Horny Goat Weed or Epimedium Herb:Botanical Origin,Archeology,Traditional and Pharmacological findings of Epimedium species,fractions and isolated components.
- Botanical info of Horny Goat Weed or Epimedium.
- Botanical Origin:What is Herba Epimedii?
- Archeology:How did Horny Goat Weed get its name?
- Mechanism of Action:How Does Horny Goat Weed Work?
- Horny Goat Weed:Salvation Weed For Male Sex Lives.
- Epimedium Herb and its Traditional Applications.
- Applicational pharmacological findings of Epimedium species,fractions and isolated components.
- Cautions,Side Effects and Toxicity of Epimedium Herb.
- A Tradition from Erxian Tang:Two Immortals Decoction?
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Herba Epimedii.
- How Search engine think about Horny Goat Weed.
- Research update literature of Epimedium species,fractions and components.
- Photo Gallery of Epimedium Herb.
Phytochemicals and Constituents of Herba Epimedii.:
Main Content:icariin: C33 H40 O15.
Formula: C33 H40 O15. Molecular Weight:674.69 CAS RN:489-32-7
CAS Type 1 Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
All Epimedium herb contains ceryl alcohol;hentriacontane;phytosterol;palmitic acid;stearic acid;oleic acid;linoleic acid; linolenic acid; bilobanol; magnoflorin;glucose;fructose;etc.
Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. contains:baohuoside I(baohuoside I);baohuoside II(baohuosid II);2'-O-rhamnosylicaliside II(2'-O-rhamnosylicaliside II);Sagittatoside B;ikarisoside F;ikarisoside C;icariside I(icariside I);icariside II(icariside II);epimedoside A;de-O-methyl-icariin.Some early analytical study identified Six flavonoids from the aerial part of Epimedium brevicornum(5.).New prenylflavone named breviflavone B got identified from leaves of Epimedium brevicornum show with strong and specific ER-stimulatory activity(11.).Some recent study identified several new components from this herb Epimedium breviconum:Ten compounds were obtained and indentified as (7R, 8S) 4,9-dihydroxyl-3,3'-dimethyoxyl-7, 8-dihydrobenzofunan-1'-propanolneolignan-9'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), (7R, 8S, 8' R) 4, 4', 8', 9-tetrahydroxyl-3, 3'-dimethyoxyl-7, 9'-monoepoxylignan (2), (+)-cycloolivil (3), (3, 5, 7, 4')-tetrahydroxyl-8-isopentene group flavonoids-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4), beta-sitosterol (5), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6), succinic acid (7) and p-hydroxyphenethyl (8).Compound 1 is isolated from this genus for the first time. Compounds 2,3,5 -8 are isolated from the plant for the first time(34.).Some new purification method of epimedin A, B, C, and icariin got identified recently(32.).Breviflavone A and B liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis method got identified(61.).
Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc) Maxim. contains: icariside; isoquercetin;icaritin-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside; hyperoside; sagittatoside A; sagittatoside B;sagittatoside C; sagittatin A;sagittatin B;anhydroicaritin-3-O-alfa-rhamnoside; icariside B9,icariside D3,icariside E6,icariside E7,icariside H1; icariols A1,icariols A2; sagittin; Beta-sitosterol; Beta-sitosterolglucoside.Some recent study proposed identified new prenylflavones from the leaves of Epimedium saggitatum.:yinyanghuo A (1), yinyanghuo B (2), yinyanghuo C (3), yinyanghuo D (4), and yinyanghuo E (5), along with six known flavonoids, chrysoeriol, quercetin, apigenin, apigenin 7,4'-dimethyl ether, kaempferol, and luteolin, were isolated from the leaves of Epimedium sagittatum(47.).Fractionation of the Epimedium sagittatum MeOH extract yielded six prenylated flavonol glycosides, ikarisoside A (1), icarisid II (2), epimedoside A (3), icariin (4), epimedin B (5), and epimedokoreanoside-I (6) got identified(48.).Some n-BuOH extract from the aerial parts of Epimedium sagittatum led to isolation of three prenylated flavonol glycosides sagittasine A-C, two acylated flavonol glycosides kaempferol-3-O-(2''-E-p-coumaroyl,4''-Z-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(3''-Z-p-coumaroyl,4''-E-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside(57.).Some analyze study proposed a interesting finding that contents of polysaccharide and total flavonoids have relation with the flower bud differentiation of Epimedium sagittatum(66.).
Epimedium koreanum Nakai. contains: liquiritigenin; tricin; quercetin; isoliquiritigenin; luteolin; hyperoside;maltol; salidroside;P-hydroxybenzoic acid; daucosterol; emodin; icariside I(icariside I);icariside II(icarisid II);icariside A1; 2"-O-L-rhamnopyranosylicariside IIepimdeoside;sagittatoside A,sagittatoside B;3,5,7-trihydroxyl-4'-methoxyl-8-prenyl-flavone-3-O-alpha-L-rhalnnopyranside; ikarisoside F; diphylloside A; baohuosid II(baohuosid II); kaempferol-3-O-Beta-D-galactoside A;epimedoside C;baohuoside I(baohuoside I);epimedin A,epimedin B,epimedin C; epimedokoreanoside I(epimedokoreanoside I),epimedokoreanosid II(epimedokoreanoside II); epimedoside A; ikarisoside A; 4'-methoxy-5-hydroxy-8-3,3-dimethylallylflavone-3-glucosyl(1->2)'rhamnn-oside-7-glucoside; 4'-methyoxy-5-hydroxy-8-3,3-dimethyiallyflavone-3-xylosyi(1->2)rhamnoside-7-glucoside;4-methoxy-5-hydroxy-8-3,3-dimethylallylflavone-3-rhamnosyl(1->2)rhamnoside-7glucoside; proanthocyanidin(catechin-(4alfa->8)-epciate-chin(4Beta->8)-catechin); 4-O-methyl-8-r,r-dimethylallyl kaempferol-7-O-D-glucopyranoside; chlorogenic acid;etc.Some recent study identified two new prenylflavonol glycosides epimedokoreanoside I ( 7) and epimedokoreanoside II ( 8) were isolated from Epimedium koreanum(70.).A novel flavonol glycoside named caohuoside-B was isolated from the aerial parts of Epimedium koreanum,its structure got identified as anhydroicaritin 3-O-beta-D-(4,6-O- diacetyl)glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-(4"-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside+ ++)-7-O-beta- D-glucopyranoside.(72.).An anhydroicaritin 3-O-rhamnosylrhamnoside from Epimedium koreanum is defined as the 3-O-alpha-L-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)rhamnopyranoside](74.).Two new flavonol glycosides, named icarisid B (1) and icarisid C (2), along with seven known flavonol glycosides were isolated from the bioassay-directed fractions of the aqueous extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. The structures of the two new compounds were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods (ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR) as 5-hydroxyl-4'-methoxy-8-(gamma-hydroxyl-gamma,gamma-dimethyl)-propyl-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-flavonol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 5-hydroxyl-4'-methoxy-8-(gamma-methoxy-gamma,gamma-dimethyl)-propyl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-flavonol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), respectively.As a result, five compounds showed stimulating effects on both the proliferation and ALP activity, which suggested that they might be used as potential leading compounds to cure osteoporosis(89.).
Epimedium pubescens Maxim. contains:baohuoside VI(baohuoside VI);hyperoside; rouhuoside,etc.
Epimedium platyetalum K. Meyer. contains:Maohuoside A(3,5-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3"-hydroxyisopentyl)-flavone-7-O-Beta-D-glucopyranoside);and Maohuoside B(5-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-prenyl-flavone-3-O-Beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-Beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2); icariin,baohuoside I(baohuosid I); daucosterol, etc.
Epimedium wanshanense: some study identified novel flavonol glycoside named wanepimedoside A was isolated from the whole plant of Epimedium wanshanense, along with fifteen known flavonoids, anhydroicaritin, desmethylanhydroicaritin, icarisid I and II, quercetin, ikarisoside A and B, sagittatoside B, 2"-O-rhamnosylicarisid II, icariin, 2"-O-rhamnosylikarisoside A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and diphylloside A and B(107.). From the root,Seven flavonoids named diphylloside A, epimedoside A, epimedin C, icariin, epimedoside C, icarisoside A, desmethylanhydroicaritin, as well as the oleanolic acid, were isolated from the roots of Epimedium wushanense for the first time. These flavonoids manifested significant antioxidant activity in vitro(143.,209.).
Epimedium acuminatum Franch. some study identified three flavonol glycosides isolated from the aerial parts of Epimedium acuminatum were identified as baohuoside II, epimedoside A and icariin(104.).
Five main flavonoids contents in Epimedium and processed Epimedium.some related study proposed contents of Epimedin A, Epimedin B, Epimedin C, Icariin and Baohuoside I in Epimedium and processed Epimedium were determined,and concluded the variety tendencies of the contents of five main flavonoids depend on the processing technology and the flavonoids proportion in Epimedium and processed Epimedium(180.).
Quality view of main species of Herba epimedii.some focused study raised a new standard of Epoimedium Herb suggestions:the contents of icariin in about 30% of the samples of the 5 species recorded in 'Chinese Pharmacopoeia'(Epimedium brevicornum, E. sagittatum, E. pubescens, E. koreanum and E. wushanense) were lower than 0.5%, which is acceptable quality recorded in 'Chinese Pharmacopoeia'. Refering the literatures, we suggested the total contents of epimedin A, B, C and icariin (epi-medium multi-glycosides, ABCI) should be established as a new standard instead of the content of icariin. The content of total flavonoids, not less than 5.0%, and ABCI, not less than 1.3%, could be used to evaluate the quality of the above medical materials efficiently(210.).
Main content of Epimedium Species in China
|icariin||epimedin B||epimedin C||sagittatoside B||baohuoside I||Totally|
- 1.Horny Goat Weed or Epimedium Herb:Botanical Origin,Archeology,Traditional and Pharmacological findings of Epimedium species,fractions and isolated components.
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