighted mean difference, 7 Watt; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3 to 11 Watt; P < 0.01; n = 310 patients). The pressure-heart rate product also showed a beneficial decrease (weighted mean difference, -20; 95% CI: -32 to -8; n = 264 patients) with hawthorn treatment. Symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue improved significantly with hawthorn treatment as compared with placebo. Reported adverse events were infrequent, mild, and transient; they included nausea, dizziness, and cardiac and gastrointestinal complaints. In conclusion, these results suggest that there is a significant benefit from hawthorn extract as an adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure.
Research of the amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the buds of single-styled hawthorn.:
Medicina (Kaunas). 2004; 40(8):750-2 (ISSN: 1648-9144).Jakstas V; Janulis V; Labokas J.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To determine the amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the buds of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.); and to establish the possibility of usage of hawthorn buds in pharmacy practice.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different examples of hawthorn buds collected in 2001, 2002 and 2003 from some Lithuanian regions: Akmene (V1, V2, V3), Kedainiai (S1, S2, S3), Klaipeda (M1), Lazdijai (D1, D2, D3) and Vilnius (VL1, VL2) from branches of lower storey. Examples were extracted with ethanol and flavonoids were measured by spectroscopic method and by high performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: From 0.72 to 1.89% of flavonoids are found in the hawthorn buds. The dominating flavonoid is vitexin-2-O-rhamnosid (6.72-10.91 milligrams in one gram of dried crude drug). Other flavonoids are: vitexin: 0.88-6.53 milligrams/gram, hyperosid: 0.85-2.70 milligrams/gram, rutin: 0.72-2.10 milligrams/gram and quercitrin: 0.82-1.01 milligrams/gram.
CONCLUSION: The marks of phytochemical compounds of Lithuanian single-styled hawthorn buds corroborated the theory of possibility to use hawthorn buds as pharmaceutical crude drug and form sufficient ground for planning phytochemical and pharmacological researches of new hawthorn crude drug.
Interaction study between digoxin and a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha).:
J Clin Pharmacol. 2003; 43(6):637-42 (ISSN: 0091-2700).Tankanow R; Tamer HR; Streetman DS; Smith SG; Welton JL; Annesley T; Aaronson KD; Bleske BE.University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
Hawthorn, an herbal supplement, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of heart failure. The flavonoid components of hawthorn may be responsible for hawthorn's beneficial effects in the treatment of heart failure. However, these components may also affect P-glycoprotein function and cause interactions with drugs that are P-glycoprotein substrates, such as digoxin, which is also used to treat heart failure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hawthorn on digoxin pharmacokinetic parameters. A randomized, crossover trial with 8 healthy volunteers was performed evaluating digoxin 0.25 mg alone (D) for 10 days and digoxin 0.25 mg with Crataegus special extract WS 1442 (hawthorn leaves with flowers; Dr. Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals) 450 mg twice daily (D + H) for 21 days. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed for 72 hours. There were no statistically significant differences in any measured pharmacokinetic parameters. The AUC0-infinity, Cmax-Cmin, Cmin, and renal clearance for the D group were 79 +/- 26 mcg.h/L, 1.4 +/- 0.7 mcg/L, 0.84 +/- 0.2 mcg/L, and 74 +/- 10 mL/min versus 73 +/- 20 mcg.h/L, 1.1 +/- 0.1 mcg/L, 0.65 +/- 0.2 mcg/L, and 81 +/- 22 mL/min for the D + H group, respectively (p > 0.05). Following 3 weeks of concomitant therapy, hawthorn did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters for digoxin. This suggests that both hawthorn and digoxin, in the doses and dosage form studied, may be coadministered safely.
Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of hawthorn phenolics in extract versus individual pure compound.:
J Clin Pharmacol. 2005; 45(1):106-12 (ISSN: 0091-2700).Chang Q; Zuo Z; Ho WK; Chow MS.School of Pharmacy, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT Hong Kong.
The pharmacokinetics of an active herbal substance may be different when administered in an extract form as compared to that when administered as a pure compound. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of 4 active compounds of hawthorn fruits--namely, (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin--following administration of an extract formulation (as hawthorn phenolic extract, which contained the active compounds) or equivalent doses of individual pure compound in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5 per group). The hawthorn phenolic extract or pure compounds were administered both orally and intravenously. Following administration, multiple plasma samples were obtained, and the plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After the intravenous injection of hawthorn phenolic extract, higher plasma drug concentration, larger area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity, longer terminal elimination half-life, smaller apparent volume of distribution, lower total body clearance, and higher urinary excretion of each compound were obtained when compared to that after the pure compound. Following the oral administration of either hawthorn phenolic extract or pure compound, only epicatechin was absorbed, and their pharmacokinetics were generally not significantly different between these 2 formulations. The differences in the pharmacokinetics of the 2 formulations following intravenous but not oral administration may be attributable to the existence of other co-occurring components in the hawthorn phonolic extract (which may be present in the body after intravenous but not oral administration). The results showed that an herbal extract formulation, when administered intravenously, could potentially alter the pharmacokinetics of its active ingredients.
Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial.:
Br J Gen Pract. 2006; 56(527):437-43 (ISSN: 0960-1643).Walker AF; Marakis G; Simpson E; Hope JL; Robinson PA; Hassanein M; Simpson HC.Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Reading. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) leaves, flowers and berries are used by herbal practitioners in the UK to treat hypertension in conjunction with prescribed drugs. Small-scale human studies support this approach. AIM: To investigate the effects of hawthorn for hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed drugs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Reading, UK. METHOD: Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 79) were randomised to daily 1200 mg hawthorn extract (n = 39) or placebo (n = 40) for 16 weeks. At baseline and outcome a wellbeing questionnaire was completed and blood pressure and fasting blood samples taken. A food frequency questionnaire estimated nutrient intake.
RESULTS: Hypotensive drugs were used by 71% of the study population with a mean intake of 4.4 hypoglycaemic and/or hypotensive drugs. Fat intake was lower and sugar intake higher than recommendations, and low micronutrient intake was prevalent. There was a significant group difference in mean diastolic blood pressure reductions (P = 0.035): the hawthorn group showed greater reductions (baseline: 85.6 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3 to 87.8; outcome: 83.0 mmHg, 95% CI = 80.5 to 85.7) than the placebo group (baseline: 84.5 mmHg, 95% CI = 82 to 87; outcome: 85.0 mmHg, 95% CI = 82.2 to 87.8). There was no group difference in systolic blood pressure reduction from baseline (3.6 and 0.8 mmHg for hawthorn and placebo groups, respectively; P = 0.329). Although mean fat intake met current recommendations, mean sugar intake was higher and there were indications of potential multiple micronutrient deficiencies. No herb-drug interaction was found and minor health complaints were reduced from baseline in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomised controlled trial to demonstrate a hypotensive effect of hawthorn in patients with diabetes taking medication.
Research of the amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the crude drug of single-styled hawthorn:
Medicina (Kaunas). 2003; 39 Suppl 2:45-9 (ISSN: 1010-660X).Jakstas V; Janulis V; Labokas J; Kazlauskas S; Benetis R; Puodzi??niene G.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 3000 Kaunas, Lithuania. email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Leaves, flowers and fruits of single-styled hawthorn are used for production of pharmaceuticals with cardiotonic, coronary vasodilatoric and hypotensive action. Amount of flavonoids accumulated in crude drug of hawthorn is a parameter of quality. OBJECTIVE. To establish the difference in amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the crude drug of single-styled hawthorn. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Different examples of crude material from some Lithuanian regions were extracted with ethanol; flavonoids were measured by spectroscopic method and by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography).
RESULTS. From 0.77% to 2.80% of flavonoids are determined in the leaves and flowers; amounts of hyperosid were 0.16-0.87%; vitexin-o-rhamnosid 0.14-0.40%; rutin 0.10-0.19%. Flavonoids maximum percent was determinate in crude material examples collected at the single-styled hawthorn flowering time; the decline of amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the crude material of hawthorn was determined from May to August (realization of correlation coefficient r=-0.90). Hyperosid maximum percent was determined in crude material examples collected at flowering time; the decline of amounts of hyperosid accumulated in the crude material was determined from May to August (r=-0,94). Amounts of rutin and vitexin-o-rhamnosid in leaves were less than flowers; there was the decline of amounts of rutin and vitexin-o-rhamnosid in leaves from May to August. The percent of flavonoids 0.09 to 0.24 is determined in fruits.
CONCLUSION. Lithuanian single-styled hawthorn populations can supply quality crude material from May to August; the bigger amounts of flavonoids were determined in crude drug examples collected at flowering time.
Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.:
Phytomedicine. 2006; 13(9-10):643-50 (ISSN: 0944-7113).Long SR; Carey RA; Crofoot KM; Proteau PJ; Filtz TM.Oregon State University College of Pharmacy, Corvallis, OR, USA.
Extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) have become popular herbal supplements for their well-recognized cardiotonic effects. Many commercial preparations have been used successfully in the treatment of congestive heart failure, although the active principles within these extracts have yet to be conclusively identified. Several hawthorn preparations were studied and found to have negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay using unpaced cells. As compared to conventional cardiac drugs (i.e., epinephrine, milrinone, ouabain, or propranolol), hawthorn extract has a unique activity profile. Hawthorn extract appears to be anti-arrhythmic and capable of inducing rhythmicity in quiescent cardiomyocytes. Hawthorn extract does not cause beta-adrenergic receptor blockade at concentrations which cause negative chronotropic effects. Commercial hawthorn preparations, extracts prepared from dried leaves and those made from dried berries have similar chronotropic activities. When crude extracts are separated using size-exclusion chromatography, several fractions retain multiple cardiac activities. Assays with chromatographic fractions reveal that multiple dissimilar cardioactive components may exist within the extract, making the identification of individual active constituents more challenging.
Protective effect of hawthorn fruit on murine experimental colitis.:
Am J Chin Med. 2005; 33(2):167-80 (ISSN: 0192-415X)
The pathogenic mechanism and effective treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still unknown. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of hawthorn fruit (Crataegifructus) on two murine colitis models: dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Mice that developed acute colitis showed signs of diarrhea, gross rectal bleeding and weight loss within 10 days. However, hawthorn fruit (2 g/kg body weight) restored the body weight and colon length and increased hemoglobin count in these animals. Hawthorn fruit not only decreased signs of inflammation such as infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions, but also showed improvement of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a biochemical parameter of inflammation mass. TNBS colitis mice had significantly lower rates of survival than normal control animals; however, treatment with hawthorn fruit significantly improved survival in TNBS colitis mice. The results suggest that hawthorn fruit and the Kampo formula that contains this ingredient may have potential therapeutic utility in patients with IBD.
Identification of host fruit volatiles from hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) attractive to hawthorn-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies.:
J Chem Ecol. 2003; 29(2):321-36 (ISSN: 0098-0331).Nojima S; Linn C; Morris B; Zhang A; Roelofs W.Department of Entomology, NYS Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York 14456, USA.
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) were used to identify volatile compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) acting as behavioral attractants for hawthorn-infesting Rhagoletis pomonella flies. Consistent EAD activity was obtained for six chemicals: ethyl acetate (94.3%), 3-methylbutan-1-ol (4.0%), isoamyl acetate (1.5%), 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene (0.07%), butyl hexanoate (0.01%), and dihydro-beta-ionone (0.10%). In a flight-tunnel bioassay, there was a dose-related increase in the percentage of flies flying upwind to the six-component mixture. Hawthorn-origin flies also made equivalent levels of upwind flight with the synthetic blend and an adsorbent extract of volatiles collected from whole fruit, each containing the same amount of the 3-methylbutan-1-ol compound. Significantly lower levels of upwind flight occurred to a previously identified volatile blend of ester compounds that attracts R. pomonella flies infesting domestic apples, compared with the hawthorn volatile mix. Selected subtraction assays showed further that the four-component mixture of 3-methylbutan-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, and dihydro-beta-ionone also elicited levels of upwind flight equivalent to the six-component mix. Removal of 3-methylbutan-1-ol from the four-component blend resulted in complete loss of upwind flight behavior. Removal of dihydro-beta-ionone, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, or butyl hexanoate from the four-component mixture resulted in significant decreases in the mean number of upwind flights compared to the four- or six-component mixtures.
Regulation of lipoprotein lipase expression by effect of hawthorn flavonoids on peroxisome proliferator response element pathway.:
J Pharmacol Sci. 2006; 100(1):51-8 (ISSN: 1347-8613).Fan C; Yan J; Qian Y; Wo X; Gao L.Life Science Department, Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, China. email@example.com
To investigate the possibility that natural medicines affect lipid metabolism by regulating lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was constructed downstream of the peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) and the constructed plasmid was microinjected into Xenopus oocytes to establish a PPRE regulatory reporter system. Using this system, hawthorn flavonoids were quickly selected from a panel of natural medicines and found to up-regulate GFP expression by an effect on PPRE. To confirm the effect of hawthorn flavonoids, we treated mice orally with water (control), hawthorn flavonoids, and pioglitazone and measured the LPL levels in serum, adipose tissue, and muscle by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum LPL levels were no different from the controls after treatment with either hawthorn flavonoids or pioglitazone, but LPL increased significantly in muscular tissues and decreased in adipose tissues. These results demonstrate that hawthorn flavonoids meditate LPL expression in mice with tissue-specific differences. A novel PPRE regulatory report system was established for rapid and effective selection and evaluation of LPL-mediating drugs.
Determination of amygdalin in hawthorn by high performance liquid chromatography:
Se Pu. 2005; 23(5):496-8 (ISSN: 1000-8713).L?? W; Ding MKey Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
A suitable method for extraction of amygdalin from hawthorn has been established. At first, the lipophilic components were removed with petroleum ether by ultrasonic extraction. The amygdalin was then extracted by methanol in a Soxhlet's apparatus. For quantitation, a high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed by using a reversed-phase C18 column, mobile phase of methanol-water (15:85, v/v) and a detection wavelengh of 215 nm. It can be concluded that the content of amygdalin is higher in the seeds than that in the hawthorn powder without the seeds and the yield of amygdalin is higher in the hawthorn pieces than that in the hawthorn powder.
Hawthorn: potential roles in cardiovascular disease.:
Am J Chin Med. 2005; 33(1):1-10 (ISSN: 0192-415X).Chang WT; Dao J; Shao ZH.Emergency Resuscitation Center, Department of Medicine Section of Emergency Medicine, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
Hawthorn (Crataegus) may play a role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and in particular, congestive heart failure. Evidence is accumulating that hawthorn may induce anti-ischemia/reperfusion-injury, anti-arrhythmic, hypolipidemic and hypotensive effects. These beneficial effects may in part be due to the presence of antioxidant flavonoid components. While a number of studies have been performed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hawthorn, an international, multicenter, prospective clinical study including a large number of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III heart failure patients is ongoing to test hawthorn's long-term therapeutic effects. Further clinical trials as well as pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies are needed to explore and confirm its effectiveness, safety and pharmacological mechanism.
Prospective, comparative cohort studies and their contribution to the benefit assessments of therapeutic options: heart failure treatment with and without Hawthorn special extract WS 1442.:
Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004; 11 Suppl 1:36-9 (ISSN: 1424-7364).Habs M.Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH and Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Willmar-Schwabe-Strasse 4, D-76227 Karlsruhe, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: In addition to testing a drug for its efficacy, pharmacological quality and safety, current policies are increasingly demanding evaluations of the therapeutic benefits provided by a drug in general practice with "non-selected" patients and increasingly restrictive economic considerations.
OBJECTIVE: One of the trials which addresses this task is the WISO cohort study (Efficacy and socio-economic relevance of treatment of chronic heart failure stage NYHA II with Crataegus extract WS 1442). It compares two different therapeutic strategies in the treatment of heart failure stage NYHA II, i.e. a conventional medication and a therapy which also includes hawthorn special extract WS 1442 (Crataegutt novo 450) in addition to chemical-synthetic drugs. In contrast to clinical trials, the patients in cohort studies are expressly not randomised and the physician in charge independently chooses the administered treatment. This comparative, non-interventional observation provides well-founded evidence of the "real-world effectiveness" of the tested preparation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 952 patients with heart failure (NYHA II) were enrolled in the study by 217 general practitioners. 588 patients received Crataegus special extract WS 1442 (Crataegutt novo 450) either as an add-on therapy or as a monotherapy (Crataegus cohort) and 364 patients received therapy without hawthorn (comparative cohort). These two groups had the same indication (heart failure NYHA II) but were significantly different regarding gender, age and concomitant cardiovascular disease. Basically, in view of the free choice of therapy made by the physician in charge, such differences are to be expected in comparative observational studies. A sufficient degree of patient comparability was provided by means of the matched-pairs technique, which replaced the randomisation procedure normally used in clinical studies. After 2 years, 130 patient pairs generated by this technique could be included in the interim assessment.
RESULTS: The clinical symptoms with regard to all parameters investigated showed the same or a more pronounced improvement in the Crataegus cohort in the course of 2 years. After 2 years, the three cardinal symptoms of heart failure--fatigue (p = 0.036), stress dyspnoea (p = 0.020) and palpitations (p = 0.048)--were significantly less marked in the Crataegus cohort than in the comparative cohort.
DISCUSSION: The particular design of the cohort study also provides valuable additional information: (1) Hawthorn special extract WS 1442 was prescribed in registered cardiological practices for the treatment of patients with heart failure stage NYHA II, partly as an alternative and partly as a supplement to the used chemical-synthetic drugs. (2) Favourable effects on the clinical symptoms were achieved although the patients in the Crataegus cohort received markedly fewer chemical-synthetic drugs than the patients in the comparative cohort (ACE-inhibitors: 36 vs. 54%, p = 0.004; cardiac glycosides: 18 vs. 37%, p = 0.001; diuretics: 49 vs. 61%, p = 0.061; beta-blockers: 22 vs. 33%, p = 0.052). CONCLUSION: The data show a clear benefit for patients with heart failure stage NYHA II treated with WS 1442. The single or add-on administration in addition to a chemical-synthetic medication resulted in objective improvements at comparable costs.
Phytochemical research of hawthorn species introduced in Lithuania.:
Medicina (Kaunas). 2003; 39 Suppl 2:80-4 (ISSN: 1010-660X).Jakstas V; Janulis V; Labokas J; Bernatoniene J; Brusokas V; Malinauskas F; Benetis R.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, Kaunas, Lithuania. email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
The natural vegetable resources of Republic of Lithuania can be supplied by imported hawthorn species, subspecies and varieties, not growing naturally in the territory of country, but well growing and able to produce the crude drug with local conditions of the climate. OBJECTIVE. Determinate amounts of phenolic substances (favonoid glycosides and phenolic acids) in the flowers and leaves of collected species of genus Crataegus and Crataegomespilus. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Different examples of crude drug from some Lithuanian regions were extracted with 96% of ethanol and flavonoids were detected spectroscopically and with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography). RESULTS. In leaves and flowers were found different quantitys of common amounts of flavonoids (1.07-2.53%) and different quantitys of individual substances: flavonoids (hyperosid, vitexin-O-rhamnosid, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, vitexin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and caffeic acids). CONCLUSION. Flowers and leaves of hawthorn species, introduced in Lithuania, can be used for preparation of crude drugs procurements; the marks of phytochemical compounds of phenotypes from different genetic lines are sufficient grounds for planning of production of crude drug with special phytotherapeutic influences.
Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.:
J Chromatogr A. 2006; 1112(1-2):339-44 (ISSN: 0021-9673).Urbonavici??te A; Jakstas V; Kornysova O; Janulis V; Maruska A.Department of Chemistry, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos st. 8, LT-44404 Kaunas, Lithuania.
Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated.
Investigation of the pharmaceutical and pharmacological equivalence of different Hawthorn extracts.:
Phytomedicine. 2003; 10(1):8-16 (ISSN: 0944-7113).Vierling W; Brand N; Gaedcke F; Sensch KH; Schneider E; Scholz M.Institut f??r Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Technischen Universit??t M??nchen, Germany. email@example.com
Seven Hawthorn extracts were tested in isolated guinea pig aorta rings. The effect on noradrenaline- (10 microM) induced contraction was investigated. The extracts were prepared using ethanol (40 to 70% v/v), methanol (40 to 70% v/v), and water as the extraction solvents. The aqueous-alcoholic extracts displayed similar spectra of constituents. They were characterised by similar procyanidin, flavonoid, total vitexin and total phenols content and by similar TLC fingerprint chromatograms. The aqueous extract, however, showed a different fingerprint and a noticeably lower concentration of procyanidins, flavonoids and total phenols but a similar total vitexin content. All 7 extracts had a relaxant effect on the aorta precontracted by noradrenaline and led to relaxations to 44 until 29% of the initial values. The EC50 values of the aqueous-alcoholic extracts varied between 4.16 and 9.8 mg/l. The aqueous extract produced a similarly strong maximal relaxation as the other extracts, but the EC50, at 22.39 mg/l, was markedly higher. The results show that Hawthorn extracts with comparable quality profiles were obtained by using aqueous-alcoholic extraction solvents (40 to 70% ethanol or methanol). The extracts exerted comparable pharmacological effects. When using water as the extraction solvent, both, the spectrum of constituents and the pharmacological effect, deviated remarkably. It is thus possible to obtain bioequivalent extracts with comparable effect profiles by using 40 to 70% ethanol or methanol as the extraction solvent.
Oligomeric procyanidins from hawthorn extract as supplementary therapy in patients with left ventricle systolic dysfunction.:
Przegl Lek. 2005; 62(4):243-4 (ISSN: 0033-2240).Rechci??ski T; Kurpesa M.II Katedra i Klinika Kardiologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lodzi. Tomasz.firstname.lastname@example.org
The results of recent studies provide the evidence that extract of hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) may provide benefits in left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The authors present a number of in vitro and in vivo studies in which the influence of this herbal drug on contractility of impaired myocardium has been proved. This kind of supplementary therapy was well tolerated and no interactions with the other compounds for heart failure were reported.
Analysis of volatile fragrant components in hawthorn tincture by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.:
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004; 33(1):108-10 (ISSN: 1000-8020).Zhu X; L?? C; Gao Y.Tobacco Research Center, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei 230052, China.
The volatile fragrant components in hawthorn tincture were analyzed by GC/MS. 38 components were identified. The relative content of these constituents were determined with area mormalizing method and the identification ratio was 97.19%. The main components were 3-Hexen-1-ol(370.59 micrograms/g), Eugenol(320.95 micrograms/g), Butanedioic acid hydroxy, diethyl ester(191.25 micrograms/g), 2-Methyl-pentenoic acid(164.83 micrograms/g) and citric acid(80.87 micrograms/g) etc. The method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive and suitable for routine analysis and quality control.
Regulative effects of hawthorn leave flavonoids on cytotoxicity, NO and Ca2+ in hypoxia-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.:
Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2005; 18(3):157-60 (ISSN: 1002-0837).Lan WJ; Ge YK; Zheng XX.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou Zhejiang.
Objective: To evaluate the potential effect of HLF (Hawthorn leave flavonoids, w/w, 80% flavonoids) against thrombus formation, effect of HLF on hypoxia-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) was studied. Method: The levels of cytotoxicity and NO upon HUVECs were studied by flow cytometry. Moreover, the level of calcium ion in HUVECs was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. Result: Data from this study showed that HLF at concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and 10 micrograms/ml decreased the cytotoxicity of hypoxia to HUVECs (P<0.05, P<0.01). The intracellular levels of NO and calcium ion were downregulated by HLF at concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml (P<0.01; P<0.01) and 10 micrograms/ml (vs control, P<0.01; P<0.01) too. Conclusion: Results observed suggest that HLF protect HUVECs from hypoxia partly through its regulative effect on NO and calcium ion levels.
Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts.:
Nahrung. 2003; 47(3):191-8 (ISSN: 0027-769X).Bahorun T; Aumjaud E; Ramphul H; Rycha M; Luximon-Ramma A; Trotin F; Aruoma OI.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, R??duit. email@example.com
Crataegus (Hawthorn) has long been used as a folk medicine and is widely utilized in pharmaceutical preparations mainly because of its neuro- and cardiosedative actions and its low toxicity. The pharmacological effects of Crataegus have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. In this study, the production of polyphenols by ten-year-old Crataegus monogyna calli was studied in relation to growth variation and antioxidant capacity within a subculture period. Assays based on the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and stability in oil-in-water emulsion were used to characterize the antioxidant actions of the callus cultures. High TEAC (3.66 micromol/g dry weight) and FRAP (208.19 micromol Fe2+/g dry weight) values were observed when maximal growth was reached(days 30-35), and this seemed to be influenced by optimum total phenol (47.40 mg/g dry weight), proanthocyanidin (20.81 mg/g dry weight), flavonoid (7.01 mg/g dry weight), anthocyanin (6.18 mg/g dry weight), (-)-epicatechin (1.77 mgl/g dry weight), procyanidin B2 (3.97 mg/g dry weight), and chlorogenic acid (1.11 mg/g dry weight) production during that period. The TEAC values were strongly associated with total flavonoids and to a lesser extent with total phenols, anthocyanins and total proanthocyanidins. The FRAP antioxidant values correlated to total phenols, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids, respectively. The polyphenolic rich calli were as effective as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventing hydroperoxide and conjugated diene formation in a 30% oil-in-water emulsion prepared with stripped sunflower oil, during 7days storage at 30 degrees C. Crataegus monogyna cell culture represents an important alternative source for natural antioxidants.
Efficacy and safety of a herbal drug containing hawthorn berries and D-camphor in hypotension and orthostatic circulatory disorders/results of a retrospective epidemiologic cohort study.:
Arzneimittelforschung. 2005; 55(8):443-50 (ISSN: 0004-4172).Hempel B; Kroll M; Schneider B.Robugen GmbH Pharmazeutische Fabrik, Esslingen-Zell
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Korodin Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen, a herbal drug containing D-camphor (CAS 76-22-2; 2.5 %) and a liquid extract of fresh hawthorn berries (97.3%), has been used since many years for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. The combination as well as its constituents were tested in clinical trials against placebo with healthy volunteers and patients using tilt-tests. The objective of this study was to investigate efficacy and safety of the drug under the conditions of medical practice in comparison to other drugs admitted for this indication.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed as an epidemiological retrospective cohort study in 46 medical practices in Germany. In the practices the files were reviewed for patients who were treated between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2002 for orthostatic hypotension. Included in the study were all patients who were treated either with the test drug or a control drug containing etilefrine, oxilofrine, midodrine, norfenefrine or dihydroergotamine and who met the inclusion criteria. The data of the files were coded, transferred to case report forms and augmented by the physician's statements about symptoms and success. Effect criteria were the improvement of symptoms and change of blood pressure during treatment. The correctness of the data was controlled using anonymous copies of the files. A total of 490 patients (399 in the test-group and 91 in the control group) between 11 and 102 years were included in the study. To correct heterogeneities in baseline conditions, treatment results were adjusted by regression and stratification to equal baseline conditions using the propensity score.
RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio for improvement was 5.6, the adjusted mean increase of the systolic blood pressure the 2-fold compared to the control group. The difference was highly significant and did not depend on age or initial blood pressure. In the test group two adverse events were observed which had no relation to the medication; in the control group one reversible event with a probable relation to the medication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The test drug was proven as effective and safe in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in medical practice for all age groups and independent of the initial blood pressures.
Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by hawthorn extract in rat mesenteric artery.:
Life Sci. 1998; 63(22):1983-91 (ISSN: 0024-3205).Chen ZY; Zhang ZS; Kwan KY; Zhu M; Ho WK; Huang Y.Food and Nutritional Science Program of Department of Biochemistry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin.
The extract prepared from hawthorn (Crataegus fruit) was examined for its relaxant effect in rat isolated mesenteric arteries. Hawthorn extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the U46619-precontracted artery with an IC50 of 0.22 +/- 0.02 mg/ml. Removal of the functional endothelium reduced by approximately 85% the maximum relaxant response to hawthorn extract. Pretreatment of the arterial tissues with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (3-10 microM) or methylene blue (3-10 microM) inhibited the relaxation induced by hawthorn extract, while indomethacin (10 microM) had no effect. L-arginine (3 mM) did not affect the relaxation induced by hawthorn extract but partially reversed the effect of 10 microM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Iberiotoxin (100 nM) slightly but significantly inhibited the relaxant effect of hawthorn extract whilst glibenclamide (3 microM) was ineffective. Glibenclamide at 3 microM reversed the relaxation induced by pinacidil. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and methylene blue markedly inhibited acetylcholine-induced relaxation in endothelium-intact arteries. Hawthorn extract also reduced the contraction induced by phenylephrine (1 microM) or high Ki (60 mM) with respective IC50 values of 0.13 +/- 0.01 mg/ml and 0.11 +/- 0.01 mg/ml. In high K+-contracted arteries, hawthorn extract induced only 55% of relaxation while it caused a complete inhibition of the U46619- or phenylephrine-induced contraction. These results suggest that hawthorn contains active components which cause vasorelaxation in rat isolated mesenteric arteries. Nitric oxide but not other endothelium-derived vasoactive factors was probably involved in the relaxation induced by hawthorn extract.
Hawthorn fruit is hypolipidemic in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.:
J Nutr. 2002; 132(1):5-10 (ISSN: 0022-3166).Zhang Z; Ho WK; Huang Y; James AE; Lam LW; Chen ZY.Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, The People's Republic of China.
The present study examined the hypolipidemic activity of hawthorn fruit. New Zealand white rabbits were fed one of three diets, a reference diet with no cholesterol added (NC), a high cholesterol diet (1 g/100 g, HC) and a HC diet supplemented with 2 g/100 g hawthorn fruit powder (HC-H). After 12 wk, serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG) were 23.4 and 22.2% lower, respectively, in the hawthorn fruit group compared with the HC rabbits (P < 0.05). Hawthorn supplementation led to 50.6% less cholesterol accumulation in aorta (P < 0.05) and 23-95% greater excretion of neutral and acidic sterols (P < 0.05). Supplementation of hawthorn fruit did not affect the activities of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA-R) or cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CH) but it suppressed the activity of intestinal acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the mechanism by which hawthorn fruit decreases serum cholesterol involves, at least in part, the inhibition of cholesterol absorption mediated by down-regulation of intestinal ACAT activity.
Hawthorn: pharmacology and therapeutic uses.:
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002; 59(5):417-22 (ISSN: 1079-2082).Rigelsky JM; Sweet BV.H. H. McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USA.
The uses, pharmacology, clinical efficacy, dosage and administration, adverse effects, and drug interactions of hawthorn are discussed. Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a fruit-bearing shrub with a long history as a medicinal substance. Uses have included the treatment of digestive ailments, dyspnea, kidney stones, and cardiovascular disorders. Today, hawthorn is used primarily for various cardiovascular conditions. The cardiovascular effects are believed to be the result of positive inotropic activity, ability to increase the integrity of the blood vessel wall and improve coronary blood flow, and positive effects on oxygen utilization. Flavonoids are postulated to account for these effects. Hawthorn has shown promise in the treatment of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II congestive heart failure (CHF) in both uncontrolled and controlled clinical trials. There are also suggestions of a beneficial effect on blood lipids. Trials to establish an antiarrhythmic effect in humans have not been conducted. The recommended daily dose of hawthorn is 160-900 mg of a native water-ethanol extract of the leaves or flowers (equivalent to 30-169 mg of epicatechin or 3.5-19.8 mg of flavonoids) administered in two or three doses. At therapeutic dosages, hawthorn may cause a mild rash, headache, sweating, dizziness, palpitations, sleepiness, agitation, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Hawthorn may interact with vasodilating medications and may potentiate or inhibit the actions of drugs used for heart failure, hypertension, angina, and arrhythmias. The limited data about hawthorn suggest that it may be useful in the treatment of NYHA functional class II CHF.
A comparison of the composition of epicuticular wax from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) flowers.:
Phytochemistry. 2000; 55(2):111-6 (ISSN: 0031-9422).Griffiths DW; Robertson GW; Shepherd T; Birch AN; Gordon SC; Woodford JA.Scottish Crop Research Institute, Dunndee, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Epicuticular waxes have been characterised from the flowers of raspberry and hawthorn, on both of which adult raspberry beetles (Byturus tomentosus) can feed. The flower wax from both species had similar alkane profiles and also contained long-chain alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids. The range of the carbon numbers detected for these classes of compounds was broadly similar in both but the relative amounts of each differed between species. Raspberry flower wax also contained fatty acid methyl esters, a group of compounds that has rarely been detected in plant epicuticular waxes, however, these were not observed in hawthorn flower wax. Long-chain alcohol-fatty acid esters with carbon numbers ranging from C36 to C48 were also detected in both plant species. However, an examination of their constituent acids indicated that in hawthorn the esters based on the C16 fatty acid predominated, whilst in raspberry flower wax, esters based on the C20 fatty acid were most abundant. Both species also contained pentacyclic triterpenoids, which accounted for, on average, over 16 and 48% of the total wax extracted from raspberry and hawthorn flowers respectively. In the former, ursolic and oleanolic acids accounted for over 90% of the pentacyclic triterpenes, whilst hawthorn flower wax, in addition to containing these acids, also contained high relative concentrations of both free and esterified alpha- and beta-amyrins.
Promising hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized double-blind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension.:
Phytother Res. 2002; 16(1):48-54 (ISSN: 0951-418X).Walker AF; Marakis G; Morris AP; Robinson PA.Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK. A.F.Walker@afnovell.reading.ac.uk
This pilot study was aimed at investigating the hypotensive potential of hawthorn extract and magnesium dietary supplements individually and in combination, compared with a placebo. Thirty-six mildly hypertensive subjects completed the study. At baseline, anthropometric and dietary assessment, as well as blood pressure measurements were taken at rest, after exercise and after a computer 'stress' test. Volunteers were then randomly assigned to a daily supplement for 10 weeks of either: (a) 600 mg Mg, (b) 500 mg hawthorn extract, (c) a combination of (a) and (b), (d) placebo. Measurements were repeated at 5 and 10 weeks of intervention. There was a decline in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all treatment groups, including placebo, but ANOVA provided no evidence of difference between treatments. However, factorial contrast analysis in ANOVA showed a promising reduction (p = 0.081) in the resting diastolic blood pressure at week 10 in the 19 subjects who were assigned to the hawthorn extract, compared with the other groups. Furthermore, a trend towards a reduction in anxiety (p = 0.094) was also observed in those taking hawthorn compared with the other groups. These findings warrant further study, particularly in view of the low dose of hawthorn extract used.
Identification of volatile compounds of hawthorn by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).:
Se Pu. 1997; 15(3):219-21 (ISSN: 1000-8713).Chen L; Xie B; Yu T.Department of Food Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070.
The volatile compounds of three cultivars of hawthorn were studied. Changko (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.) hawthorn fruit was harvested after ripening from Hubei Province and those of Heihong and Dajinxing were from Shandong Province. The volatile compounds of each hawthorn cultivars were obtained by SDE (simultaneous distillation-extraction) equipment, by using CH2Cl2 as extracting solvent. The volatile extract was concentrated at 40-50 degrees C under vacuum to 0. 05mL or so and was ready for GC and GC/MS analysis. A DB-Wax fused silica capillary column (50m x 0.32mm i.d.; 1microm thickness) and a flame ionization detector (FID) was employed in GC analysis. The temperature program included of a 5 min isothermal period at 40 degrees C, temperature increases of 2 degrees C/min from 40 degrees C to 240 degrees C, and a 60 min isothermal period at 240 degrees C. Mass spectra were obtained by electron impact at 70eV and a source temperature of 250 degrees C. Thirty-two volatile compounds of the hawthorn fruit were identified, which comprised 61%-68% of the volatile fraction. The ten major components were cis-3-hexenol, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, alpha-terpineol, furfural, hexanol, hexyl acetate, nonanal, citral, 3-penten-2-one and trans-2-decenal. The molecular weight range of the major volatile fraction covers from C3 to C10. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in the volatile constituents among the three cultivars were not remarkable.
High-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of hawthorn active components in rat plasma.:
J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001; 760(2):227-35 (ISSN: 1387-2273).Chang Q; Zhu M; Zuo Z; Chow M; Ho WK.School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, PR China.
A simple HPLC method with photodiode-array (PDA) ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of four active polyphenol components of hawthorn (Crataegus), chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin, in rat plasma. Following extraction from the plasma samples with ethyl acetate-methanol (2:1, v/v), these four compounds were successfully separated using a C18 column with a gradient elution of 5 and 25% acetonitrile in 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.4). The flow-rate was set at 1 ml/min and the eluent was detected at 325 nm for chlorogenic acid, 278 nm for epicatechin, and 360 nm for both hyperoside and isoquercitrin. Narignin (0.82 microg) was used as the internal standard and was detected at 278 nm. The method is linear over the studied range of 0.16-40, 0.63-160, 0.13-32 and 0.13-30 microg/ml for chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin, respectively. The correlation coefficient for each analyte was greater than 0.995. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the analysis was better than 4 and 7%, respectively. The extraction recoveries at low to high concentration were greater than 85% for both epicatechin and chlorogenic acid, and greater than 94% for both hyperoside and isoquercitrin. The detection limits were 0.04, 0.20, 0.03 and 0.03 microg/ml for chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin. The developed method was used to analyze the plasma concentrations of the four analytes after the intravenous administration of hawthorn polyphenol extract to rats.
J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2002; 16(4):1-8 (ISSN: 0889-4655).Fong HH; Bauman JL.Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.
Crataegus monogyna Jacq (Lindm), C. laevigata (Poir) DC, or related Crataegus species, collectively known as hawthorn, have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical studies have found that standardized extracts show promise as adjunctive agents for the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction. Other trials consistently demonstrate its ability to improve exercise tolerance and symptoms of mild to moderate heart failure. Preliminary evidence indicates that it improves left ventricular performance, as measured by ejection fraction. In order to properly use hawthorn in the treatment of heart failure, a large, controlled, multicenter trial in which mortality serves as the primary endpoint is needed.
High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of oligomeric procyanidins from dimers up to the hexamer in hawthorn.:
J Chromatogr A. 2002; 968(1-2):53-60 (ISSN: 0021-9673)Svedstr??m U; Vuorela H; Kostiainen R; Huovinen K; Laakso I; Hiltunen R.Department of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Finland.
An HPLC method using UV diode array detection was developed for analysing procyanidins qualitatively and quantitatively up to the hexameric level in hawthorn samples. The analysed compounds included procyanidin dimers B-2, B-4 and B-5, procyanidin trimers C-1, epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->6)-epicatechin and epicatechin-(4beta-->6)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin, a tetramer D-1 and a pentamer E-1 both consisting of (-)-epicatechin units linked through C-4beta/C-8 bonds. The concentrations of two unknown tetramers and a hexamer F were also quantified. The oligomeric procyanidins (OPs) were specifically determined due to the development of a method for isolating them from hawthorn during sample preparation. The pattern of oligomeric procyanidins in the leaves, flowers and fruits was similar, but the concentrations varied depending on the part of the plant. The concentration in leaves was 1.6%, in flowers 1.2% and in fruits 0.2% of the dry mass. The method was validated with respect to repeatability, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity. The repeatability for the quantitative analytical method of all the OPs in leaves was 7.7%, in flowers 8.8%, and in fruits 12.3%. The recovery of the main OPs ranged from 91 to 97%. The correlation coefficients of calibration curves were between 0.997 and 1.000. The limits of quantitation for different procyanidin standards were 0.05-0.12 mg/ml, when 10 microl of each standard solution was injected into the HPLC.
Antioxidant activity of Crataegus aronia aqueous extract used in traditional Arab medicine in Israel.:
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 101(1-3):153-61 (ISSN: 0378-8741).Ljubuncic P; Portnaya I; Cogan U; Azaizeh H; Bomzon A.Department of Pharmacology, Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 9649, Haifa 31096, Israel.
BACKGROUND: The medicinal use of extracts prepared from plant parts of the genus Crataegus dates back to ancient times. Furthermore, it has been proposed that its antioxidant constituents account for its beneficial therapeutic effects. A decoction of leaves and unripe fruits from Crataegus aronia syn. azarolus (L) (Rosaceae), the indigenous Israeli hawthorn, is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and sexual weakness in Arab traditional medicine. PURPOSE: Because laboratory data on the bioactivity of extracts prepared from the indigenous Israeli hawthorn is lacking, we evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potentials of an extract prepared from leaves and unripe fruits in a variety of cell and cell-free in vitro assays.
METHODS: The antioxidant assays measured: (a) its ability to inhibit (i) oxidation of beta-carotene, (ii) 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propan) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced plasma oxidation and (iii) iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates; (b) its ability to scavenge the superoxide (O2-) radical; (c) its effects on the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) activity; (d) its effect on the redox state of glutathione (GSH) in cultured Hep G2 cells. In addition, we also evaluated the effects of the extract on cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial respiration in cultured Hep G2 cells.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Water-soluble extracts inhibited (1) oxidation of beta-carotene, (2) AAPH-induced plasma oxidation and (3) Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates. In addition, the extract (4) is an efficient scavenger of the O2- (5) increases intracellular GSH levels and (6) is not cytotoxic. Accordingly, we propose that the therapeutic benefit of Crataegus aronia can be, at least in part, attributed to its effective inhibition of oxidative processes, efficient scavenging of O2- and possible increasing GSH biosynthesis.
Crataegus oxyacantha (aubepine) in the use as herb medicine in France.:
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005; 30(8):634-40 (ISSN: 1001-5302).Ju LY.Department of Debiochine, Debiopharne S A.
Crataegus oxyacantha (Aubepine, Hawthorn), was used by european herbalist in the first century A. D. It went out fashion as a medicine until the 19th century for heart disease. The leaves, flowers, and berries of hawthorn contain a variety of bioflavonoid-like complexes that appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac actions of the plant. Bioflavonoids found in C. oxyacantha include oligomeric procyanidins (OPCc), vitexin, quercetin, and hyperoside. The action of these compounds on the cardiovascular system has led to the development of leaf and flower extracts. As described in French pharmacopea, the hyperoside is the marker for quality control.
Research of the amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the buds of single-styled hawthorn:
Medicina (Kaunas). 2004; 40(8):750-2 (ISSN: 1648-9144).Jakstas V; Janulis V; Labokas J.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To determine the amounts of flavonoids accumulated in the buds of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.); and to establish the possibility of usage of hawthorn buds in pharmacy practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different examples of hawthorn buds collected in 2001, 2002 and 2003 from some Lithuanian regions: Akmene (V1, V2, V3), Kedainiai (S1, S2, S3), Klaipeda (M1), Lazdijai (D1, D2, D3) and Vilnius (VL1, VL2) from branches of lower storey. Examples were extracted with ethanol and flavonoids were measured by spectroscopic method and by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: From 0.72 to 1.89% of flavonoids are found in the hawthorn buds. The dominating flavonoid is vitexin-2-O-rhamnosid (6.72-10.91 milligrams in one gram of dried crude drug). Other flavonoids are: vitexin: 0.88-6.53 milligrams/gram, hyperosid: 0.85-2.70 milligrams/gram, rutin: 0.72-2.10 milligrams/gram and quercitrin: 0.82-1.01 milligrams/gram. CONCLUSION: The marks of phytochemical compounds of Lithuanian single-styled hawthorn buds corroborated the theory of possibility to use hawthorn buds as pharmaceutical crude drug and form sufficient ground for planning phytochemical and pharmacological researches of new hawthorn crude drug.
- Hawthorn Berry Extract.Hawthorn Leaf Extract.
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