Research update:Notoginseng:The Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life.,the No.1 Blood Precious Tonic and more.

Contents

Research update:Notoginseng:The Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life.,the No.1 Blood Precious Tonic and more.



  Manipulation of ginsenoside heterogeneity of Panax notoginseng cells in flask and bioreactor cultivations with addition of phenobarbital.:Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2007 Aug 16;Yue CJ, Zhong JJ.State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

 Structure-similar ginsenosides have different or even totally opposite biological activities, and manipulation of ginsenoside heterogeneity is interesting and significant to biotechnological application. In this work, addition of 1 mM phenobarbital to cell cultures of Panax notoginseng at a relatively high inoculation size of 7.6 g dry cell weight (DW)/L enhanced the production of protopanaxatriol-type (Rg(1) + Re) ginsenosides in both shake flask and airlift bioreactor (ALR, 1 L working volume). The content of Rg(1) + Re in the ALR was increased from 42.5 +/- 4.0 mg per gram DW in untreated cell cultures (control) to 56.4 +/- 4.6 mg per gram DW with addition of 1.0 mM phenobarbital. The maximum productivity of Rg(1) + Re in the ALR reached 5.66 +/- 0.38 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was almost 3.3-fold that of control. The maximum ratio of the detectable ginsenosides protopanaxatriol:protopanaxadiol (Rb(1)) was 7.6, which was about twofold that of control. The response of protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase (P6H) activity to phenobarbital addition coincided with the above-mentioned change of ginsenoside heterogeneity (distribution). Phenobarbital addition is considered as a useful strategy for manipulating the ginsenoside heterogeneity in bioreactor with enhanced biosynthesis of protopanaxatriol by P. notoginseng cells.

  Effects of four medicinal herbs on human vascular endothelial cells in culture.:Int J Cardiol. 2007 Aug 10;Ling S, Nheu L, Dai A, Guo Z, Komesaroff P.Department of Medicine, Monash University Central and Eastern Clinical School, Prahran, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

 BACKGROUND: Danshen (DS, Salvia miltiorrhiza), Shanchi (SQ, Panax notoginseng), Shanzai (SZ, Hawthorn) and Heshouwu (HSW, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb) are four medicinal herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and previously shown to have activity that may contribute to cardiovascular protection. This study aims to investigate effects of these herbs on vascular endothelial cells with respect to cell viability and expression of cellular adhesion molecules under inflammatory conditions. METHODS: Herbal extracts were prepared by an established industrial manufacturing process. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with the herbal extract under normal or serum-free culture and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha stimulation. Cell apoptosis, apoptosis-associated gene expression, expression of cellular adhesion molecules, DNA synthesis, and growth were assessed via morphological examination, Annexin-V staining, Western blotting analysis, Flow-Cytometry, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay, and cell number study. RESULTS: SZ and HSW significantly inhibited apoptosis in HUVEC undergoing serum deprivation and TNFalpha stimulation, accompanied by down-regulation of caspase-3 gene expression. DS and SQ significantly attenuated TNFalpha-induced expression of adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and also ICAM-1 by DS in the cells. All four herbs at therapeutic concentrations (100 mug/mL) inhibited DNA synthesis (10-42% decrease in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation rates) and growth (5-10% decrease in cell numbers) in HUVEC under normal cultures. CONCLUSION: DS, SQ, SZ and HSW are physiologically active on human vascular endothelial cells. The actions by HSW and SZ to reduce apoptosis and DS and SQ to inhibit adhesion molecule expression may help protect endothelial function and inhibit atherogenesis, while their actions to inhibit DNA synthesis and cell growth may weaken the ability of endothelial repair. Further studies are needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible to these physiological effects by these herbs.

  Hypolipidemic effects and mechanisms of Panax notoginseng on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep 5;113(2):318-24. Epub 2007 Jul 4.Ji W, Gong BQ.State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, #453, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China.

 Maintenance of normal lipid levels has implicated the involvement of genes induced by liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha) and Farnesoid X receptor (FXR). This study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of n-butanol extract (NE3) of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen root on lipid homeostasis and investigate the possible mechanisms in animal experiments. In the transactivation assays, NE3 was identified as a dual FXR/LXRalpha agonist. Subsequently, Sprague-Dawley male rats on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet were treated orally with NE3 or vehicle alone. As expected, the concentrations of serum TC, TG and LDL-C in rats treated with various concentrations of NE3 showed significant (P<0.01) and dose-dependent decrease, respectively, accompanied with a significant (P<0.01) and dose-dependent decrease in the concentration of hepatic TC and TG. Express-level analysis indicated that both LXRalpha target genes including ABCA1, ABCG5, ABCG8 and FXR target genes including ApoCII and SHP were significantly induced by NE3 (P<0.01). Interestingly, LDLR mRNA level was significantly higher by NE3 (P<0.01), accompanied with the significantly decreased expression levels of CYP7A1, ApoCIII and SREBP1c genes (P<0.01). Based on these results, it can be concluded that NE3 as a dual FXR/LXRalpha agonist largely prevented the accumulation of abnormal lipid in the hyperlipidemic rats.

  Integrated treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine for early- and intermediate-stage diabetic nephropathy.:Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Jul;27(7):1052-5. Chinese.Zhao L, Lan LG, Min XL, Lu AH, Zhu LQ, He XH, He LJ.Department of Endocrinology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicinal preparation Tangshenqing (TSQ) combined with alprostadil in the treatment of early- and intermediate-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: One hundred and twenty DN patients were randomized into 3 groups for different treatment protocols. The patients in the control group were given the basic treatment (low-protein diabetic diet and rigorous control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood fatty acid), and those in treatment group A received TSQ (containing Astragalus membranaceus, Panax notoginseng, Epimedium brevicornum, etc) in addition to the basic treatment, and those in treatment group B were treated with alprostadil injections (for 14 consecutive days) in addition to the treatment given in group A. Therapeutic effect evaluation was carried out after a 30-day treatment in all the patients. RESULTS: The overall efficaey rate of the treatment was 78.37% in the control group, 88.57% in the treatment group A, and 94.44% in treatment group B, suggesting better therapeutic effect in the latter two groups than in the control group (P<0.05). Patients in all the 3 groups exhibited symptomatic improvement of various degrees, but the treatment group B had the best results. After the treatments, the patients' blood glucose and fatty acids were lowered, without obvious difference between the 3 groups. Compared with the control group, the patients in the two treatment groups showed significant reduction in fibrinogen, 24-h urine microprotein and urine protein after the treatment (P<0.01 or 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine TSQ and alprostadil injections produces definite therapeutic effect on early- to intermediate-stage DN.

  Panaxadiol Glycosides that Induce Neuronal Differentiation in Neurosphere Stem Cells.:J Nat Prod. 2007 Jul 31;Liu JW, Tian SJ, Barry JD, Luu B.Laboratoire de Chimie Organique des Substances Naturelles, UMR 7177 CNRS-Université Louis Pasteur, 5 Rue Blaise Pascal, F-67084 Strasbourg, France, National Research Center for the Standardization of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Temple of Heaven, 100050 Beijing, People's Republic of China, and Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, Centre de Neurochimie, UMR 7168 CNRS-Université Louis Pasteur, 5 Rue Blaise Pascal, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.

 Bioassay-guided fractionation, combined with screening based on EGF-responsive neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiation assay, has been used to search for active molecules from Panax notoginseng. Ginsenosides Rg3 (1), Rk1 (2), and Rg5 (3) were identified as potential neurogenic molecules. The degrees of their neurogenic effects were found to be 3 > 2 > 1. The neurogenic effect of 3 represents a biphasic dose- and time-dependent regulation. Transient exposure of NSCs to 8 muM 3 for 24 h followed by 1 muM and 72 h incubation was the optimal procedure for the induction of neurons in NSCs, and compound 3 resulted in an approximately 3-fold increase in neurogenesis at the expense of astrogliogenesis. The neurogenic effect of 3 was completely eliminated by the Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine. These findings imply that 3 may be utilized as a pharmacological agent in studying the molecular regulation of neurogenesis of brain stem cells and, subsequently, for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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  Protective effects of ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, and notoginsenoside R1 on lipopolysaccharide-induced microcirculatory disturbance in rat mesentery.:Life Sci. 2007 Jul 19;81(6):509-18. Epub 2007 Jun 28.Sun K, Wang CS, Guo J, Horie Y, Fang SP, Wang F, Liu YY, Liu LY, Yang JY, Fan JY, Han JY.Tasly Microcirculation Research Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

 Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), and notoginsenoside R1 (R1) are major active components of Panax notoginseng, a Chinese herb that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance blood circulation and dissipate blood stasis. To evaluate the effect of these saponins on microcirculatory disturbance induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), vascular hemodynamics in rat mesentery was observed continuously during their administration using an inverted microscope and a high speed video camera system. LPS administration decreased red blood cell velocity but Rb1, Rg1, and R1 attenuated this effect. LPS administration caused leukocyte adhesion to the venular wall, mast cell degranulation, and the release of cytokines. Rb1, Rg1, and R1 reduced the number of adherent leukocytes, and inhibited mast cell degranulation and cytokine elevation. In vitro experiments using flow cytometry further demonstrated that a) the LPS-enhanced expression of CD11b/CD18 by neutrophils was significantly depressed by Rb1 and R1, and b) hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release from neutrophils in response to LPS stimulation was inhibited by treatment with Rg1 and R1. These results suggest that the protective effect of Rb1 and R1 against leukocyte adhesion elicited by LPS may be associated with their suppressive action on the expression of CD11b/CD18 by neutrophils. The protective effect against mast cell degranulation by Rb1 and R1, and the blunting of H(2)O(2) release from neutrophils by Rg1 and R1 suggest mechanistic diversity in the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in the attenuation of microcirculatory disturbance induced by LPS.

  Effect compound decoction on notoginsenosides in Panax notoginseng.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 May;32(10):909-12. Chinese.Huang MQ, Li ZM, Li XL, Xie YL, Zhao XJ, Su ZR.Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of compound decoction on notoginsenosides in Panax notoginseng. METHOD: Notoginsenoside R1, Rg1, Re, Rb1 and pH were used as the parameters to investigate the changes on the content of notoginsenosides in different compound extractions by heating for two hours and their correlation with pH. RESULT: When the pH values of solution of P. notoginseng with Fructus ligustri, P. notoginseng with Eupolyphaga seu steleophaga, P. notoginseng with Pheretima asiatica, and Zhitangjiang Fang (free of Hirudo) were rept higher than 5.7, the reserved rate (RR) of notoginsenside were higher than 90%; When the pH values of decoetion of P. notoginseng with Salvia miltiorrhiza, P. notoginseng with Paeonia lactiflora, P. notoginseng with Platycodon grandiflorum, P. notoginseng with Arctium lappa were kept 4.5-5.5, their RR of notoginsenside were 60% - 85%; When the pH values of the decotction of P. notoginseng with Hirudo nipponica was decreased to 3.4, its RR of of notoginsenside was 38.4%; When the pH values of Zhitangjiang Fang extraction was regulated by 0.1% NaOH solution to pH 6. 3, and the RR of notoginsenside increased to 97%. CONCLUSION: The pH of other Chinese herbal medicines extraction with P. notoginseng compound is a critical effect on the stability and yields of notoginsensides.

  Experimental study on anti-platelet effects of ginsenoside -2A in vitro.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2006 Jun;26 Suppl:83-5. Chinese.Nie DN, Yin SM, Xie SF.Department of Hematology, The Second Hospital of Zhongshan University, Guangzhou (510120). niedanian@hotmail.com

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vitro anti-platelet effects of Ginsenoside -2A,a purified extract from Panax notoginseng. METHODS: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was prepared routinely from venous blood samples of patients with essential hypertension and normal persons. PRP was incubated with different concentrations of Nifedipine, Ginsenoside-2A ,and SK&F96365. Maximal platelet aggregation rate[ PAG (M) ] induced by 2 micromol/L ADP was taken as the observed index. Five-minute PAG( M) was determined for 5 consecutive times. RESULTS: (1) PAG (M) in essential hypertension group was 0. 89 +/- 0. 06, which was higher than that in the normal group (0. 68 +/-0. 07 ) with significant difference (P <0.01). (2)Nifedipine of two concentrations (10 p.mol/L,20 pVmol/L) had no effect on PAG(M) in either essential hypertension group or normal group(P >0. 05). (3)Different concentrations of SK&F96365 (2.5 micromol/L,5 micromol/L,10 micromol/L and 20 micromol/L) could inhibit the PAG(M) in essential hypertension group; (4) Differen concentrations of Ginsenoside -2A (2. 5 micromol/L, 5 micromol/L, 10 micromol/L and 20 micromol/L) could inhibit PAG ( M) in essential hypertension group; three concentrations of Ginsenoside -2A (5 micromol/L, 10 micromol/L, 20 micromol/L) could inhibit the PAG(M) in the normal group (all P <0.05). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregating function in essential hypertension patients was obviously higher than that in the normal persons and platelets was in the high reactive status. Nifedipine had no inhibitive effect on platelet aggregation. SK&F96365 could inhibit the platelet aggregation. Ginsenoside-2A could inhibit platelet aggregation, and had the definite anti-platelet action.

  Effects of aqueous extracts of Aconitum carmichaeli, Rhizoma bolbostemmatis, Phytolacca acinosa, Panax notoginseng and Gekko swinhonis Guenther on Bel-7402 cells.:World J Gastroenterol. 2007 May 21;13(19):2743-6.Yan ZC, Chen D, Wu XZ, Xie GR, Ba Y, Yan Z.Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Ti Yuan Bei, Huan Hu Xi Road, He Xi District, Tianjin, 300060, China. ilwxz@163.com.

 AIM: To investigate the anticancer activity of a chinese medical mixture, WRCP (warming and relieving Cold Phlegm), on hepatocarcinoma Bel-7402 cells. METHODS: Fingerprints of WRCP, which were composed of aqueous extracts of Aconitum carmichaeli, Rhizoma bolbostemmatis, Phytolacca acinosa, Panax notoginseng and Gekko swinhonis Guenther, and aconitine, which could be isolated from Aconitum carmichaeli and have the potential toxicity, were identified by high pressure liquid chromatography. Bel-7402 cells were grown in the presence of WRCP, As(2)O(3) or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Cell proliferation and viability were determined by trypan blue stain. Apoptosis and cell cycle of Bel-7402 cells were detected by flow cytometry. Morphologic and ultrastructural variations were determined under optic and electronic microscopy. The secretion of alpha-fetoprotein and albumin was detected by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The average quality of aconitine is 1.15 +/- 0.10 mug per 7.5 g extracts. WRCP could suppress the proliferation and viability of Bel-7402 cells. The percentage of apoptosis cells and S phase cells increased on WRCP-treated cells. Treated with WRCP, Bel-7402 cells showed ultrastructural features of differentiation. The alpha-fetoprotein secretion decreased while the albumin secretion increased (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) markedly in WRCP-treated cells. CONCLUSION: WRCP can affect the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells. It can arrest cells in S phase and has strong cytotoxicity to Bel-7402 cells.

  Preparation of the traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe Shuxiong sustained-release capsules by multiparticulate time-controlled explosion technology.:Pharmazie. 2007 May;62(5):372-7.Song HT, Zhang Q, Wang HJ, Guo XJ, Chen DW, He ZG.Department of Pharmacy, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Fuzhou 350025, China. sohoto@sohu.com

 In this study the traditional Chinese medicine compound recipe (TCMCR) Shuxiong sustained-release capsules (SXSRC) were prepared by multiparticulate time-controlled explosion technology. First, Shuxiong pellets were prepared with the refined medicinal materials containing in the recipe of Shuxiong tablets. Then, the pellets were coated sequentially with an inner swelling layer containing low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose as the swelling agent and an outer rupturable layer of ethylcellulose. Finally, SXSRC were developed by encapsulating five kinds of pellets whose respective coating level of outer layer was 0%, 9%, 15%, 18% and 20% at equivalent ratio in hard gelatin capsules. Under the simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions, the in vitro release test of SXSRC was carried out. The value of similarity factor (f2) of hydroxysafflor yellow A and Panax notoginseng saponins, hydroxysafflor yellow A and ferulic acid, Panax notoginseng saponins and ferulic acid was 90.1, 77.3, 87.0, respectively. The release profiles of these three compositions from SXSRC showed a characteristic of obvious sustained-release and no significant difference between them. The results indicated that using multiparticulate time-controlled explosion technology various components in TCMCR with vastly different physicochemical properties could be released synchronously while sustained-releasing. That complies with the organic whole conception of compound compatibility of TCMCR.
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  In vitro studies on asexual embryos and regenerated plantlets obtained from leaf organ of Panax notoginseng.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Mar;32(6):481-3. Chinese.Xu HY, Meng AD, He B, Zhou FJ, Lan TJ, Sha B, Xu HZ.Agricultural College of Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China. xuhy08@126.com

 OBJECTIVE: To study and improve the tissue culture technology of Panax notoginseng. METHOD: Using the callus of leaf blade and leafstalk of P. notogingseng as explants, MS + 2, 4-D 1.5 mg x L(-1) as basal medium, the formation of asexual embryos was induced by added LFS, BA, KT or ZT 0.5 mg x L(-1), and cultured in dark. It cultured then in 2000 lx of illumination for 10-12 h x d(-1) to induce the asexual embryos germinating and developing to be the regenerated-plantlet. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Only the medium added with LFS could induce the formation of asexual embryos, and made it developed to be regenerated-plantlet. The inducing ratio of asexual embryos reached about 85%, and 30% of asexual embryos could grow and develop as robust regenerated-plantlets.

  A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 11 saponins in Panax notoginseng using ultra performance liquid chromatography.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Aug 15;44(4):996-1000. Epub 2007 Apr 4.Guan J, Lai CM, Li SP.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao.

 A rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detection method (UPLC-PDA) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 saponins, namely notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rg2, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd and Rg3 in Panax notoginseng. The analysis was performed on Acquity UPLC system with Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and gradient elution of water and acetonitrile in 12min. The high correlation coefficient (r(2)>0.9968) values indicated good correlations between the investigated compounds' concentrations and their peak areas within the test ranges. The LOQ and LOD were lower to 0.2-2.4 and 0.1-1.8ng on column, respectively. The overall intra- and inter-day variations (R.S.D.) of 11 saponins were lower than 3.1%. The developed method was successfully used for the analysis of saponins in P. notoginseng with overall recovery of 93.0-101.6% for the analytes. The results show that UPLC is a powerful tool for analysis of components in Chinese medicines.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on mRNA expressions of interleukin-1 beta, its correlative factors and cysteinyl-aspartate specific protease after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2007 May;5(3):328-32. Chinese.Tang YH, Zhang SP, Liang Y, Deng CQ.Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan Province 410208, China. tyhong62@yahoo.com.cn

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on mRNA expressions of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), cysteinyl-aspartate specific protease-1 (caspase-1), caspase-3 and caspase-8 after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats was induced by the method of nylon monofilament via the internal carotid artery. PNS was administered intraperitoneally respectively five minutes before cerebral ischemia and twelve hours after cerebral ischemia. After cerebral ischemia for two hours followed by reperfusion for twenty two hours, the mRNA expressions of IL-1 beta, IL-1RI, IL-1ra, ICAM-1, caspase-1, caspase-3 and caspase-8 in brain tissue were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: After cerebral ischemia for two hours followed by reperfusion for twenty two hours, the mRNA expression levels of IL-1 beta, IL-1RI, IL-1ra, ICAM-1, caspase-1, caspase-3 and caspase-8 in brain tissue in the untreated group were obviously elevated as compared to those in the sham-operation group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The mRNA expression levels of IL-1 beta, IL-1RI, IL-1ra in brain tissue in the PNS group were lower than those in the untreated group, but higher than those in the sham-operation group, and without statistical differences as compared to those in the sham-operation group and in the untreated group (P>0.05). The mRNA expression level of caspase-3 in brain tissue in the PNS group was significantly lower than that in the untreated group (P<0.05), but PNS had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of ICAM-1, caspase-1 and caspase-8 in brain tissue. CONCLUSION: PNS can inhibit the mRNA expression of caspase-3, slightly inhibit the mRNA expressions of IL-1 beta and its correlative inflammatory factors in brain tissue. The protective effects of PNS on cerebral injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion may be related to inhibiting the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, IL-1 beta and its correlative inflammatory factors in brain tissue.

  Effect of total panax notoginseng saponins on inducing differentiation of mononuclear cells in human cord blood into endothelial cells.:Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;15(1):179-83. Chinese.Zheng PH, Yang PD, Sheng JL, Huang YZ.Department of Hematology, Navy General Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100037, China.

 To investigate the effect of total panax notoginseng saponins (tPNS) to induce the differentiation of mononuclear cells (MNC) in cord blood into endothelial cells, the DMEM culture media containing tPNS were used to induce the MNC of cord blood. Then, the morphology of the adherent cells was observed by the light microscopy and the fluorescence microscopy, the changes of cell surface markers (UEA-1), function marker (vWF) and CD31 were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that the number of adherent cells produced by 250 mg/L tPNS and the positive rate of cells expressing CD31 and UEA-1 were higher than those in the groups of other concentrations (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of adherent cells expressing CD31 and UEA-1 between 50 ng/ml VEGF + 250 mg/L tPNS and 50 ng/ml VEGF. It is concluded that the traditional Chinese drug tPNS can induce partial MNC in the cord blood to differentiate into endothelial cells. No synergistic effect has been found between tPNS and VEGF.

  Pharmacokinetic and absolute bioavailability study of total panax notoginsenoside, a typical multiple constituent traditional chinese medicine (TCM) in rats.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 May;30(5):847-51.Li X, Wang G, Sun J, Hao H, Xiong Y, Yan B, Zheng Y, Sheng L.Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetic, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

 LC/ESI/MS method was employed for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of total panax notoginsenoside (TPNS) in rats. After oral or intravenous administration of TPNS at the dosage of 300.0 or 10.0 mg kg(-1) to rats respectively, panax notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rd, Re and Rb1 were simultaneous determined in rat plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters and absolute bioavailability of panax notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rd, Re and Rb1 were obtained by the Drug And Statistics for windows (DAS) pharmacokinetic software. The pharmacokinetic parameters of all analytes were different form each other. T(1/2) were changed from 0.72 to 22.16 h and AUC were changed from 1.03 to 98.94 mg/l.h after oral or intravenous administration TPNS or Xuesaitong (TPNS) injection. The absolute bioavailability of R1, Rg1, Rd, Re and Rb1 were of 9.29%, 6.06%, 2.36%, 7.06% and 1.18%, respectively.
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  Application of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry in the identification and differentiation of Panax species.:Phytochem Anal. 2007 Mar;18(2):146-50.Leung KS, Chan K, Bensoussan A, Munroe MJ.Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR China. S9362284@hkbu.edu.hk

 An HPLC-MS method using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) source has been developed to assist in the differentiation of three ginseng species: Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng), P. ginseng (Chinese ginseng) and P. notoginseng (sanqi) species. The differentiation method relies on the identification of ginsenosides Rf and F11 and notoginsenoside R1. R1 is observed in both P. notoginseng and Chinese ginseng, whilst F1, is found exclusively in the American species. The presence of these compounds permits the definitive identification of the species to be made. The APCI ionisation source has been employed to tackle the matrix interference in analysing Chinese medicinal materials and to minimise the associated matrix effects that are commonly encountered with other ionisation modes. Moreover, the method allows direct interface to conventional HPLC systems. More importantly, chemical reference standards of ginsenosides are not required in this method. This technique provides an alternative approach to analysing high molecular weight polar compounds that typically encountered in complex matrices of Chinese medicinal materials.

  Analysis of chemical and metabolic components in traditional Chinese medicinal combined prescription containing Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and Radix Panax notoginseng by LC-ESI-MS methods.:Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Aug;21(8):797-809.Wei YJ, Li P, Shu B, Li HJ, Peng YR, Song Y, Chen J, Yi L.Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicines, Ministry of Education and Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24, Tongjia Lane, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China.

 High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) methods were developed for the analysis of chemical and metabolic components in traditional Chinese medicinal combined prescription containing Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and Radix Panax notoginseng (commonly known as Fufang Danshen prescription, FDP). The HPLC experiments used a reversed-phase Zorbax C(18) column with the column temperature at 30 degrees C and a binary mobile phase system consisting of aqueous formic acid (0.1%, v/v) and acetonitrile using a gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The ESI-MS was operated with a single-quadrupole mass spectrometer in both negative and positive ion modes. 36 major chromatographic peaks of FDP, including 14 saponins, 13 phenolic acids and nine diterpenoid quinones were characterized by their MS spectra and in comparison with some of the reference standards. In addition, after oral administration of extraction of FDP, the rat's plasma, urine and feces were also analyzed; 53 metabolic components including 30 original components and 23 transformative components of FDP were detected, and possible metabolic pathways of some components in FDP were given. The analysis of chemical and metabolic components in FDP by HPLC-MS methods could be a useful means of identifying the multi-components of FDP and to hint at their possible metabolic mechanism of action in the body.

  Chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.:J Chromatogr A. 2007 May 4;1148(2):177-83. Epub 2007 Mar 15.Kite GC, Porter EA, Simmonds MS.Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. g.kite@kew.org

 The chromatographic behaviour of steroidal saponins found in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Asparagus officinalis, Convallaria majalis, Digitalis purpurea and Ruscus aculeatus was studied by HPLC-MS using a C-18 reversed-phase column and aqueous acetonitrile or aqueous methanol mobile phase gradients, with or without the addition of 1% acetic acid. The behaviour was compared to that of triterpene saponins found in Aesculus hippocastanum, Centella asiatica, Panax notoginseng and Potentilla tormentilla. Inclusion of methanol in the mobile phase under acidic conditions was found to cause furostanol saponins hydroxylated at C-22 to chromatograph as broad peaks, whereas the peak shapes of the spirostanol saponins and triterpene saponins studied remained acceptable. In aqueous methanol mobile phases without the addition of acid, furostanol saponins chromatographed with good peak shape, but each C-22 hydroxylated furostanol saponin was accompanied by a second chromatographic peak identified as its C-22 methyl ether. Methanolic extracts analysed in non-acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases also resolved pairs of C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy furostanol saponins. The C-22 methyl ether of deglucoruscoside was found to convert to deglucoruscoside during chromatography in acidified aqueous acetonitrile, or by dissolving in water. Poor chromatography of furostanol saponins in acidified aqueous methanol is due to the interconversion of the C-22 hydroxy and C-22 methoxy forms. It is recommended that initial analysis of saponins by HPLC-MS using a C-18 stationary phase is performed using acidified aqueous acetonitrile mobile phase gradients. The existence of naturally-occurring furostanol saponins methoxylated at C-22 can be investigated with aqueous acetonitrile mobile phases and avoiding methanol in the extraction solvent.

  Effect of panax notoginseng saponins on serum neuronal specific enolase and rehabilitation in patients with cerebral hemorrhage.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;27(2):159-62. Chinese.Wei SG, Meng LQ, Huang RY.Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical College for Nationalities, Guangxi.

 OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on serum content of neuronal specific enolase (NSE) and function recovery in patients with cerebral hemorrhage (CH) for exploring the therapeutic action of PNS in treating CH. METHODS: Fifty CH patients with their course of disease not more than 5 days were randomly assigned to two groups, 27 in the PNS group and 23 in the control group, all were treated with conventional treatment, while PNS was given additionally to the PNS group. The serum levels of NSE before and after treatment were determined by electrochemiluminescence, and the recovery of patients, including their neuro-function deficit and daily living activity, was assessed according to scoring by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Barthel Index (BI) respectively. RESULTS: Before treatment, the difference between the two groups in serum NSE content and scores of NIHSS and BI was insignificant (P > 0.05). However, after 3 weeks of treatment, the level of NSE and score of NIHSS were significantly lower, while score of BI was significantly higher in the PNS group than those in the control group respectively (all P < 0.01). In the PNS group, the level of NSE showed a positive correlation with the score of NIHSS (r = 0.757, P < 0.05), and a negative correlation with the score of BI (r = - 0.803, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PNS can effectively protect the neuron and promote functional rehabilitation in patients after CH.

  Induction of apoptosis in rat C6 glioma cells by panaxydol.:Cell Biol Int. 2007 Jul;31(7):711-5. Epub 2007 Jan 14.Hai J, Lin Q, Lu Y, Zhang H, Yi J.Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, 389 Xin-Cun Road, Shanghai 200065, China. haijiandoc@yahoo.com.cn

 Panaxydol is a naturally occurring non-peptidyl small molecule isolated from the lipophilic fractions of Panax notoginseng, a well-known Chinese traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown that panaxydol inhibited the growth of various kinds of malignant cell lines. To date, there has been no report concerning the effect of panaxydol on cell growth inhibition in glioma cells. In this paper, we examined panaxydol's antiproliferation and proapoptotic effects on rat C6 glioma cells and investigated its mechanism. Cell growth inhibition of panaxydol was determined by MTT reduction assay. Apoptosis of cells was measured by both Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V analysis. It was found that panaxydol markedly inhibited proliferation of C6 cells in a dose-dependent manner with ID(50) of 40 microM. The cell apoptosis was observed at 48 h in the presence of panaxydol. In concert with these findings, Western blot analysis showed a decreased expression of bcl-2 and increased levels of Bax and caspase-3 in C6 cells treated by panaxydol. In conclusion, panaxydol has profound effects on growth and apoptosis of C6 cells, suggesting that panaxydol may be a potential candidate for the treatment of malignant gliomas.
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  Immunological adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rh4 from the roots of Panax notoginseng on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin in mice.:Chem Biodivers. 2007 Feb;4(2):232-40.Yang ZG, Ye YP, Sun HX.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, PR China.

 Ginsenoside Rh(4) (1), a saponin isolated from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, was evaluated for its haemolytic activity and adjuvant potential on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Compound 1 showed a slight haemolytic effect, its concentration inducing 50% of the maximum haemolysis (HD(50) value) being 407+/-12 microg/ml using a 0.5% suspension of red blood cells. Compound 1 significantly increased the concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in OVA-immunized mice especially at a dose of 25 microg (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). The OVA-specific serum IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody levels were also significantly enhanced by 1 at a dose of 25 microg compared to the OVA control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the enhancing effect of 1 on the OVA-specific IgG2b antibody responses to OVA in mice was more significant than that of Alum (Al(OH)(3) gel; P<0.01). These results suggest that 1 could be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.

  Analysis of dencichine by HPLC with pre-column derivatization:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Nov;31(22):1865-8. Chinese.Zhu J, Liu SK, Fu CM, Li ZW.West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan university, Chengdu 610041, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To establish a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatorgraphy (RP-HPLC) method for detecting the dencichine in Panax notoginseng extracts and drug preparations. METHOD: Dencichine was extracted with the borate buffer (pH 9. 18) and the clear supernatant was used for the derivatization. Pre-column derivatization was performed using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) to form derivatives. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0. 05 mol x L( -1) NaH2 PO4 (48: 52) (pH adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH solution) in a flow rate of 1.0 mL m min(-1). The ultraviolet (UV) detection wavelength was set at 262 nm. RESULT:The linearity was demonstrated over a wide range of concentration from 1.76 mg L(-1) to 352 mg x L(-1) for dencichine. The detection limit was determined to be 60 microg x L(-1). The derivative was stable and the derivatization agent did not influence the measurement of dencichine. The average recovery rate was 95. 3% and the relative standard derivation (RSD) was 1. 7%. The method was used to determine dencichine in different P. notoginseng extracts and drug preparations. CONCLUSION: This method is simple, fast and sensitive, suitable for determining the dencichine in P. notoginseng extracts and drug preparations as well as for the study of the dencichine metabolism in vivo.

  Isolation, structural determination, and evaluation of the biological activity of 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta, 20-triol [20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD], a novel natural product from Panax notoginseng.:Med Chem. 2007 Jan;3(1):51-60.Zhao Y, Wang W, Han L, Rayburn ER, Hill DL, Wang H, Zhang R.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

 Ginseng has been used extensively for medicinal purposes, with suggested utility for indications as diverse as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Herein we report the discovery and characterization of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD, a ginsenoside that inhibits growth and survival of cancer cells. The novel dammarane triterpene sapogenin (C31H56O4; molecular weight 492) was isolated from the total hydrolyzed saponins extracted from the leaves of Panax notoginseng using conventional and reverse-phase silica gel chromatography. Based on physicochemical characteristics and NMR data, the compound was identified as 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD. The biological activities of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD and its known analogs, 20(S)-PPD and Rg3, were evaluated in 12 human cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, the order of cytotoxicity of the test compounds was 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD >> 20(S)-PPD >> Rg3. 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and inhibited proliferation in breast cancer cell lines, demonstrating its potent biological effects. In regard to cytotoxicity, the IC50 values of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD for most cell lines were in the lower microM range, a 5-15-fold greater cytotoxicity relative to 20(S)-PPD and a 10-100-fold increase over Rg3. These findings suggest a structure-activity relationship among dammarane-type sapogenins. The data presented here may provide a basis for the future development of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD as a novel anti-cancer agent.

  RP-HPLC characteristics of Panax notoginseng.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Nov;41(11):1090-3. Chinese.Wan JB, Li SP, Wang YT.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China.

 AIM: To develop the chemical characteristics of Panax notoginseng in order to control its quality. METHODS: The samples was extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The data were evaluated using the "similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of TCM" software (version 2004A). RESULTS: The chromatographic characteristics of 28 Panax notoginseng from different places were established using HPLC-DAD, and 8 peaks among 13 typical ones in the chromatograms were identified by comparing with their reference compounds. The similarity of different samples was high (0.982 +/- 0.008, RSD = 0.78%). CONCLUSION: The chromatographic characteristics are useful to control the quality of Panax notoginseng.

  A uniform HPLC method developed for the analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza, Panax notoginseng, and Fufang Danshen.:J Chromatogr Sci. 2006 Nov-Dec;44(10):591-5.Zeng G, Liu J, Wang L, Xu Q, Xiao H, Liang X.Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

 Fufang Danshen (FFDS) is a famous typical Chinese complex prescription, which is mainly composed of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) and Radix Panax notoginseng (PN). An HPLC method is developed to analyze SM, PN, and FFDS effectively; the effective analysis is achieved by using a gradient elution procedure with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.025% aqueous phosphoric acid (v/v). Through this method, 33 peaks in FFDS are clearly exhibited, and the components that make up the 33 peaks in FFDS are evaluated. Also, the chemical ingredients are compared between the single herbs (SM and PN) and the complex prescription (FFDS). The result indicate that the chemical ingredients in FFDS are not simply a combination of SM and PN. In addition, the HPLC method is suitable for the routine quality control of SM, PN, and FFDS, which could present a uniform quality control method for single medicines and one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine-complex prescriptions.
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  Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics of raw and steamed Panax notoginseng.:Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(4):519-28.Chan EC, Yap SL, Lau AJ, Leow PC, Toh DF, Koh HL.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore. phaccye@nus.edu.sg

 At present, metabolite profiling is of growing importance in herbal medicine fields such as breeding, formulation, quality control and clinical trials. This preliminary study indicated that ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/TOFMS)-based metabolomics allows direct detection of down-stream derivatives of metabolites, arising from the herbal formulation process. This analytical approach allows the discrimination and tentative authentication of unique biomarkers related to different herbal extracts using unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). The tentative identification of biomarkers is complemented significantly by the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS and the high resolution and high retention time reproducibility rendered by UPLC. The application of this approach in herbal extract discrimination and ginsenoside biomarker discovery of raw and steamed Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is demonstrated and discussed.

  Ginsenoside Re and notoginsenoside R1: Immunologic adjuvants with low haemolytic effect.:Chem Biodivers. 2006 Jul;3(7):718-26.Sun HX, Chen Y, Ye Y.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, PR China. sunhx@zju.edu.cn

 The further purification of the total saponins from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen by ordinary and reversed-phase silica-gel, as well as Sephadex LH-20 chromatography afforded two adjuvant active dammarane-type saponins, ginsenoside Re (1) and notoginsenoside R1 (2). These two saponins were evaluated for haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA). The concentrations inducing 50% of the maximum haemolysis (HD50), using 0.5% red blood cell suspensions, were 469.6+/-16.9 and 420.4+/-22.9 microg/ml for 1 and 2, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 significantly increased the concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). The OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody titres in serum were also significantly enhanced by 1 and 2 compared with OVA control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). The results indicate that 1 and 2 showed a slight haemolytic activity and significant adjuvant effect on specific antibody and cellular immune response against OVA in mice, and that the type of the terminal sugar of the sugar chain at C(6) of protopanaxatriol could not only affect their haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials, but have significant effects on the nature of the immune responses. The information about this structure-function relationship might be useful for developing semisynthetic dammarane-type saponin derivatives with immunological adjuvant activity.

  Ginsenoside Rd from Panax notoginseng is cytotoxic towards HeLa cancer cells and induces apoptosis.:Chem Biodivers. 2006 Feb;3(2):187-97.Yang ZG, Sun HX, Ye YP.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, PR China.

 The saponin ginsenoside Rd (1), isolated from Panax notoginseng, is used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, different body pains, trauma, and internal and external bleeding due to injury. In this study, we report that 1 inhibits the cell growth of human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with an IC(50) value of 150.5+/-0.8 mcirog/ml after 48 h of incubation. The drug-treated cells displayed features of apoptosis, including typical morphological characteristics and formation of DNA ladders, as evident from agarose-gel electrophoresis. Flow-cytometric analysis showed that the cell-cycle distribution of HeLa cells exposed to 1 is characterized by a decrease of the G(0)/G(1)-phase and an increase of the S-phase cells, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptotic rate of HeLa cells treated for 48 h with 210 microg/ml of 1 was 35.8%. Further, 1 was found to increase the expression of Bax and to decrease the expression of Bcl-2 proteins, respectively, and to lower the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HeLa cells. The caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO (at 2 microM) increased the viability of HeLa cells treated with 1. Taken together, our study suggests that ginsenoside Rd (1) significantly inhibits HeLa cell proliferation, and induces cell apoptosis through down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, up-regulating Bax expression, lowering the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and activating the caspase-3 pathway. Thus, 1 could serve as a lead to develop novel chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents against human cervical cancer.

  Haemolytic activity and adjuvant effect of notoginsenoside K from the roots of Panax notoginseng.:Chem Biodivers. 2006 Oct;3(10):1144-52.Qin F, Ye YP, Sun HX.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, P.R. China.

 Notoginsenoside K (1), a saponin isolated from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, was evaluated for its haemolytic activity and adjuvant potential on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Compound 1 showed a slight haemolytic effect, its concentration inducing 50% of the maximum haemolysis (HD50 value) being 318+/-13 microg/ml, on a 0.5% suspension of red blood cells. Compound 1 significantly increased the concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in OVA-immunized mice (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). The OVA-specific serum IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody levels were also significantly enhanced by 1, especially at a dose of 25 mug compared to an OVA control group (P<0.001). Moreover, the enhancing effect of 1 on the OVA-specific IgG2b antibody responses to OVA in mice was more significant than that of Alum (AlOH gel; P<0.01). These results suggest that 1 exhibits a slight haemolytic activity and a significant adjuvant effect on specific antibody and cellular response against OVA in mice.

  Immunological-adjuvant saponins from the roots of Panax notoginseng.:Chem Biodivers. 2005 Apr;2(4):510-5.Sun H, Ye Y, Pan Y.College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, PR China. sunhx@zju.edu.cn

 The total saponin extract from the dried roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen possesses immunological-adjuvant activities. Guided by in vivo immunological tests, further study on this fraction afforded three active dammarane-type saponins. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical evidence and extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR. The novel compound (20S)-protopanaxatriol 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and the two known compounds ginsenoside Rh4 (2) and notoginsenoside K (3) exhibited immunological-adjuvant activities on the humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA).
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  Adventitious root induction and in vitro culture of Panax notoginseng.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Sep;31(18):1485-8. Chinese.Gao XF, Xu ZH, Liu JJ, Ma LP, Yin LP, Jia W.School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the induction and culture of adventitious root of Panax notoginseng. METHOD: Three ways, induction from the explants of three-year-old P. notoginseng. The explants of regenerated shoots and calluses, were used to induce adventitious roots. The effects of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and naphthylacetic acid on adventitious root induction were investigated respectively. The effects of four modes of separating adventitious roots from the parent tissues on culture in vitro were compared. RESULT: Adventitious roots were successfully induced by three methods, of which the young flower bud callus was the best material for the induction of adventitious root. Indole-3-butyric acid possessed the strongest potency for induction. The liquid culture system was established by continuous culture of adventitious roots together with their parent tissues before separated. CONCLUSION: The acquisition and culture in vitro in liquid culture system of adventitious roots of P. notoginseng lay a foundation for the next investigation.

  Inhibitory effect of Panax notoginseng on nitric oxide synthase, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and neutrophil functions.:Phytother Res. 2007 Feb;21(2):142-8.Jin UH, Park SG, Suh SJ, Kim JK, Kim DS, Moon SK, Lee YC, Park WH, Kim CH.Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-Dong, Suwon City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746, Korea.

 A water extract of Panax notoginseng Buck F.H. Chen. (Arialiaceae) root (PN) is being used as a therapeutic agent to stop haemorrhages and as a tonic to promote health in Korean and Chinese medicine. The pharmacokinetic profiles of PN have not been accurately investigated. The preliminary aim was to elucidate the pharmacokinetic features of PN. First, the prevention of neutrophil functions was assessed. PN inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. PN reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while no influence on the activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) or cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) was observed. PN significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. The results indicate that PN exerts antiinflammatory effects related to the inhibition of neutrophil functions and NO and PGE2 production, which could be due to a decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2.

  Effect of panax notoginseng saponins injection on brain edema in intracerebral hemorrhage rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2006 Oct;26(10):922-5. Chinese.Nie YX, Wang D, Zhang X.yaxiongnie@yahoo.com

 OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) in treating hemorrhagic apoplexy at super-early stage in rats. METHODS: Rat model of hypertension with cerebral hemorrhage was induced by collagenase method. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operated group, model group, PNS high, middle, and low dose group, 12 in each; 4 h after modeling, PNS or normal saline was intraperitoneally injected into the rats every 12 h, the total is 5 times. Contents of water, sodium and potassium ion in brain, and the diameter of hematoma in rats of different groups were measured 24 h and 72 h after modeling. RESULTS: Compared with the model rats, nerve defect symptoms aggravated, the contents of water and sodium ion in ipsilateral cortex and basal ganglia were significantly higher, the content of potassium ion was lower and the hematoma diameter was obviously less in the PNS-treated rats (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PNS may worsen the brain edema and increase the nerve defect score when it was applied at the early stage of cerebral hemorrhage, but could promote the absorption of hematoma, indicating PNS should be used cautiously in treating patients with large amount of cerebral hemorrhage at super-early stage.

  Simultaneous determination of seven active components of Fufang Danshen tablet by high performance liquid chromatography.:Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Jan;21(1):1-9.Wei YJ, Li SL, Li P.MOE Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicines and Department of Pharmacognosy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210039, People's Republic of China.

 A high-performance liquid chromatography method was established for simultaneously determining seven major components, i.e. protocatechuic aldehyde, notoginsenoside R(1), ginsenoside Rg(1), salvianolic acid B, ginsenoside Rb(1), cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in Fufang Danshen tablet, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal combined prescription mainly derived from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng. These seven compounds, belonging to the chemical types of phenolic acids, diterpenoid quinones and saponins, were simultaneously separated on Zorbax C(18) column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5.0 microm) with the column temperature at 30 degrees C. The mobile phase was composed of (A) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (B) acetonitrile using a gradient elution of 7-17% B at 0-10 min, 17-20% B at 10-12 min, 20-21% B at 12-16 min, 21% B at 16-32 min, 21-29% B at 32-40 min, 29-35% B at 40-55 min, 35-65% B at 55-65 min and 65-80% B at 65-80 min; the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Detection wavelengths were set at 203 nm for notoginsenoside R(1), ginsenoside Rg(1) and ginsenoside Rb(1), 281 nm for protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, and 270 nm for cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r(2) > 0.9992) within test ranges. The established method showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.15-4.35 and 0.61-5.17% respectively, and overall recoveries of 94.8-102.1% for the seven compounds analyzed. The developed method has been successfully applied to simultaneous evaluation of the intrinsic quality of both Danshen and Sanqi in Fufang Danshen tablets from different pharmaceutical companies.

  Simultaneous determination of 11 saponins in Panax notoginseng using HPLC-ELSD and pressurized liquid extraction.:J Sep Sci. 2006 Sep;29(14):2190-6.Wan JB, Li P, Li S, Wang Y, Dong TT, Tsim KW.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, PR China.

 A new HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major triterpene saponins, namely notoginsenoside R1 (1), ginsenosides Rg1 (2), Re (3), Rf(4), Rb1 (5), Rg2 (6), Rc (7), Rb2 (8), Rb3 (9), Rd (10), and Rg3 (11) in Panax notoginseng, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was employed for sample preparation, and the analysis was achieved using a Zorbax ODS C18 column eluted with gradient water-ACN in 60 min. The drift tube temperature of ELSD was set at 60 degrees C, and nitrogen flowrate was at 1.4 L/min. The method provided good repeatability and sensitivity for quantification of 11 saponins with overall precision (including intra- and interday) and LOD of less than 2.9% (RSD) and 98 ng, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify 11 saponins in 28 samples of P. notoginseng collected in different places, which is helpful to control the quality of P. notoginseng and its related products.
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  Preparation of Shuxiong micropellets by centrifugal granulation technology.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;31(14):1147-50. Chinese.Song HT, Zhang Q, Kong LL, Chen DW, He ZG.Department of Pharmacy, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Fuzhou 350025, China. sohoto@sohu.com

 OBJECTIVE: To prepare shuxiong micropellets. METHOD: Shuxiong micropellets were prepared by using a centrifugal granulator. The formulation composition and process factors were optimized investigated by adopting several indices such as size distribution, repose angle, bulk density and friability as indexes. RESULT: The optimal process parameters were as follows. The ratio of fine intermediate product and MCC was 3:1 (w/w), the adhesive agent was 3% HMPC solution, the rotating rate of plate was 200 r x min(-1), the blower rate was 15 x 20 L x min(-1), the rate of air flow was 15 L x min(-1), the spray air pressure was 0.5 MPa, the rotating of spray solution pump was 5-25 r x min(-1) and the rotating rate of powder feed machine was 5-25 r x min(-1). CONCLUSION: Under the optimal conditions, micropellets prepared by using centrifugal granulator hadpossessed prefect shape and surface characteristics and the yield of shuxiong pellets was 90.5%.

  Analysis of dencichine in Panax notoginseng by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with ethyl chloroformate derivatization.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Feb 19;43(3):920-5. Epub 2006 Oct 6.Xie GX, Qiu YP, Qiu MF, Gao XF, Liu YM, Jia W.School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China.

 Dencichine (beta-N-oxalyl-l-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid) is a haemostatic agent present in well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Panax notoginseng, as well as other Panax species. It is also a reported neurotoxic agent found in Lathyrus sativus (grass pea seed) and cycad seeds. A method was developed for quantitative determination of the non-protein amino acid, dencichine, in plant samples of P. notoginseng and the adventitious roots directly from the explants of P. notoginseng after derivatization with ethyl chloroformate (ECF) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). l-2-chlorophenylalanine was used as an internal standard. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)=0.9988, n=6) in the range of 10-800 microg/ml for dencichine. Limit of detection and quantification for dencichine were 0.5 microg/ml and 2 microg/ml, respectively. This rapid and specific method may be applied to the quantification of dencichine in complex medicinal plants and their products.

  Notoginseng enhances anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil on human colorectal cancer cells.:Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;60(1):69-79. Epub 2006 Sep 29.Wang CZ, Luo X, Zhang B, Song WX, Ni M, Mehendale S, Xie JT, Aung HH, He TC, Yuan CS.Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

 PURPOSE: Panax notoginseng is a commonly used Chinese herb. Although a few studies have found that notoginseng shows anti-tumor effects, the effect of this herb on colorectal cancer cells has not been investigated. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer that interferes with the growth of cancer cells. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses. In this study, using HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cell line, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects between notoginseng flower extract (NGF) and 5-FU on colon cancer cells. METHODS: The anti-proliferation activity of these modes of treatment was evaluated by MTS cell proliferation assay. Apoptotic effects were analyzed by using Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin-V/PI staining assays. The anti-proliferation effects of four major single compounds from NGF, ginsenosides Rb1, Rb3, Rc and Rg3 were also analyzed. RESULTS: Both 5-FU and NGF inhibited proliferation of HCT-116 cells. With increasing doses of 5-FU, the anti-proliferation effect was slowly increased. The combined usage of 5-FU 5 microM and NGF 0.25 mg/ml, significantly increased the anti-proliferation effect (59.4 +/- 3.3%) compared with using the two medicines separately (5-FU 5 microM, 31.1 +/- 0.4%; NGF 0.25 mg/ml, 25.3 +/- 3.6%). Apoptotic analysis showed that at this concentration, 5-FU did not exert an apoptotic effect, while apoptotic cells induced by NGF were observed, suggesting that the anti-proliferation target(s) of NGF may be different from that of 5-FU, which is known to inhibit thymidilate synthase. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that NGF can enhance the anti-proliferation effect of 5-FU on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells and may decrease the dosage of 5-FU needed for colorectal cancer treatment.

  Immunoactive polysaccharide-rich fractions from Panax notoginseng.:Planta Med. 2006 Oct;72(13):1193-9. Epub 2006 Sep 18.Zhu Y, Pettolino F, Mau SL, Shen YC, Chen CF, Kuo YC, Bacic A.Cooperative Research Centre for Bioproducts, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.

 Panax notoginseng is a commonly used medicinal plant in south-western China. In a previous study, a sequential solubilisation of P. notoginseng high-molecular-weight (HMW) polymers using phenol-acetic acid-water, hot water, weak and strong alkali was performed to determine the structure of the component polysaccharides and proteins. The effects of these extracted HMW fractions on the human complement system, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reported here. Fr (1MKOH), which was extracted with 1 M KOH, showed the strongest complement-fixing activity and priming of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by PMNs, as well as a mitogenic effect. Fr (1MKOH) was further fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography followed by gel-permeation chromatography. 1MD3-G2, the fraction most strongly bound to the DEAE anion-exchange column with a molecular weight of 1140 kDa, showed the highest complement-fixing activity. It is composed of acidic polysaccharides [including glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), homogalacturonan (HGA), rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I)], neutral polysaccharides (4-galactan and arabinan), and some protein.

  Ginsenoside-Rd from panax notoginseng blocks Ca2+ influx through receptor- and store-operated Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.:Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 24;548(1-3):129-36. Epub 2006 Aug 17.Guan YY, Zhou JG, Zhang Z, Wang GL, Cai BX, Hong L, Qiu QY, He H.Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan Medical College, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, PR China. guanyy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

 Previously, it was found that total saponins from panax notoginseng inhibited Ca2+ influx coupling to activation of alpha1-adrenoceptor. This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside-Rd from total saponins of panax notoginseng on receptor-operated (ROCC) and store-operated (SOCC) Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells using fura-2 fluorescence, whole cell patch clamp ion channel recording, radio-ligand-receptor binding, 45Ca2+ radio-trace and organ bath techniques. It was found that ginsenoside-Rd reduced phenylephrine-induced contractile responses and Ca2+ influx in normal media without significant effect on these responses in Ca2+ -free media. Ginsenoside-Rd also decreased phenylephrine- and thapsigargin-induced inward Ca2+ currents, and attenuated thapsigargin- and 1-oleoy-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)-induced cation entries that are coupled to ROCC and SOCC respectively. Ginsenoside-Rd failed to inhibit KCl-induced contraction of rat aortal rings and Ca2+ influx, and did not alter voltage-dependent inward Ca2+ current (VDCC) which was blocked by nifedipine. Also, ginsenoside-Rd did not change binding site and affinity of [3H]-prazosin for alpha1-adrenoceptor in the vascular plasma membrane. These results suggest that ginsenoside-Rd, as an inhibitor, remarkably inhibits Ca2+ entry through ROCC and SOCC without effects on VDCC and Ca2+ release in vascular smooth muscle cells.
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  Effects of ethanol extracts of Panax notoginseng on liver metastasis of B16 melanoma grafted in mice.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2006 Sep;4(5):500-3. Chinese.Chen PF, Liu LM, Chen Z, Lin SY, Song WX, Xu YF.Department of Oncology, First Hospital, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006, China. cpf12345@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ethanol extracts of Panax notoginseng on the tumor and the liver metastasis in experimental mice grafted with B16 melanoma. METHODS: B16 melanoma was transplanted in the spleen of C57BL/6 mice. The effects of different doses of ethanol extracts of Panax notoginseng on the inhibition rate of spleen tumors and the liver metastasis were observed respectively. RESULTS: The high-, medium-, and low-doses of the extracts and the interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) can improve the quality of life of the experimental mice. The weights of spleen tumor were lower in the low- and medium-dose extracts-treated groups and the IFN-alpha-treated group than that in the normal saline (NS)-treated group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The liver metastasis was less in the low- and medium-dose extracts-treated groups and the IFN-alpha-treated group than that in the NS-treated group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The ethanol extracts of Panax notoginseng can improve the quality of life of the experimental mice and inhibit the growth of tumor and the liver metastasis.

  Ginsenoside Rd elicits Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice.:Vaccine. 2007 Jan 2;25(1):161-9. Epub 2006 Jun 5.Yang Z, Chen A, Sun H, Ye Y, Fang W.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Kaixun Road 268, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029, China.

 Ginsenoside Rd (Rd), a saponin isolated from the roots of panax notoginseng, was evaluated for inducing Th1 or Th2 immune responses in mice against ovalbumin (OVA). ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 microg alone or with OVA 100 microg dissolved in saline containing alum (200 microg), or Rd (10, 25 or 50 microg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (day 28), concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation was determined using MTT assay, and OVA-specific antibody titers and levels of cytokines in serum were measured by ELISA and microparticle-based flow cytometric immunoassay, as well as peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets analyzed using flow cytometer. Rd significantly enhanced the Con A-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice. OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody titers in serum were significantly enhanced by Rd compared with OVA control group. Meanwhile, Rd also significantly promoted the production of the Th1 and Th2 cytokines in OVA-immunized mice. Further, the effects of Rd on expression of cytokine mRNA in Con A-stimulated mice splenocytes were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Rd significantly enhanced the interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA expression in mice splenocyte induced by Con A. These results suggested that Rd had immunological adjuvant activity, and elicited a Th1 and Th2 immune response by regulating production and gene expression of Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines.

  Detection of genetic homogeneity of Panax notoginseng cultivars by sequencing nuclear 18S rRNA and plastid matK genes.:Planta Med. 2006 Jul;72(9):860-2.Zhang Y, Zhang JC, Huang MH, Yang MS, Cao H.Institute of Materia Medica, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, PR China.

 The nuclear 18S rRNA and chloroplast MATK genes of 18 samples of Panax notoginseng and its processed material Sanqi (Radix Notoginseng) were analyzed. The two genes, regardless of cultivar origin, were found to be identical to genotype R1 and M1, respectively, of the published sequences (GenBank accession no. D85171 and AB027526). This phenomenon implies that the species is highly conserved, which is probably caused by the use of the same strain in cultivation and the lack of active mutation in these two genes.

  Pharmacological activity of sanchi ginseng (Panax notoginseng).:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;58(8):1007-19. Review.Ng TB.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. b021770@mailserve.cuhk.edu.hk

 The pharmacological activity and constituents of the sanchi ginseng Panax notoginseng have been reviewed. The bulk of pharmacological findings have been based on the saponins or steryl glycosides, although polysaccharides with immunopotentiating activity, proteins with antifungal, ribonuclease and xylanase activity, and a triacylglycerol (trilinolein) with antioxidant activity have been reported. Protective actions against cerebral ischaemia, beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and haemostatic, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective, renoprotective and estrogen-like activities have been described. Various methods for authentication of P. notoginseng are available.

  Mechanism of altered TNF-alpha expression by macrophage and the modulatory effect of Panax notoginseng saponins in scald mice.:Burns. 2006 Nov;32(7):846-52. Epub 2006 Jun 30. Wang Y, Peng D, Huang W, Zhou X, Liu J, Fang Y.Institute of Burn Research, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

 AIM: To explore the mechanism of altered tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression by peritoneal macrophages (PMPhi) and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) modulation in light of NF-kappaB signal transduction in severely scalded mice. METHODS: Eighteen percent total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness scalded mice were used. PMPhi was collected at different time intervals (0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 post-burn hour (PBH)) separately. The following parameters were measured: TNF-alpha mRNA and IL-10 mRNA expression (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR), protein kinase C (PKC) activity (isotope incorporation analysis), NF-kappaB activity (electrophoretic mobility shift assay, EMSA), IkappaB-alpha expression (Western blot). RESULTS: After scald, increased expression of TNF-alpha mRNA of PMPhi peaked at 12 PBH. Meanwhile, expression of IL-10 mRNA dropped to the lowest level at 12 PBH. NF-kappaB activity was markedly activated and reached its peak at 2 PBH. Membrane PKC activity was up-regulated after scald and showed a positive correlation with the change of TNF-alpha mRNA. Expression of IkappaB-alpha first decreased at 2 PBH and then increased to high level at 24 PBH. When 12 PBH was chosen as the time point for in vitro intervention with the application of specific NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), PKC inhibitor H-7 and PNS, both TNF-alpha mRNA expression and NF-kappaB activity decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that abnormal expression of TNF-alpha mRNA of macrophages might be regulated by PKC-NF-kappaB signaling following severe burn. PNS might play an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-kappaB activity and TNF-alpha mRNA expression.
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  Inhibitory effect of Panax notoginseng on the VSMC proliferation induced by hyperlipidemia serum.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Apr;31(7):588-90. Chinese.Wang J, Hu JH.Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medicine University, Shanghai 200433, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of P. notoginseng on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by hyperlipidemia serum. METHOD: MTT method was used to investigate the effect of hyperlipidemia serum and hyperlipidemia plus P. notoginseng on VSMC proliferation. RESULT: Hyperlipidemia serum could promote VSMC proliferation significantly as compared with the control group (P < 0.05), while hyperlipidemia plus P. notoginseng could weaken this effect significantly (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: P. notoginseng can significantly inhibit the VSMC proliferation induced by hyperlipidemia serum.

  Extraction of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg2 from cultured Panax notoginseng cells in vitro stimulates human umbilical cord vein endothelial cell proliferation.:Am J Ther. 2006 May-Jun;13(3):205-10.Xin X, Liu J, Li X, Zhong J, Wei D.State Key laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Institute of Biochemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, P.R. China.

 From the cultured cells of Panax notoginseng, a kind of ginseng saponin-ginsenoside Rg2, was separated and purified, and its structure was elucidated as 6-O-[alpha-L-rhamnose (l-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]3beta, 12beta, 20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene [20(S)-ginsenoside Rg2]. Moreover, its bioactivity stimulates human umbilical cord vein endothelial cell proliferation; the growth of the cells treated with 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg2 was 14-fold higher than that of untreated ones, and the level of the cell's plasminogen activator (PA) was also twofold higher.

  Notoginsenoside R1 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced fibronectin production in smooth muscle cells via the ROS/ERK pathway.:Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 May 1;40(9):1664-74. Epub 2006 Jan 26.Zhang HS, Wang SQ.Department of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Taiping Road 27#, Beijing 100850, People's Republic of China

 The matrix fibronectin protein plays an important role in vascular remodeling. Notoginsenoside R1 is the main ingredient with cardiovascular activity in Panax notoginseng; however, its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report that notoginsenoside R1 significantly decreased TNF-alpha-induced activation of fibronectin mRNA, protein levels, and secretion in human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. Notoginsenoside R1 scavenged hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a dose-dependent manner in the test tube. TNF-alpha significantly increased intracellular ROS generation and then ERK activation, which was blocked by notoginsenoside R1 or DPI and apocynin, inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, or the antioxidant NAC. Our data demonstrated that TNF-alpha-induced upregulation of fibronectin mRNA and protein levels occurs via activation of ROS/ERK, which was prevented by treatment with notoginsenoside R1, DPI, apocynin, NAC, or MAPK/ERK inhibitors PD098059 and U0126. Notoginsenoside R1 significantly inhibited H2O2-induced upregulation of fibronectin mRNA and protein levels and secretion; it also significantly inhibited TNF-alpha and H2O2-induced migration. These results suggest that notoginsenoside R1 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced ERK activation and subsequent fibronectin overexpression and migration in HASMCs by suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS generation and directly scavenging ROS.

  Oral absorption of ginsenoside Rb1 using in vitro and in vivo models.:Planta Med. 2006 Apr;72(5):398-404.Han M, Sha X, Wu Y, Fang X.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

 This research attempts to clarify the cause for poor oral absorption of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), one main ingredient of the well known Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) for curing hemorrhage. Caco-2 cell monolayers were used as an in vitro model to reveal the transport mechanism of Rb1 across the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, the serum concentration-time profiles of Rb1 after tail venous (IV), portal venous (PV), intraduodenal (ID) and peroral (PO) administration to rats were compared to evaluate the first-pass effects of stomach, intestine and liver. In vitro experiments showed that uptake by Caco-2 cell monolayers was temperature dependent, but was not influenced by cyclosporine A and ketoconazole. The change in the apical pH showed no obvious effects on the uptake of Rb1. The uptake and transport were non-saturable, and flux from the apical compartment to the basolateral compartment (A-B) increased linearly with increasing concentration, which indicated a passive transport. Meanwhile, an apparent permeability coefficient of (5.90 +/- 1.02) x 10(-8) cm/s (C0 = 1 mg/mL) predicted an incomplete absorption. The investigation on the pharmacokinetic behavior of Rb1 after different routes of administration to rats showed a significant difference between PO (F(PO) was 0.64%), ID (F(ID) was 2.46%) and PV (F(PV) was 59.49%) administration, and the first-pass effect of the intestine is more significant than that of the stomach and liver in the absorption process. In summary, elimination in the stomach, large intestine and liver contributed to the poor absorption of Rb1, but the low membrane permeability might be a more important factor dominating the extent of absorption.

  Protective effects of saponines of stem and leaf of Panax notoginseng on acute myocardial ischemia in anaesthetic dogs.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Jan;31(1):62-5. Chinese.Fu JH, Li XZ, Shang XH, Liu JX.Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effects of saponines of stem and leaf of Panax notoginseng (PNSSL) on acute myocardial ischemia in anaesthetic dogs. METHOD: The acute ischemia models were made by ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) artery. The myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined by ultrasonic doppler. The experiments adopted epicardiogram mapping to measure the scope and degree of myocardial ischemia, quantitative histologic assay (nitroblue tetrazolium, N-BT stain) to determine the size of myocardial infarction. And the endothelin (ET) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were measured by radioimmunological assay. RESULT: PNSSL was showed to obviously alleviate the degree of myocardial ischemia (sigma-ST) and narrow the ischemic area indicated by N-BT staining. In addition, PNSSL could increase the MBF of ischemia section. And the treatment could inhibit the ET and TXB2 release induced by ischemia and infarction. CONCLUSION: PNSSL demonstrated to attenuate the damage subjected to myocardial ischemia and infarction, which may be due to its function of inhibiting the ET and TXA2 release, increasing the MBF, and then improving the damaged cardiac function.
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  Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion of leukocytes in rat mesenteric venules.:Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2006;34(1-2):103-8.Sun K, Wang CS, Guo J, Liu YY, Wang F, Liu LY, He JG, Fan JY, Han JY.Tasly Microcirculation Research Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100083, China.

 Panax notoginseng is the root of the Chinese traditional herb, Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the leukocyte adhesion and the expression of adhesion molecules in rat mesentery venules. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. These were divided into control, LPS (perfused with lipopolysaccharide), and PNS group (perfused with PNS). The mesenteric microcirculation was observed under a videomicroscope. The number of adherent leukocytes, which attached to the vascular wall during more than 10 seconds, was counted along single venules (30-50 microm in diameter, 200 microm in length). The expression of adhesion molecules was examined using flow-cytometry in blood which was taken from the abdominal aorta and incubated with FITC-labeled CD11b (or CD18) antibodies. The results showed that different changes in the leukocyte adhesion and the expression of adhesion molecules among three groups. In LPS group, the leukocyte adhesion increased significantly after 20 minutes during the observation time, while it was reduced markedly in PNS group. The expression of CD11b and CD18 on the neutrophils was induced in LPS group, while it was reduced significantly in PNS group. It was suggested that PNS could reduce leukocyte adhesion in venules under the inhibitory effect on the expression of adhesion molecules (CD11b and CD18) on neutrophils.

  Difference in oral absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 between in vitro and in vivo models.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Apr;27(4):499-505.Han M, Fang XL.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

 AIM: To clarify the cause of poor oral absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the active ingredient in Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) used for treating hemorrhage. METHODS: Caco-2 cell monolayers were used as an in vitro model to study the transport mechanism of Rg1 across the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, the serum concentration-time profiles after peroral (po), intraduodenal (id), portal venous (pv) and tail venous (iv) administration of Rg1 in rats were compared to evaluate the first-pass effects in the stomach, intestine, and liver. RESULTS: Uptake of Rg1 by Caco-2 cell monolayers was temperature-dependent, but was not influenced by cyclosporin A. The change in the apical pH produced no obvious effect on the uptake of Rg1. The uptake and transport of Rg1 was non-saturable; whereas the flux from the apical compartment to the basolateral compartment (A-B) increased in a linear manner with the increase in concentration, indicating passive transport. An apparent permeability coefficient of (2.59+/-0.17)*10(-7) cm/s (C0=1 mg/mL) predicted incomplete absorption. A significant difference was observed between the po (F(po) was 3.29% at a dose of 1500 mg/kg), id (F(id) was 6.60% at a dose of 1200 mg/kg) and pv (F(pv) was 50.56%) administration methods, and the barrier function of the intestine was more significant than those of the stomach and liver in the absorption process. CONCLUSION: Elimination in the stomach, large intestine and liver contributed to the low oral bioavailability of Rg1, but low membrane permeability might be a more important factor in determining the extent of absorption.

  Chemical characteristics for different parts of Panax notoginseng using pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC-ELSD.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Aug 28;41(5):1596-601. Epub 2006 Mar 7.Wan JB, Yang FQ, Li SP, Wang YT, Cui XM.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China.

 The chemical characteristics for different parts of Panax notoginseng, including root, fibre root, rhizome, stem, leaf, flower and seed, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Eight major saponins, namely notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd were also quantitatively compared among the different parts of P. notoginseng. The chromatograms showed that there was significant difference between underground (root, fibre root, rhizome) and aerial (leaf and flower) parts from P. notoginseng, though the similarities of entire chromatographic patterns among tested samples from underground (0.965+/-0.029, n=12) and aerial parts (0.987+/-0.014, n=5) were similar, respectively. Especially, no saponin was detected in the seed of P. notoginseng. Hierarchical clustering analysis based on eight investigated saponins or the ratios of contents for ginsenoside Rg1/Rb1 and ginsenoside Rb3/Rb1 showed that the samples from different parts of P. notoginseng were divided into three main clusters. One cluster was underground parts, which contained rich protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol types saponins. The leaf and flower were in the same cluster, which contained protopanaxadiol type saponins only. Especially, ginsenoside Rc, Rb2 and Rb3, rare in the underground parts, were rich in aerial parts of P. notoginseng. The stem of P. notoginseng was another cluster. Based on the cluster analysis, the chemical characteristics for different parts of P. notoginseng were revealed. They are composite cluster (underground parts), protopanaxadiol cluster (aerial parts) and interim (stem) cluster, which was the one between the two typical clusters, respectively. The result shows that chemical characteristics of underground parts and aerial parts from P. notoginseng are obviously different, which is helpful for pharmacological evaluation and quality control of P. notoginseng.

  Pharmacodynamical study on Danqi capsule.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Dec;30(23):1869-73. Chinese.Wu FH, Liu XM, Jia R.Dept of Pharmacy, Fujian College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China. wufuhuo@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To assess the pharmacodynamical actions of Danqi capsule which was reported to promote blood circulation by removing blood stasis, regulation Danqi and relieving pain so as to be used to treat thoracic obstruction, headache, menstrual pain in clinic. METHOD: To compare the pharmacologic effects of Danqi capsule Danqi tablet in the rats with acute myocardial ischemia and the mice with the increased oxygen-consumption induced by isoproterenol injected subcutaneously. The pain models were prepared by injection of acetic acid and uterospasm model in the female mouse was induced by diethylstilbestrol and pitocin. A hyperlipidemia model was also made in the rats. RESULT: Danqi capsule could significantly improve ECG in myocardial ischemia of rats induced by isoproterenol and prolong the mice survival time under hypoxic situation. In the experiment to observe the pain response with body twist as a index induced by acetic acid and uterospasm induced by diethylstilbestrol and pitocin, Danqi capsule could significantly shorten the latency and the time course of body twist. The contents of triglyceride(TG) and total cholesterol(TC) were decreased, while the level of high-density liporotein-cholesterol(HDL-c) was increased after treatment of Danqi capsule in in the rats with hyperlipidemia. Hemorheological data showed that the blood viscosity, blood reductive viscosity, erythrocyte rigidity index and electrophoresis time were significantly decreased by Danqi capsule in the animal model mentioned above as compared with control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the dose of Danqi capsule is less than that of Danqi tablet for producing equivalent effect. CONCLUSION: Danqi capsule plays a good role in improving myocardial ischemia, increasing the tolerant ability against oxygen-deficiency, alleviating pain and descending the levels of blood fat and blood viscosity.

  Analysis of saponins from panax notoginseng using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrum.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Oct;28(10):885-90. Chinese.Wan J, Li C, Li S, Kong L, Wang Y.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau SAR.

 OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with LC-ESI-MS. METHODS: The PSE technology was applied to the process of extraction for Panax notoginseng, and the negative ion detection and multiple reaction monitoring model were used. The saponins were investigated based on total ion chromatogram (TIC) and MRM chromatogram. RESULTS: According to the fragment character of saponins, the molecular weight and their structures could be identified. CONCLUSION: The method can be used for qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng.
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  Separation and on-line concentration of saponins from Panax notoginseng by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2006 Mar 24;1109(2):279-84. Epub 2006 Feb 15.Wang S, Ye S, Cheng Y.Department of Chinese Medicine Science and Engineering, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

 A simple, reproducible and sensitive micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the separation and determination of 10 saponins from Panax notoginseng. Field-enhanced sample injection with reverse migrating micelles (FESI-RMM) was used for on-line concentration of the saponins. The effects of concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and organic modifier, the sample matrix, the injection time of water plug, the injection voltage and injection time of sample on the separation and stacking efficiency were investigated. The optimum buffer contained 10mM H3PO4, 140 mM SDS, 20% acetonitrile and 15% 2-propanol and the pH of buffer was 2.4. The sample solution was diluted with 15 mM SDS and injected for 15s with -8 kV after injection of 2s water plug. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were well separated with very high plate number (8.0 x 10(5)-1.2 x 10(6) N/m); the limits of detection of the analytes were 1.7-6.3 microg/mL. The high sensitivity permitted the determination of two minor saponins Rh1 (1.01 mg/g) and Rg2 (0.62 mg/g) in P. notoginseng, which were not determined in the literature.

  Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng on the transformation of bone marrow stem cells and proliferation of EPC in vitro.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Nov;30(22):1761-3. Chinese.Yang BH, Zhu LQ, Zhang JZ, Niu FL, Cui W.Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China. yangb5191@sina.com

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and the possible mechanism underlying the promotional effect of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng on the transformation of bone narrow stem cells and proliferation of EPC. METHOD: The marrow blood was collected in the patients with ischemia of lower limbs and BM-MNCs were separated and proliferated under different conditions. A. morphologic observation was performed and the ratio of CD34+ cells was measured. RESULT: The shuttle shaped cells lined up as bunches with several round cells scattered. The ratio of CD34+ cells was significantly increased in groups treated with medium (P < 0.01) and lower (P < 0.05) dosages of A. membranaceus and medium (P < 0.01) and high dosages (P < 0.01) of P. notoginseng respectively as compared with control group. CONCLUSION: A. membranaceus and P. notoginseng can promote the transformation and proliferation of EPC.

  Absorption profiles of sanchinoside R1 and ginsenoside Rg1 in the rat intestine..:Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005 Oct-Dec;30(4):261-8.Liang F, Hua JX.Department of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.

 Panax notoginseng is used as a therapeutic agent in Chinese medicine for stopping hemorrhage and also as a general health remedy. Although Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are currently attracting attention due to their hemorheological properties, the absorption profiles of PNS have still not been fully investigated. In the present study, an in situ intestinal perfusion rat model was used to investigate the absorption mechanism of sanchinoside R1 (R1) and ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), two main components of PNS. Quantitative analysis methods for R1 and Rg1 were first established, then concentrations of R1 and Rg1 in the perfusate were measured in real time through assessment of circulating perfusate in the rat small intestine. The absorption rate constant (k(a)) values for R1 were 0.1223, 0.0946 and 0.0904 h(-1) at a dose of 1, 10 and 100 mg respectively, while those of Rg1 were 0.1169, 0.1134 and 0.1089 h(-1) at a dose of 1, 10 and 100 mg respectively. The optimal absorption site for both of these compounds was found to be the duodenum, which indicated that the bioavailability of the orally administered PNS preparation was relatively low. Finally, the effect of certain absorption promoters on the absorption rates of R1 and Rg1 was investigated. It was found that carbomer and borneol could enhance the permeability of R1 and Rg1 on the intestinal wall (P < 0.05), which indicated that a suitable absorption promoter could improve the absorption of PNS and increase its bioavailability.

  Panax notoginseng attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun 15;106(1):121-8. Epub 2006 Jan 19.Rhule A, Navarro S, Smith JR, Shepherd DM.Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-1552, USA

 Herbals or dietary supplements are not regulated as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) although many may have associated therapeutic effects and toxicities. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effects of the herbal extract Panax notoginseng on cultured macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were investigated to address potential therapeutic or toxic effects. Cells were stimulated with LPS (1 microg/ml) and treated with notoginseng at 5, 25 and 50 microg/ml. Notoginseng inhibited the LPS-induced production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 by the cultured macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of COX-2 and IL-1 beta mRNA was also attenuated by notoginseng. TNF-alpha production was inhibited in samples treated with notoginseng 24h before, or at the same time as LPS stimulation, but not in samples treated 8h after LPS stimulation. Notoginseng reduced expression of the accessory molecules CD40 and CD86 on the RAW264.7 cells while CD14 and TLR4 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, Rb1 and Rg1 ginsenosides also inhibited macrophage production of TNF-alpha, but to a lesser extent than did the whole notoginseng extract. Collectively, these results indicate that notoginseng inhibits LPS-induced activation of RAW264.7 macrophages and demonstrates that notoginseng possesses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in vitro.

  Structure and biological activity of protopanaxatriol-type saponins from the roots of Panax notoginseng.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Jan;6(1):14-25. Epub 2005 Jul 26.Sun H, Yang Z, Ye Y.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, People's Republic of China. sunhx@zju.edu.cn

 The further purification of the total saponins from the roots of Panax notoginseng by using ordinary and reversed-phase silica-gel, as well as Sephadex LH-20 chromatography afford seven adjuvant active protopanaxatriol-type saponins (PTS), ginsenosides-Rh1 (Rh1),-Rh4 (Rh4),-Rg1 (Rg1),-Re (Re), notoginsenosides-R1 (R1),-R2 (R2),-U (U). These saponins were evaluated for their haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA). The effect of the substitution pattern of these PTS on their biological activities was investigated and structure-activity relationships were established. Among seven PTS, the haemolytic activity of Rh1 was higher than that of other six compounds (p<0.001) The HD50 values of Rh4 and U were significantly bigger than those of R2, Rg1 and Re (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Seven PTS could significantly increase the concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice (p<0.01 or p<0.001). The OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were also significantly enhanced by seven PTS compared with OVA control group (p<0.01 or p<0.001). The structure-activity relationship studies suggested that the number, the length and the position of sugar side chains, and the type of glucosyl group in the structure of PTS could not only affect their haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials, but have significant effects on the nature of the immune responses. The information about this structure/function relationship might be useful for developing semisynthetic tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin derivatives with immunological adjuvant activity, as well as a reference to the distribution of the functional groups composing the saponin molecule.
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  Simultaneous determination of nine saponins from Panax notoginseng using HPLC and pressurized liquid extraction.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Apr 11;41(1):274-9. Epub 2005 Nov 28.Wan JB, Lai CM, Li SP, Lee MY, Kong LY, Wang YT.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China; Department of Phytochemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038, China.

 A HPLC and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine saponins, including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd in Panax notoginseng. The analysis was performed on C18 column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated saponins were authenticated by comparing retention time and mass spectra with their reference compounds. Several methods including PLE, ultrasonication, soxhlet extraction and immersion were used for sample preparation and their extraction efficiency was compared. The results showed that PLE has the highest extraction efficiency and repeatability, which would be valuable on standardization of sample preparation for quality control of Chinese medicines. The developed HPLC and PLE is an effective approach for simultaneously quantitative determination of sapoinins in P. notoginseng, which could be used for quality control of P. notoginseng and its preparations.

  Induction and characterization of adventitious roots directly from the explants of Panax notoginseng.:Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Nov;27(22):1771-5.Gao X, Zhu C, Jia W, Gao W, Qiu M, Zhang Y, Xiao P.School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200030, Shanghai, China.

 Adventitious roots from leafstalks and lateral roots were obtained directly from explants of Panax notoginseng. The lateral root explants were more sensitive to the induction of adventitious roots using indole-3-butyric acid. HPLC analysis of saponins extracted from the adventitious roots indicated that several protopanaxatriol saponins were present but ginsenoside Rd was missing, compared with the saponins extracted from the raw herbs. The dry weight of primary adventitious root culture of Panax notoginseng increased 5.25 times during multiplication in a classical shaking-flask system, suggesting that it is a culture system with great potential for scale-up.

  Determination of four active saponins of Panax notoginseng in rat feces by high-performance liquid chromatography.:J Chromatogr Sci. 2005 Sep;43(8):421-5.Li L, Sheng Y, Zhang J, Guo D.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking University, Beijing 100083, P.R. China.

 A method is developed for the determination of ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rd, and notoginsenoside R1 of Panax notoginseng (PNS) in rat feces after oral and intravenous administration of total saponins of PNS. The fecal samples are treated with organic extraction and solid-phase extraction prior to high-performance liquid chromatography. The calibration curves for the four saponins are linear in the given concentration ranges. The precision of the method is in the range of 1.0-10.0% (relative standard deviation), and the accuracy is between 80.0% and 110%. The recoveries of this method are all over 75%. This method is successfully applied to the analyses of fecal samples of rats treated with PNS.

  Orthogonal array design in optimizing the extraction efficiency of active constituents from roots of Panax notoginseng.:Phytother Res. 2005 Aug;19(8):684-8.Dong TT, Zhao KJ, Huang WZ, Leung KW, Tsim KW.Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong SAR, China.

 The root of Panax notoginseng (Radix Notoginseng, Sanqi) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which is mainly cultivated in Wenshan of Yunnan China. The identified active constituents in Radix Notoginseng include saponin, ssavonoid and polysaccharide; however, the levels of these active constituents vary greatly with different extraction processes. This variation causes a serious problem in standardizing the herbal extract. By using HPLC and spectrophotometry, the contents of notoginsenoside R(1), ginsenoside R(g1), R(b1), R(d), and ssavonoids were determined in the extracts of Radix Notoginseng that were derived from different processes of extraction according to an orthogonal array experimental design having three variable parameters: nature of extraction solvent, extraction volume and extraction time. The nature of extraction solvent and extraction volume were two distinct factors in obtaining those active constituents, while the time of extraction was a subordinate factor. The optimized condition of extraction therefore is considered to be 20 volumes of water and extracted for 24 h. In good agreement with the amount of active constituents, the activity of anti-platelet aggregation was found to be the highest in the extract that contained a better yield of the active constituents. The current results provide an optimized extraction method for the quality control of Radix Notoginseng.

  High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the active saponins from Panax notoginseng in rat tissues.:Biomed Chromatogr. 2006 Apr;20(4):327-35.Li L, Sheng YX, Zhang JL, Wang SS, Guo DA.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking University, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China.

 A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was used to determine the ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1 and Rd of Panax notoginseng in rat tissues (kidney, liver, heart, spleen and lung) after the administration of total saponins of P. notoginseng. The tissue samples were treated with solid-phase extraction prior to HPLC. The calibration curves for the three saponins were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day assay coefficients in tissues were between 76 and 120% respectively. The recoveries of all the tissues were higher than 70%. This method was applied to evaluate the distribution of the three major saponins of P. notoginseng in rat tissues.
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  Effects of the Panax notoginseng saponins on the level of synaptophysin protein in brain in rat model with lesion of Meynert.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Jun;30(12):913-5. Chinese.Zhong ZG, Qu ZQ, Wang NP, Zhang FF, Zhang WY, Lu UP.Istitute of Neurosciece Research, Gangxi Traditional Chinese Medical Nanning 530001, China. zhongzg@gxtcmu.edu.cn

 OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the level of synaptophysin ptotein in brain in rat model with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: The AD rat models were established by intra-peritoneal injection of D-galactose combined with excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid injection into bilateral nbM. The activity and content of synaptophysin protein in brain were determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULT: PNS could reduce the lesion of level of synaptophysin protein in brain, as compared with those of model group's rats. CONCLUTION: PNS plays a protective role by reducing down of the level of synaptophysin protein in brain in lesion of AD animal model.

  Relationship between haemolytic and adjuvant activity and structure of protopanaxadiol-type saponins from the roots of Panax notoginseng.:Vaccine. 2005 Dec 1;23(48-49):5533-42. Epub 2005 Aug 3.Sun HX, Qin F, Ye YP.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029, China. sunhx@zju.edu.cn

 Four protopanaxadiol-type saponins (PDS), ginsenosides-Rb(1), -Rd, notoginsenosides-K, -R(4) isolated from the roots of Panax notoginseng were evaluated for their haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA). The effect of the substitution pattern of these PDS on their biological activities was investigated and structure-activity relationships were established. Among four PDS, the ranking of the haemolytic activity was K>R(4)>Rb(1)>Rd (P<0.01 or <0.001). Rd, Rb(1), and K could significantly enhance mitogen- and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice (P<0.001), with the order in terms of stimulation index being Rd>Rb(1)>K>R(4). OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibody levels in the OVA-immunized mice were significantly enhanced by four PDS. Adjuvant potentials of Rd on antibody responses were higher than those of other three PDS. Meanwhile, Rd also significantly enhanced the production of the Th1 and Th2 cytokines in OVA-immunized mice (P<0.05 or <0.01). The structure-activity relationship studies suggested that the length of sugar side chains at position C-20 and the linkage of glucose moiety at position C-3 of protopanaxadiol could affect the haemolytic and adjuvant activities of PDS. The information about this structure/function relationship might be useful for developing semisynthetic tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin derivatives with immunological adjuvant activity, as well as a reference to the distribution of the functional groups composing the saponin molecule.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis induced by angiotengin II in vitro:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 May;30(10):778-81. Chinese.Chen YJ, Li JD, Huang QF.Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced rat cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro and the probable mechanism. METHOD: Cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were stimulated with Ang II. Cell viability was measured by MTT. Apoptosis was evaluated using Acridine Orange (AO) fluorescent dye staining and flow cytometry; Fluo-3 AM was used to test the change of intracellular free calcium. RESULT: It was found that incubating with Ang II (10(-7) mol x L(-1)) for 48 h increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, PNS (25, 100 mg x mL(-1)) increased myocyte viability. PNS (50 mg x mL(-1)) significantly decreased this Ang II-induced rat cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P < 0.05) and decreased fluorescent intensity of intracellular calcium. CONCLUSION: PNS has a significant effect on Ang II-induced rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis in vitro by alleviating intracellular calcium overload.

  Efficient induction of ginsenoside biosynthesis and alteration of ginsenoside heterogeneity in cell cultures of Panax notoginseng by using chemically synthesized 2-hydroxyethyl jasmonate.:Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006 Apr;70(3):298-307. Epub 2005 Jul 23.Wang W, Zhao ZJ, Xu Y, Qian X, Zhong JJ.State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai, 200237, China. weiwang100@sohu.com

 Chemically synthesized 2-hydroxyethyl jasmonate (HEJA) was for the first time employed to induce the ginsenoside biosynthesis and to manipulate the product heterogeneity in plant cell cultures. The dose response and timing of HEJA elicitation were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Panax notoginseng. The optimal concentration and timing of HEJA addition for both cell growth and ginsenoside accumulation was identified to be 200 microM added on day 4. It was interestingly found that HEJA could stimulate ginsenosides biosynthesis and change their heterogeneity more efficiently than methyl jasmonate (MJA), i.e., the total ginsenoside content and the Rb/Rg ratio increased about 60 and 30% with HEJA elicitation than that by MJA, respectively. The activity of Rb1 biosynthetic enzyme, i.e., UDPG-ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase (UGRdGT), was also higher in the former case. A maximal production titer of ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd was 47.4+/-4.8, 52.3+/-4.4, 190+/-18, and 12.1+/-2.5 mg/l with HEJA elicitation, which was about 1.3-, 1.3-, 1.7-, and 2.1-fold than that using MJA, respectively. Early signal events in plant defense response, including oxidative burst and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, were also examined. Levels of H2O2 and NO in medium and L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in cells were not affected by addition of MJA and HEJA. On the other hand, the JA content in cells was increased with external jasmonates elicitation, and it was inhibited with the addition of JA biosynthesis inhibitors. The results suggest that oxidative burst might not be involved in the jasmonates-elicited signal transduction pathway, and MJA and HEJA may induce the ginsenoside biosynthesis via induction of endogenous JA biosynthesis and key enzymes (such as UGRdGT) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway of P. notoginseng cells. The information is useful for hyperproduction of plant-specific heterogeneous products.

  The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intranasal preparation of Panax notoginseng Saponins.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2005 Apr;40(4):377-81. Chinese.Wu YJ, Zhu XY, Sha XY, Fang XL.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

 AIM: To investigate the pharmacokinetic course of intranasal powders of Panax notoginseng Saponins (PNS) in a rat model and its protective effects against cardio-cerebrovascular diseases administrated in the form of its suspension. METHODS: After administration, Rgl concentration in the serum was analyzed by HPLC and the absolute bioavailability was calculated. The protective effects against cardia-cerebrovascular diseases were studied on actue myocardial infarction model in rats built by occlusion of left coronary artery and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in gerbils built by occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA). RESULTS: The in vivo course of Rgl in rats conformed to two-compartment model after intranasal administration of PNS suspension and the absolute bioavailability was 103.56%. The suspension significantly reduced myocardial infarct size induced by occlusion of the left coronary artery, alleviated cerebral edema and the stroke symptoms induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA). And the effects were dose-dependent, the higher dose, the better effects. CONCLUSION: The results of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics demonstrated that PNS intranasal preparation has a pretty prospect to develop.
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  Protective effects of Panax notoginseng saponins against pathological lesion of cholinergic neuron in rat model with Alzheimer' s disease.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2005 Feb;28(2):119-22. Chinese.Zhong Z, Qu Z, Wang N, Wang J, Xie Z, Zhang F, Zhang W, Lu Z.Guangxi College of TCM, Nanning 530001.

 OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) against pathological lesion of cholinergic neuron in rat model with Alzheimer' s disease (AD). METHODS: The AD rat model was established by intra-peritoneal injection of D-galactose combined with excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBA) injection into bilateral nbM. The activity and content of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the cell morphology and number of cholinergic neuron in brain were determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULTS: PNS could reduce the pathological lesion of cholinergic neuron, including the level of ChAT and number of cholinergic neuron, as compared with those of model group's rats. CONCLUSION: PNS plays a protective role in pathological lesion of cholinergic neuron in AD rat model.

  Molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of trilinolein on endothelin-1-induced hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.:Planta Med. 2005 Jun;71(6):525-9.Chen SC, Cheng JJ, Hsieh MH, Chu YL, Kao PF, Cheng TH, Chan P.Department of Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

 Trilinolein, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Sanchi ( Panax notoginseng), has been shown to have myocardial protective effects via its antioxidant ability. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the protective effect of trilinolein in the heart remain to be elucidated. Oxidative mechanisms have been implicated in neonatal cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We therefore have examined whether trilinolein attenuates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and thus ET-1-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with ET-1 (10 nM), [3H]leucine incorporation and the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MyHC) promoter activity were examined. Trilinolein (1 and 10 microM) inhibited the ET-1-induced increase of [3H]-leucine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner. Trilinolein (1 and 10 microM) also inhibited ET-1-induced beta-MyHC promoter activity in cardiomyocytes. We further examined the effects of trilinolein on ET-1-induced intracellular ROS generation by measuring a redox-sensitive fluorescent dye, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, fluorescence intensity. Trilinolein (1 and 10 microM) inhibited ET-1-increased intracellular ROS levels in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase of ROS by ET-1 (10 nM) or H2O2 (25 microM) was significantly inhibited by trilinolein (10 microM) and N-acetylcysteine (10 mM). Moreover, ET-1- or H2O2-induced beta-MyHC promoter activity and protein synthesis were also inhibited by trilinolein (10 microM). These data indicate that trilinolein inhibits ET-1-induced beta-MyHC promoter activity, and subsequent hypertrophy via its antioxidant ability in cardiomyocytes.

  Effects of panax notoginseng saponins on the process of renal interstitial fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats.:Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005 May;36(3):368-71. Chinese.Su BH, Li Z, Fan JM, Wang M, Tang R.Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the process of renal interstitial fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats. METHODS: In this study, female sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham operation group (S group), Operation group (O group), and Operation plus PNS group (P group). The unilateral ureters of the rats were ligated as the operation to create renal interstitium fibrosis. The rats were sacrificed at postoperative days 3, 7, 14 and 21. After sacrifice, the obstructed kidneys of the rats were sliced to make pathological sections. The sections observed under light microscope to evaluate the results of hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Masson staining or proliferative cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After operation, the operated rats showed progressive renal interstitium fibrosis. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubular epithelial cell and interstitium increased significantly. In comparison with the rats of operation group, the PNS-treated rats had less alpha-smooth muscle actin in interstitium. In addition, PNS could significantly increase the number of cell expressed proliferative cell nuclear antigen in tubules. CONCLUSION: The lesions of tubules-interstitium got worse and the renal interstitium showed progressive fibrosis gradually in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction. PNS was noted to have ameliorative effects on the fibrotic process of renal interstitium; it can block tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

  Panax notoginseng saponins preconditioning protects rat liver grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury via an antiapoptotic pathway.:Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2005 May;4(2):207-12. Zhang Y, Ye QF, Lu L, Xu XL, Ming YZ, Xiao JS.Institute of Organ Transplantation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

 BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major cause of primary graft dysfunction and renders an allograft more immunogenic in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) has been reported to exert protective effects against I/R injury to various organs. The objective of this study is to investigate whether PNS preconditioning protects rat liver grafts from I/R injury via an antiapoptotic pathway. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as donors and recipients of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and were divided into PNS preconditioning group(group P) and normal saline control group (group N) randomly according to whether PNS (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 1 hour before liver grafts harvesting, and sham group (group S). The animals were separately killed 2, 6 and 24 hours after reperfusion. Plasma samples were collected for test of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Liver tissues were collected to detect histological changes, apoptosis and the expression of TNF-alpha, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA. RESULTS: The serum levels of ALT and AST and the apoptosis index (AI) of liver tissue in group P were lower than in group N significantly 2, 6 and 24 hours after reperfusion. Compared with group N, the expression of TNF-alpha and Caspase-3 mRNA was reduced significantly in group P 2 and 6 hours after reperfusion and the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was enhanced significantly in group P 6 and 24 hours after reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: PNS preconditioning protects liver grafts from I/R injury effectively in rat OLT via an antiapoptotic pathway. The antiapoptotic mechanisms of PNS may include inhibiting the expression of TNF-alpha and Caspase-3 and enhancing the expression of Bcl-2.

  Simultaneous quantification of six major active saponins of Panax notoginseng by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV method.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Jun 1;38(1):45-51.Li L, Zhang JL, Sheng YX, Guo DA, Wang Q, Guo HZ.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, PR China.

 A simple, sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) method has been developed for the first time to simultaneously quantify the six major active saponins of Panax notoginseng, namely notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1 and Rd. Astragaloside IV is used as the internal standard. This HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in 30 min. The method provided good reproducibility and sensitivity for the quantification of six saponins with overall intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of less than 4.0% and higher than 90%, respectively. This assay is successfully applied to the determination of the six saponins in 23 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the developed HPLC assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for P. notoginseng.
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  Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides from the medicinal plant Panax notoginseng.:Phytochemistry. 2005 May;66(9):1067-76.Zhu Y, Pettolino F, Mau SL, Bacic A.Cooperative Research Centre for Bioproducts, School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010, Australia.

 Panax notoginseng is a commonly used medicinal plant in south-western China. Recent studies indicate that wall polysaccharides are responsible for some of the immunostimulatory activity. Fractionation of the P. notoginseng root powder alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) and its compositional analysis enabled us to deduce the polysaccharide and protein composition of the root cell walls. P. notoginseng walls are composed primarily of polysaccharide (approximately 97% w/w) and some protein. The polysaccharides include pectic polysaccharides (neutral Type I 4-galactan (21%), arabinan (5%), acidic rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I, 2%) and homogalacturonan (HGA, 24%), non-cellulosic polysaccharides (heteroxylan, 3%), xyloglucan (XG, 3%) and heteromannan (1%)) and cellulose (24%). The root AIR also contains Type II AG/AGPs (5% w/w) typically associated with the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix. Thus, P. notoginseng roots contain polysaccharides typical of Type I primary cell walls but are distinguished by their very high levels of Type I 4-galactans and low levels of XGs. The major amino acids in the AIR were Leu (14 mol%), Asx (16 mol%), Glx (10 mol%), Ala (9 mol%), Thr (9 mol%) and Val (9 mol%).

  Effects of lingfasu on embryoid and plantlet formation of Panax notoginseng in vitro:Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Oct;27(10):711-2. Chinese.Xu H, Meng A, Li C, Deng X, Zhou Q, Yang M.Agricultural College, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005.

 On the medium MS added the right amount of 2,4-D and LFS (Angustmycin) and cultured under dark condition, the callus from stem segments of Panax notoginseng could induce a lot of embryoids. In 2-3 months, the ratio of embryoid formation reached about 90%. Then transplanted on MS + 2,4-D 1.5 mg/L + LFS 2 mg/L and cultured under light 20001x, near 30% embryoids could grow and develop as robust plantlets.

  Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of underivatized dencichine (beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid) in Panax medicinal plant species.:Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19(10):1237-44.Koh HL, Lau AJ, Chan EC.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore. phakohhl@nus.edu.sg

 Dencichine (beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid) is a haemostatic agent present in important Chinese medicinal herbs such as Panax notoginseng, as well as other Panax species. It is also a reported neurotoxic agent found in Lathyrus sativus (grass pea seed). A selective analytical method incorporating hydrophilic interaction chromatography with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC/ESI-MS/MS), for the analysis of dencichine in Panax plant species, was developed. Using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, underivatized dencichine, a small and highly polar compound, was selectively detected and quantified. The contents of dencichine in raw and steamed Panax notoginseng roots, 11 pairs of raw and steamed P. notoginseng herbal products, Panax ginseng roots, and Panax quinquefolium roots, were analyzed and compared. Optimal sensitivity of 0.3 ppm (detection limit) and 1.5 ppm (quantification limit) was achieved. The method was rapid (< or =5 min), with the HILIC peak eluting at about 1 min. Steamed P. notoginseng samples were found to contain less dencichine than the corresponding raw samples, and there were also differences among the three Panax species; raw P. ginseng and P. quinquefolium contained less dencichine than the raw P. notoginseng species. This rapid and specific method may be applied to the quantification of dencichine in complex medicinal plants and their products.

  Analysis on the geologic background and physicochemical properties of soil for the cultivation of Panax notoginseng in Yunnan province.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Mar;30(5):332-5. Chinese.Cui XM, Xu LS, Wang Q, Chen ZJ.China Phamaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the geo-authentic and geologic background system (GBS) and physicochemical properties of soil for the cultivation of Panax notoginseng. METHOD: The physicochemical properties of soil were analyzed, the geologic background system between producing areas of Yunnan and Guanxi of P. notogiseng was compared. RESULT: The distribution of P. notoginseng was restricted by GBS, The yellow-red soil of fragmentary rock mixed with carbonate seems to be most suitable for the growth. CONCLUSION: The most suitable soil for growing P. notoginseng is the neutral or weakly acidic soil with loam clay, particularly that with low base saturation percentage.

  Apoptosis-promoting effect of Panax notoginseng extracts on MNNG-transformed GES-1 cells.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2005 Mar;3(2):123-7. Chinese. Li JX, Wang ZB, Zhu LQ, Niu FL, Cui W.Department of Gastroenterology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100078, China. lijx1226@263.net

 OBJECTIVE: To study the apoptosis-promoting effect of the serum from Panax notoginseng extracts-fed dog on precancerous gastric cells by means of flow cytometry. METHODS: In the experiment, we adopted eternalized human gastric mucosa epithelium GES-1 cells transformed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (MC cells) as the model of precancerous lesions for study in vitro. We took the serum of a dog before and at two different points of time (2 and 6 hours) after feeding the dog with Panax notoginseng extracts for experiment. The MC cells were cultured in mediums with different concentrations of the medicated serum at 2- or 6-hour point of time for 72 hours. By means of flow cytometry, we examined the apoptosis-promoting effects of the serums on the MC cells. RESULTS: The medicated serums at these 2 points of time had significant effects in promoting MC cell apoptosis. The proportions of apoptotic cells in culture mediums with medicated serums had a significant increase as compared with those in culture mediums with non-medicated serums (serum obtained before administration of extracts to the dog) under the same conditions (P<0.05). The number of MC cells in G(0)/G(1)phase was decreased (P<0.05) and that in G(2)/M phase increased (P<0.05), while no consistent changes were observed in S phase. CONCLUSION: The medicated serums obtained at the two different points of time have significant apoptosis-promoting effects on MC cells. They decrease the number of MC cells in G(0)/G(1) phase and increase the number of MC cells in G(2)/M phase. This is probably responsible for the effects of Panax notoginseng extracts in inhibiting the proliferation of MC cells and promoting its apoptosis.
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  Panax notoginseng supplementation enhances physical performance during endurance exercise.:J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Feb;19(1):108-14.Liang MT, Podolka TD, Chuang WJ.Department of Kinesiology and Health promotion, California State Polytechnic University, pomona, California 91768, USA. mtcliang@csupomona.edu

 The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single 1,350-mg dose of Panax notoginseng (PNG) could enhance aerobic capacity, endurance, and mean blood pressure (MAP) in young adults. We randomly assigned 29 untrained adults, aged 20-35 years, to an experimental (EXP, n = 13) or a control (CON, n = 16) group. For 30 days, the EXP took 1,350 mg per day of PNG capsule and the CON consumed 1,350 mg per day of starch capsule. Measurement variables were taken before and after 30 days of either PNG supplement or placebo. Results show that the EXP improved (p < 0.05) their endurance time by >7 minutes, and lowered (p < 0.05) maximal MAP (from 113 +/- 12 to 109 +/- 14 mm Hg) and Vo2 at the 24th minute (from 32.5 +/- 8 to 27.6 +/- 8 ml.kg-1.min-1) during endurance cycle exercise. Based on this study, we conclude that 1,350 mg per day PNG supplement for 30 days improved endurance time to exhaustion, and lowered MAP and Vo2 during endurance exercise.

  Correlation and path analysis of agronomic characters of Panax notoginseng.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Jan;29(1):37-9. Chinese.Chen ZJ, Cui XM, Sun YQ, Wang CL.Wenshan Institute of Sanqi Research, Wenshan 663000, China. thisisczj@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To select the main directions and the objects in breeding the high yield of Panax notoginseng by the correlation and path analysis of main agronomic character of P. notoginseng. METHOD: Samples in fifty-two districts of Yunnan and Guangxi were collected. The height of plant, the diameter of stem, the number, length, width, size of leaf and the weight of each root of those samples were measured. RESULT: The greatest contribution to the weight of each root is the size of leaf. CONCLUSION: The size of leaf should be key to the high yield of cultribution of P. notoginseng and the size of leaf especially the width of leaf should be selected in breeding. At the same time, the height of plant and the diameter of stem should be considered.

  Effects of Astragalus and saponins of Panax notoginseng on MMP-9 in patients with type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):264-6. Chinese.Liu KZ, Li JB, Lu HL, Wen JK, Han M.Department of Endocrinology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and mechanism of Astragalus (AS) and saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS) in treating type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy. METHOD: 94 patients with type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy were divided into two groups randomly: group treated with Simvastatin and group treated with AS and PNS, compared with 40 healthy control subjects. Serum level of MMP-9 and lipid in patients and healthy subjects were measured before and after treatment. RESULT: The serum levels of MMP-9, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy were improved, while the levels of HDL-C were decreased. Like Simvastatin AS and PNS had the function of reducing MMP-9 and accommodating lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: Besides accommodating lipid metabolism, AS and PNS can also reduce the level of serum MMP-9 soas to treat type 2 diabetic macroangiopathy.

  A dammarane glycoside derived from ginsenoside Rb3.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2005 Feb;53(2):177-9.He K, Liu Y, Yang Y, Li P, Yang L.Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Resource Discovery, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

 A dammarane glycoside, designated compound Mx (C-Mx), was isolated from the hydrolysate of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides containing G-Rb(3) from Panax notoginseng leaves with crude snailase. Its chemical structure was elucidated to be 20-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol on the basis of spectral analysis. Its cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and effects on the sensitivity to doxocubicin of doxocubicin-resistant MCF-7 cells were also investigated. The new compound showed moderate cytotoxicity and partial reversal of doxocubicin resistance.

  Ginsenoside-Rd from Panax notoginseng enhances astrocyte differentiation from neural stem cells.:Life Sci. 2005 Jan 14;76(9):983-95.Shi Q, Hao Q, Bouissac J, Lu Y, Tian S, Luu B.Laboratoire de Chimie Organique des Substances Naturelles, UMR CNRS-ULP 7123, 5 rue Blaise Pascal 67084 Strasbourg, France.

 Neural stem cells cultured as neurospheres were used to assess the effects of P. notoginseng on the production of neurons and glia. The crude saponins (PNS) and ginsenoside-Rd promote the differentiation of neurospheres into astrocytes. Ginsenoside-Rd increases the production of astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, both PNS and ginsenoside-Rd induce a weak but significant effect by decreasing the number of neurons. The other ginsenosides do not induce any differentiation on both neurons and astrocytes.
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  Fingerprinting of Panax notoginseng by high-performance liquid chromatography.:Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2004 Dec;24(12):1410-1. Chinese.Yang XM, Liu X, Yan YC, Xu JP.Department of Chemistry, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

 Fingerprinting of Panax notoginseng was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography using Agilent Hypersil C18 (250.0 mm x 4.0 mm, 5 microm) column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile and water and gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 203 nm. The method is simple and reliable to identify and evaluate the quality of Panax notoginseng.

  The historical condition in the spread of Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) in the Ming Dynasty.:Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi. 2005 Jan;35(1):16-20. Chinese.Zhang J, Fang XY.Department of HST, University of Science and Technology, Hefei 230026.

 A well-known and extensively applied Chinese herbs for promoting blood circulation and resolving blood stasis, San qi (Pana Notoginseng) is one of the medicinal plants first applied by the minority ethnic groups in southwestern China originally grown in Wenshan of Yunnan and Baise of Guangxi, China. The doctors in inland China began to know and apply it in the Ming Dynasty, indicating that the spread of medicine is restricted and influenced not only by geographical positions but also by social environments. The author suggests that it was the appropriate social environment, medical improvement inherited from previous generations and Li Shizhen's contributions that led to the spread of Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) in the Ming Dynasty.

  Isolation and identification of minor bioactive saponins from the leaves of Panax notoginseng.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Jul;27(7):489-91. Chinese.Jiang B, Wang C, Han Y, Hu X, Zheng L, Zhao Y.College of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeast University, Shenyang 11004.

 The minor bioactive saponins of the total saponin from the leaves of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. were separated and purified by column chromatographies on silica gel and thin layer gel. Four compounds were identified as: ginsenoside C-K (I) [20 (S) -protopanaxadiol 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside], ginsenoside-Rh1 (II) [20 (S) -protopanaxatriol-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside], ginsenoside-Mc (III) [20 (S)-protopanaxadiol 20-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl (1 --> 6) -D-glucopyranoside] and notoginsenoside-Fe (IV) [20(S) -protopanaxadiol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosido-20-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]. Compound I was isolated from the leaves of Panax notoginseng for the first time.

  Inhibiting effects of Panax notoginseng extracts on proliferation of GES-1 cells and MNNG-transformed GES-1 cells.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2004 Nov;2(6):445-9. Chinese.Wang ZB, Li JX, Zhu LQ, Niu FL, Cui W.Department of Gastroenterology, Dongfang Hospital of Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100078, China.

 OBJECTIVE: Through cell cultivation, we studied the inhibiting effects of the serum of the dog fed with Panax notoginseng extracts on precancerous gastric cells, trying to find the best time points or periods when the extracts' function was the strongest after administration of the extracts to the dog. METHODS: The experiments adopted eternalized human gastric mucosa epithelium GES-1 cells and MC cells gained from GES-1 cells transformed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) as the model of precancerous lesions for study in vitro. We took the serum of a dog before and at different points of time after feeding the dog with Panax notoginseng extracts for experiment. By means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, we examined the inhibiting effects of the serum after culturing the GES-1 and MC cells for 72 hours with different concentration (8%, 4%, 2%) of medicated serum obtained from the dog at different points of time, so as to find that, at which points of time the medicated serum obtained, it would be the most effective. RESULTS: The results showed that the GES-1 and MC cells inhibition rates of medicated serum from the points of 2-hour and 6-hour were the highest, and the culture medium containing 8% of medicated serum from these two points had prominent inhibiting effects on both kinds of cells. The GES-1 cells inhibition rate in culture medium containing 8% of medicated serum from the point of 2-hour was 70.8% (P<0.01) and that of the MC cells was 45.3% (P<0.01). The GES-1 cells inhibition rate in culture medium containing 8% of medicated serum from the point of 6-hour was 88.5%(P<0.01) and that of the MC cells was 42.4% (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The points of time with the strongest inhibiting effects are 2 hours and 6 hours after being fed with Panax notoginseng extracts. At these two points, the serum is most effective in inhibiting the proliferation of GES-1 and MC cells.

  Effect of total Panax notoginseng saponins on the activity of human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene promoter.:Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2004 Oct;24(10):1113-6. Chinese.Zhang LH, Jia YH, Sun XG, Xing FY, Liu ZF, Song G, Jiang Y.Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of total Panax notoginseng saponin (tPNS) in regulating the transcription activity of human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (heNOS) gene promoter. METHODS: With gene recombination technique, we subcloned the heNOS gene promoter sequence (from -1 to -1 600 bp) into the BglII/HindIII sites of the firefly luciferase reporter gene vector, pGL2-Basic (Promega), to yield the recombinant plasmid designated as peNOS-Luc. With lipofectamine- mediated co-transfection technique, peNOS-Luc, pGL2-Basic and pCMV-beta were cotransfected into NIH3T3 cells, which were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tPNS and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) respectively. The relative activities (Luc/beta-gal) were subsequently determined in the cell lysates to evaluate the effects of these 3 factors on the activity of heNOS gene promoter. RESULTS: Double restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing both confirmed that the recombinant plasmid, peNOS-Luc, was constructed correctly, which could be effectively expressed in NIH3T3 cells. Upon LPS stimulation, the luciferase activity was obviously decreased, contrary to the results of tPNS and TGFbeta1 treatment, and between the latter two agents, TGFbeta1 produced higher transcription activity. CONCLUSIONS: A firefly luciferase reporter gene vector containing heNOS gene promoter sequence has been constructed correctly. tPNS can up-regulate the activity of heNOS gene promoter in NIH3T3 cells.
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  HPLC determination of four active saponins from Panax notoginseng in rat serum and its application to pharmacokinetic studies.:Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Dec;18(10):849-56.Li L, Sheng Y, Zhang J, Wang C, Guo D.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking University, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

 Four main active saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax notoginseng in rat serum after oral and intravenous administration of total saponins of P. notoginseng (PNS) to rats were determined using a simple and sensitive high-performance chromatographic method. The serum samples were pretreated with solid-phase extraction before analysis. The calibration curves for the four saponins were linear in the given concentration ranges. The intra-day and inter-day assay coefficients in serum were less than 10.0% and the recoveries of the method were higher than 80.0% in the high, middle and low concentrations. This method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics following oral and intravenous administration of PNS.

  Adjuvant effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice.:Vaccine. 2004 Sep 28;22(29-30):3882-9.Sun HX, Ye YP, Pan HJ, Pan YJ.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China. sunhx@zju.edu.cn

 In this study, the haemolytic activities of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its adjuvant potentials on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA) were evaluated. We determined the haemolytic activity of PNS using 0.5% rabbit red blood cell. PNS showed a slight haemolytic effect, with its haemolytic percents being 11.59 and 3.60% at the concentrations of 500 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the adjuvant potential of PNS at three dose levels on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin were investigated. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100 microg alone or with OVA 100 microg dissolved in saline containing aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum) (200 microg), Quil A (10 and 50 microg) or PNS (50, 100 or 200 microg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks later (day 28), concanavalin A (Con A)-, pokeweed (PWM)- and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibodies in serum were measured. PNS significantly enhanced the Con A-, PWM-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice at a dose of 100 microg (P < 0.05 or P < 0.025). OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were significantly enhanced by PNS compared with OVA control group (P < 0.025). Moreover, enhancing effect of PNS on the OVA-specific IgG2b antibody responses to OVA in mice were more significant than that of Quil A (P < 0.025). In conclusion, the results suggest that PNS could be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.

  Total saponins of Panax notoginseng protected rabbit iliac artery against balloon endothelial denudation injury.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004 Sep;25(9):1151-6.Chen SW, Li XH, Ye KH, Jiang ZF, Ren XD.Department of Cardiology, the 4th Affliated Hospital of Ji-nan University, Pharmacy College, Ji-nan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

 AIM: To investigate whether total Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) could protect endothelium of rabbit iliac artery against balloon endothelial denudation (BED) injury. METHODS: The morphology changes of the endothelium were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and hematoxylin and eosin stain after BED of rabbit iliac artery at 0, 4, 6, and 8 week respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was also determined by immunohistochemistry. PNS 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg were administered iv per day from 2 d before to 4 weeks after operation. RESULTS: The endothelium was denudated completely after BED. At the 4th week the endothelium was repaired in some degree, then recovered gradually at 6 and 8 week. The degree of intimal thickening at 4 week was significantly greater than that at 0, 6, or 8 week. The sequence of VEGF or MMP-2 staining from strong to weak was 4, 6, 0, 8 week, and normal control. However at 4 week, endothelial regeneration in PNS 30 and 50 mg/kg groups was significantly faster than that in saline group. The intimal thickness was significantly decreased and expressions of VEGF and MMP-2 were both down-regulated in PNS 30 or 50 mg/kg groups compared with saline control group. CONCLUSION: PNS promoted the endothelial regeneration and reduced ECM thickening, which was related to regulation of the expression of VEGF and MMP-2. PNS may have sustained antirestenotic effect after BED.

  The antioxidant effects of aqueous and organic extracts of Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Codonopsis pilosula, Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Glehnia littoralis.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Aug;93(2-3):285-8.Ng TB, Liu F, Wang HX.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. biochemistry@cuhk.edu.hk

 The roots of Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, Glehnia littoralis, Codonopsis pilosula and Pseudostellaria heterophylla were extracted with an aqueous extraction method and also with an organic extraction method. The aqueous extracts of Glehnia littoralis and Codonopsis pilosula were the most potent in inhibiting erythrocyte hemolysis. The aqueous extracts of Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng had lower potencies while the aqueous extract of Pseudostellaria heterophylla and the organic extract of Panax quinquefolium were only weakly active. The organic extracts of Glehnia littoralis, Panax heterophylla and Panax quinquefolium were potent in inhibiting lipid peroxidation while the organic extracts of Codonopsis pilosula and Panax notoginseng had weaker potencies. The aqueous extracts possessed much lower potencies the corresponding organic extracts. However, the Glehnia littoralis extract was the most potent aqueous extract. The results suggest that Glehnia littoralis, Codonopsis pilosula, Panax notoginseng and Panax heterophylla are cheaper substitutes of Panax quinquefolium with regard to antioxidant activity.

  Study on therapeutic window of opportunity for Panax notoginseng saponins following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Jan;27(1):25-7. Chinese.He W, Zhu Z, Liu J, Ye H, Zeng J, Huang X, Lai F.Gannan Medical College, Ganzhou 341000.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the therapeutic window of opportunity for Panax notoginseng saponins (Pns) following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia (2 h)/reperfusion (24 h) model in male rats was induced by transient occlusion and middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 2 h and reperfusion for 24 h. Drugs were administered at 3 h, 4 h, 5 h and 6 h after the onset of ischemia respectively and neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema were examined. RESULTS: The administration of Pns at 3-4 h after onset of ischemia significantly reduced neurological deficit score, infarct size and brain edema. When administrating Pns at 5 h after onset of ischemia, the neuroprotection decreased. When administrating Pns at 6 h after onset of ischemia, there are not significant protective effects. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic window of opportunity for Pns following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats is not more than 5 h after the onset of ischemia.
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  Effect of Radix notoginseng saponins on platelet activating molecule expression and aggregation in patients with blood hyperviscosity syndrome.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Apr;24(4):312-6. Chinese.Wang J, Xu J, Zhong JB.Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of TCM, Beijing 100091. Wangjie@cast.org.cn

 OBJECTIVE: In order to explore the relationship between the active components and the functional links of Chinese herbs, the effect of Xuesaitong capsule, a preparation made of multi-component Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on platelet activating molecule expression and aggregation in patients with blood hyperviscosity syndrome (BHS) was observed, with aspirin (ASP) as a control. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with BHS were divided, adopting randomized, double-blinded and double simulated principle into 2 groups, the PNS group and the ASP group, 60 in each group. Changes of the TCM clinical syndrome, platelet adhesion and aggregation, endothelin (ET), prostacyclin, thromboxane, CD62P and CD41 before treatment and after 28 days treatment were observed. RESULTS: Comparison between the therapeutic effects of the two groups on TCM clinical syndrome showed that the total effective rate in the PNS group was 86.67% and that in the ASP group 56.67%, showing significant difference (P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, after treatment, levels of platelet adhesion and aggregation, endothelin, prostacyclin and thromboxane were significantly different in both groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); levels of CD62P and CD41 in the PNS group were also significantly different, but the difference was insignificant in the ASP group; no significant difference was shown in both groups in levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: PNS may inhibit activation of platelet through multiple components and multiple pathways, which is different from that of ASP, only through inhibition on arachidonic acid metabolism to suppress platelet aggregation. PNS has effects of decreasing platelet superficial activation, inhibiting platelet adhesion and aggregation, preventing thrombosis and improving microcirculation, and its therapeutic effect on clinical syndrome is better than that of ASP.

  Identification of Panax notoginseng and its preparations by LC/MS.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2004 Feb;39(2):127-31. Chinese.Xiao SY, Luo GA, Wang YM, Yang XD, Liang QL.Analysis Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. shyxiao@tsinghua.edu.cn

 AIM: To develop a method of identifying the existing of Panax notoginseng in products of traditional Chinese medicine compound Danshen. METHODS: Total ion chromatograms (TIC) of Panax notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius were obtained by means of LC/MS. Extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) posses m/z of 770, 800, 932, 946 and 1,108 of above-mentioned three herbs was compared between species. EIC 800 and 946 were selected as differentiation marks to distinguish P. notoginseng from the other two species. The EIC 800 and 946 of P. notoginseng were also compared to the EICs obtained by the same method from Chinese patent medicines of compound Danshen pellet, compound Danshen tablet, and compound Danshen injection. EIC 800 and 946 of P. notoginseng and its products possess similar peaks, relative retention time, and relative integral areas. Main chemical constitutes of P. notoginseng were also identified by using LC/MS/MS. RESULTS: EIC 800 and 946 were obviously different between P. notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius. Patent medicines of compound Danshen pellet, compound Danshen tablet, which consist of extractions from P. notoginseng, possess the characteristic EICs. The selected EICs were stable and reproductive. CONCLUSION: EIC 800 and 946, which correspond to ginsenoside Rg1, Re, and their isomers, can be used as identifying mark of P. notoginseng to differentiate it from other herbs, and also can be used to tell apart P. notoginseng from other herb extractions in Chinese patent medicines of compound Danshen.

  Interactions of a herbal combination that inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells.:Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2004 May;53(5):384-90. Epub 2004 Jan 17.Chung VQ, Tattersall M, Cheung HT.Harvard Medical School, Unit 105, 111 Gainsborough, Boston, MA 02115, USA. vqchung@post.harvard.edu

 PURPOSE: PC SPES is an eight-component herbal product marketed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The manufacturer of PC SPES claims that the herbal combination is a synergistic blend, but the purported synergy has never been tested. We examined the interaction in cell culture of these eight individual herbal components by the use of an isobologram. METHODS: US patent no. 5,665,393 (1997) for PC SPES was acquired, and each of the eight herbal components described was acquired, properly identified, and extracted by 95% ethanol. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity to PC 3 human prostate cancer cells in culture by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Seven combinations of herbal extracts were made, varying in the proportion of the most cytotoxic herbal extract, that of Panax notoginseng. The interactions of P. notoginseng with the other seven herbs were evaluated through the use of an isobologram. RESULTS: In all seven herbal combinations, P. notoginseng was found to be antagonistic with the other seven herbal components in the cytotoxicity assay ( P values: 0.09, 0.12, 0.12, 0.33, 0.45, 0.56, and 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: The interaction between the most cytotoxic herbal component of a widely used herbal product and the other seven components was antagonistic. Herbal combinations are no different from traditional combination pharmacotherapy. If herbal combinations are able to achieve antagonism, then theoretically they can achieve synergism if combined properly.

  Study on the anti-apopotosis induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia and reoxygenation of panax notoginseng saponins in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Jan;28(1):52-5. Chinese.Zhu LQ, Fan JP, Huang QF, Sun SL, Gao Y, Zou YH, Zhang Z, He LY, Zheng H.Department of Neurology, Dongzhimeng Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the inhibitory effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins(PNS) on apoptosis induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia and reoxygenation in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. METHOD: Apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, intracellular free calcium concentration([Ca2+]i) was measured with confocal laser scanning microscopy, morphological changes and neuronal necrosis were observed with fluorescence microscope, and meanwhile the leakage of lactic dehydrogenase(LDH) was measured. RESULT: Hypoxia/hypoglycemia cultures for 5 hours and reoxygenation induced neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, and significantly increased neuronal [Ca2+]i and the leakage of LDH. The effects were increased with the extending time of reoxygenation. PNS has could significantly decrease the percentage of neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, and reduce neuronal [Ca2+]i and the leakage of LDH. CONCLUSION: PNS has inhibitory effect on neuronal apoptosis. This effect might be related to its effect of decreasing intracellular free calcium concentration.

  Studies on formulations of Panax notoginsenosides for intranasal administration.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Nov;38(11):859-62. Chinese.Xu QF, Fang XL, Chen DF, Li JC.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

 AIM: To develop high bioavailability preparations without irritation for Panax notoginsenosides. METHODS: The effects of some additives such as microcrystalline cellulose, beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl cellulose on drug in the preparations were examined. RESULTS: Saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS) was absorbed in rabbits more when administered intranasally than through other routines, and the formulations including MCC both gave high bioavailability and low irritation. CONCLUSION: Bioavailability of Panax notoginsenosides can be increased through changing routine of administration and formulations.
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  Effect of panax notoginseng saponin on procoagulant activity and differentiation induction in NB4 cells.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Jan;24(1):63-6. Chinese.Li XH, Dong ZR, Hao HL.Department of Hematology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000. hblxh2002@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) on procoagulant activity (PCA) and differentiation induction in NB4 cells. METHODS: After NB4 cells were treated with PNS, the recalcification time, PCA and TF-mRNA expression in NB4 cells were tested by RT-PCR. The inhibitory effect of PNS on NB4 cell proliferation was analysed by MTT method, NBT assay, cell morphological observation and flow cytometry. RESULTS: (1) PNS of all concentrations could significantly prolong the recalcification time and lower the PCA level in NB4 cells in time-concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously it down-regulated the expression of TF-mRNA. (2) PNS could partially inhibit the NB4 cell proliferation. (3) PNS could raise the NBT reducing capability of NB4 cells (P < 0.05). And morphological examination showed the differentiating tendency of monocyte and macrophage. CONCLUSION: PNS could reduce the procoagulant activity and TF-mRNA expression in NB4 cells, and partially induce the differentiation of NB4 cells, therefore, it is hopeful to be a new anti-coagulant agent.

  The inhibitory effect of trilinolein on norepinephrine-induced beta-myosin heavy chain promoter activity, reactive oxygen species generation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.:J Biomed Sci. 2004 Jan-Feb;11(1):11-8.Liu JC, Chan P, Chen JJ, Lee HM, Lee WS, Shih NL, Chen YL, Hong HJ, Cheng TH.Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Wan Fang Hospital, No. 111 Hsing-Lung Road, Sec. 3, Wen Shan District, Taipei 117, Taiwan, ROC.

 The myocardial protective effects of trilinolein, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng), are thought to be related to its antioxidant activity. However, the intracellular mechanism underlying the protective effect of trilinolein in the heart remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trilinolein on norepinephrine (NE)-induced protein synthesis in cardiomyocytes. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with NE, then protein content, [(3)H]-leucine incorporation, and beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MyHC) promoter activity were examined. The effect of trilinolein on NE-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with a redox- sensitive fluorescent dye (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation by Western blotting. Trilinolein inhibited NE-increased protein synthesis, beta-MyHC promoter activity, and intracellular ROS. Both trilinolein and the antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine, decreased NE- and H(2)O(2)-induced protein synthesis, beta-MyHC promoter activity, and ERK phosphorylation. These data indicate that trilinolein inhibits NE-induced protein synthesis via attenuation of ROS generation in cardiomyocytes. Copyright 2004 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  Inhibitory effect of trilinolein on angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.:Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 19;484(1):1-8.Liu JC, Cheng TH, Lee HM, Lee WS, Shih NL, Chen YL, Chen JJ, Chan P.Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

 The myocardial protective effects of trilinolein, isolated from the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng), may be related to its antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of trilinolein on angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II, [3H]leucine incorporation and the beta-myosin heavy chain promoter activity were examined. We also examined the effects of trilinolein on angiotensin II-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Trilinolein significantly inhibited angiotensin II-increased protein synthesis, beta-myosin heavy chain promoter activity, and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine also decreased angiotensin II-increased protein synthesis and beta-myosin heavy chain promoter activity. Furthermore, trilinolein and N-acetylcysteine decreased angiotensin II- or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation, and activator protein-1 (AP-1)- [or nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)]-reporter activities. These data indicate that trilinolein inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and beta-myosin heavy chain promoter activity via attenuation of reactive oxygen species generation.

  Chemical assessment of roots of Panax notoginseng in China: regional and seasonal variations in its active constituents.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 30;51(16):4617-23.Dong TT, Cui XM, Song ZH, Zhao KJ, Ji ZN, Lo CK, Tsim KW.The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong, China.

 Root of Panax notoginseng (Radix Notoginseng, Sanqi) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and is mainly cultivated in Wenshan of Yunnan, China. The active constituents include saponin, dencichine, flavonoid, and polysaccharide; however, the levels of these components vary in different geographical regions of growth and also show a seasonal variation. By using high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, the contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside R(g1), R(b1), R(d), dencichine, flavonoid, and polysaccharide were determined and compared with Radix Notoginseng collected from different regions of growth in China, as well as from different seasons of harvest and market grades. Using the contents of these active constituents as markers, the best quality of Radix Notoginseng is found in the southwestern parts of Wenshan, and the best season for the harvest is September to October. In addition, the unseeded plants produced a better quality of Radix Notoginseng. The current results provide useful information for the quality control of Radix Notoginseng and its further development in establishing the good agriculture practice standard of P. notoginseng in China.

  Haemolytic activities and immunologic adjuvant effect of Panax notoginseng saponins.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Nov;24(11):1150-4.Sun HX, Pan HJ, Pan YJ.College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China. sunhx@zju.edu.cn

 AIM: To evaluate haemolytic activities and adjuvant effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). METHODS: The haemolytic potential of PNS and its effects on the humoral and cellular immune responses to mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) were examined. ICR mice were immunized with OVA 100 microg alone, the mixture of OVA 100 microg and aluminoid 2 mg, or mixture of OVA 100 microg and PNS 50, 100, or 200 microg on the first and fifteenth day. Two weeks later (d 28), antigen-specific antibody in serum and concanavalin A (Con A)-, pokeweed (PWM)-, and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were investigated. RESULTS: Haemolytic percents of PNS-treated red blood cell were 11.6 % and 3.6 % at concentrations of 500 and 250 mg/L, respectively. Con A-, PWM- and PHA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in the mice immunized with OVA/PNS (100 microg) was higher than that in the OVA control group (P<0.01). Mice immunized with OVA and PNS (50, 100, 200 microg) showed significantly higher serum OVA-specific IgG antibody titers (P<0.01) in comparison with the control group that received OVA alone. CONCLUSION: PNS possesses immunologic adjuvant activities and low-haemolytic effect.
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  Protection by hot water extract of Panax notoginseng on chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity.:Phytother Res. 2003 Nov;17(9):1119-22.Lin CF, Wong KL, Wu RS, Huang TC, Liu CF.Department of Anesthesiology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

 The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of a hot water extract of Panax notoginseng (PNG) against chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Fifty mice were divided into fi ve equal groups with 10 in each group. Group 1 (control) received saline, whereas group 2 received ethanol (70%, 0.1 mL, p.o.) once daily for 4 weeks, which induced hepatotoxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant elevation of serum enzyme activities, such as SGOT and SGPT. Hepatotoxicity was further evidenced by a significant increase in the hepatic lipid peroxidation measured. Groups 3-5 were administered a hot water extract of PNG at doses of 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg 2 weeks after initiating oral administration of ethanol, for a further 2 weeks. PNG ameliorated the rise in serum sGOT and sGPT induced by chronic ethanol administration. The mice were killed after PNG administration. In a separate study, PNG inhibited the lipid peroxidation in the mouse liver homogenate induced by ethanol in a dose-dependent manner. The findings indicate that PNG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against chronic ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity, possibly through inhibition of the production of oxygen-free radicals that cause lipid peroxidation.

  Observation of blooming habits of Panax notoginseng.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Apr;26(4):235-6. Chinese.Sun Y, Chen Z, Wang C, Cui X.Wenshan Research Institute of Sanqi, Wenshan 663000.

 This paper reported the whole process of blooming habits of Panax notoginseng and pollens scattering regularities in Wenshan, Yunnan province. It can provide reference for the pollenation of hybridization.

  Analysis of saponins in raw and steamed Panax notoginseng using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.:J Chromatogr A. 2003 Sep 5;1011(1-2):77-87. Lau AJ, Woo SO, Koh HL.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

 A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six saponins (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rd) in raw and steamed Panax notoginseng. Linearity (r2 > 0.9988), intra- and inter-day precision (RSD < 4%), limit of detection (0.008-0.013 mg/ml), limit of quantification (0.027-0.042 mg/ml) of the saponins were determined. The method was successfully applied to 11 pairs of raw and steamed P. notoginseng products. Three products showed discrepancies between theirlabelled claims (raw or steamed) and the results of analysis. This new, simple and reliable method could be used in the quality control of raw and steamed P. notoginseng.

  Studies on the interaction of total saponins of panax notoginseng and human serum albumin by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.:Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2003 Oct;59(12):2747-58.Liu Y, Xie MX, Kang J, Zheng D.Analytical and Testing Center of Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, People's Republic of China.

 Total saponins of panax notoginseng (TPNS), isolated from the roots of panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen, have been considered as the main active components of San-Chi and have various therapeutical actions. Their interactions with human serum albumin have been investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry and fluorescence methods. The results showed that TPNS combined with HSA through C=O and C-N groups of polypeptide chain. The drug-protein combination caused the significant loss of alpha-helix structure and the microenvironment changes of the tyrosine residues in protein at higher drug concentration. Combining the curve-fitting results of amide I and amide III bands, the alterations of protein secondary structure after drug complexation were quantitatively determined. The alpha-helix structure has a decrease of approximately 6%, from 55 to 49% and the beta-sheet increased approximately 3%, from 23 to 26% at high drug concentration. However, no major alterations were observed for the beta-turn and random coil structures up on drug-protein binding.

  Isolation of dammarane saponins from Panax notoginseng by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2003 Aug 8;1008(2):173-80.Du Q, Jerz G, Waibel R, Winterhalter P.Institute of Food and Biological Engineering, Hangzhou University of Commerce, Hangzhou 310035, China. qizhendu@hotmail.com

 The Chinese phytomedicinal formulation Sanqi Zongdai Pian, traditionally prepared from crude extracts from roots of Panax notoginseng (Araliaceae), contains highly polar dammarane saponins which were separated at a preparative scale using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). In each operation, 283 mg methanolic extract of five tablets was separated and yielded pure 157, 17, 13 and 56 mg of ginsenoside-Rb1, notoginsenoside-R1, ginsenoside-Re and ginsenoside-Rg1, respectively, n-hexane-n-butanol-water (3:4:7, v/v/v) was used for the two-phase solvent system of the HSCCC separation. The chemical structures of three ginsenosides and one notoginsenoside were elaborated by means of electrospray ionization MS-MS and NMR analysis.
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  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on myocardial Gsalpha mRNA expression and ATPase activity after severe scald in rats.:Burns. 2003 Sep;29(6):541-6. Zhang HG, Li XH, Yang ZC.Department of Pharmacology, Third Military Medical University, 400038, Chongqing, PR China. hg2@mail.tmmu.com.cn

 The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of myocardial Gsalpha mRNA expression and ATPase and the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on that after burns in rats. Wistar rats were exposed to a 95 degrees C water bath for 10s to produce 30% TBSA skin-full-thickness scalds. Myocardial Gsalpha mRNA level, cAMP content and adenyl cyclase (AC) activities were determined with dot blotting hybridization, radioimmunoassay and indirect method, respectively. The ATPase activities in plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes and erythrocytes were measured colorimetrically. At 3, 6, 9 hours after scalds, the myocardial Gsalpha mRNA expression decreased significantly (P<0.01). PNS (100, 200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) markedly increased these levels (P<0.01). The elevation was correlated significantly with PNS dose (r=0.95, P<0.05). At 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 hour after the scalds, the myocardial cAMP content and AC basal activity was reduced significantly. PNS (100, 200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) increased cAMP content and enhanced AC activity markedly in comparison with the 3rd hour postburn group. The activities of (Ca(2+)-Mg(2+))-ATPase and (Na(+)-K(+))-ATPase in plasma membrane of myocardial cells and red blood cells in scald group were significantly lower than those in the normal control group (P<0.01). PNS (100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) improved these indexes significantly after scalds (P<0.01 or 0.05). These data suggested that the effects of PNS on myocardium in burned rats involved its action to increase myocardial Gsalpha mRNA expression and AC activity, cAMP content as well as ATPase activities.

  Structures of new dammarane-type Triterpene Saponins from the flower buds of Panax notoginseng and hepatoprotective effects of principal Ginseng Saponins.:J Nat Prod. 2003 Jul;66(7):922-7.

 The saponin fraction from the flower buds of Panax notoginseng exhibited protective effect on liver injury induced by d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. From the saponin fraction with hepatoprotective effect, five new dammarane-type triterpene saponins, notoginsenosides-O (1), -P (2), -Q (3), -S (4), and -T (5), were isolated together with nine known protopanaxadiol oligoglycosides. The structures of the new saponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The principal dammarane-type triterpene saponins from the roots and flower buds of Panax notoginseng were found to show potent hepatoprotective effects.

  Authentication of Panax notoginseng by 5S-rRNA spacer domain and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.:Planta Med. 2003 Jun;69(6):584-6.Cui XM, Lo CK, Yip KL, Dong TT, Tsim KW.Department of Biology and Biotechnology Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, P. R. China.

 The great majority of Panax species are well-known herbal medicines in the Orient, and many of them share a close resemblance in appearance and chemical composition. Among these Panax species, the root of P. notoginseng (Sanqi) is a unique herb that has distinct clinical usage. Here, the 5S-rRNA spacer domains were isolated from P. notoginseng, P. japonicus var. major, P. stipuleanatus, P. quinquefolius, P. ginseng, P. zingiberensis, and P. wangianus, and four common adulterants of P. notoginseng including Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma longa, Bletilla striata and Gynura segetum. The spacer domains were sequenced and compared, which showed over 75 % DNA identity among all Panax species, but not for the adulterants. In addition, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to distinguish different members of Panax genus as well as the morphological variants of P. notoginseng. These molecular methods could be used in the authentic identification of P. notoginseng from other Panax species.

  Comparison of amino acid contents in Panax notoginseng from different habitats.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Feb;26(2):86-8. Chinese.Chen Z, Sun Y, Dong T, Zhan H, Cui X.Wenshan Prefecture Sanqi Science and Technology Research Institute, Wenshan, Yunnan 663000.

 OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of amino acid and study the characters of Sanqi (Panax notoginseng) from different habitats. METHODS: By Hitach 835-50 amino acid anaylzer. RESULTS: 19 amino acid were extracted from root of P. notoginseng. The contents of Arg, Asp, and Glu are high. The beta-Ala and Orn were first separated from P. notoginseng. CONCLUSION: There were differences of the amino acid contents in Sanqi from different habitats. The sequence of its 3 major amino acid contents were Arg > Asp > Glu, which can be considered as a character of Sanqi.

  Protective effects and its mechanism of panaxatriol saponins isolated from Panax notoginseng on cerebral ischemia.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 May;27(5):371-3. Chinese. Yao XH, Li XJ.Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effects and its mechanism of Panaxatriol Saponins isolated from Panax notoginseng (PTS) on focal cerebral ischemia in rat brain. METHOD: The influences of PTS on cerebral water content and three specific proteins (VEGF, HSP70 and transferrin) related with cerebral ischemia were studied with unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and Western Blot. RESULT: PTS 12.5 mg.kg-1 i.p. x 7 d (5 d before MCAO and 2 d after MCAO) inhibited the increase of cerebral water content caused by MCAO and influenced contents of HSP70 and transferrin, but had no influence on VEGF protein level. CONCLUSION: PTS shows a protective effect on focal cerebral ischemia in rat brain by alleviating cerebral edema, up-regulating the expression of HSP70, down-regulating transferrin and maintaining blood-brain barrier.
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  Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 from Panax notoginseng in rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):187-92.Xu QF, Fang XL, Chen DF.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.

 Panax notoginseng is used as a therapeutic agent to stop haemorrhages and a tonic to promote health in Chinese medicine. Currently saponins of P. notoginseng (PNS) are especially given attentions for their hemorheological properties. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the main PNS are still not accurately investigated. Therefore, our preliminary aim is to elucidate the pharmacokinetic features of ginsenoside Rb(1) (Rb(1)) and ginsenoside Rg(1) (Rg(1)), two of the main PNS in rats. Firstly, quantitive analysis of Rb(1) and Rg(1) in saponins of P. notoginseng was studied and the most suitable assay method by HPLC for blood sample were established. Then Rb(1) and Rg(1) in the same serum were determined after administering PNS to rats. The decline of Rb(1) in serum could be described by a two-compartment model. The half-life of alpha phase was 23.40 min and that of beta phase was 17.96 h. Rb(1) was absorbed from the digestive tract and the bioavailability via P.O. was 4.35%. The pharmacokinetics of Rg(1) in rats also could be described by a two-compartment model. The half-lives of Rg(1) were 24.23 min for alpha phase and 14.13 h for beta phase. Rg(1) could be absorbed in the digestive tract and the oral bioavailability was 18.40%. Both of the low oral bioavailability of Rb(1) and rapid reduction of Rg(1) in blood indicated that formula modification is necessary.

  Panax notoginseng (Burk.) effects on fibrinogen and lipid plasma level in rats fed on a high-fat diet.:Phytother Res. 2003 Feb;17(2):174-8.Cicero AF, Vitale G, Savino G, Arletti R.Athensclensis Study Center, 'G Descovich', University of Bologna, Italy. afgcicero@tiscalinet.it

 Several studies have shown that notoginsenoides improve diastolic function in hypertensive subjects, induce the fibrinolytic system in in vitro models and act as antiproliferative agents on vessel leiomyocytes. Our aim was to evaluate their effect on fibrinogen and lipid plasma levels compared with a well-known HMGCoA reductase inhibitor. Seventy Wistar male adult rats on a fat-enriched diet were treated orally with P. notoginseng pulverized root (43 mg/kg/day or 86 mg/kg/day; 20 animals per group), fluvastatin (3 mg/kg/day; 20 animals) or physiological saline (5 mL/kg/day; 10 animals). The ten rats on a normocaloric diet were also treated with 5 mL/kg/day of physiological saline. After a 28-day treatment, the rats were killed and their blood analysed with standard procedures. Treatment with 43 mg/kg/day of P. notoginseng or 3 mg/kg/day of fluvastatin showed similar activity in decreasing total cholesterol (-23.70%, -19.29%, respectively) and triglycerides (-21.59%, -18.55%). The most evident effect of P. notoginseng was the reduction of fibrinogenaemia in treated rats compared with the control values (-38.10%; p < 0.001), no dose-relationship being shown in this effect. Moreover, no significant variation in HDL cholesterol and glucose levels was observed nor did relevant behavioural changes occur in association with the root intake. Besides a moderate, non dose-related decrease in the plasma lipid levels, P. notoginseng appeared to induce a significant reduction in the rat fibrinogenaemia.

  Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on human kidney fibroblast.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Jan;22(1):47-9. Chinese.Wei Y, Fan JM, Pan LP.Red-Cross Hospital of Yunnan, Kunming 650021.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on cell proliferation, type I collagen secretion and integrin beta 1 expression in human kidney fibroblast (KFB). METHODS: KFB were cultured and stimulated by PNS in vitro. The cell proliferation, type I collagen secretion and integrin beta 1 expression in KFB were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) and flowcytometry respectively. RESULTS: Within its optimal concentration range and effective time range, PNS could obviously inhibit the proliferation, type I collagen secretion and integrin beta 1 expression (all P < 0.05) in human KFB. CONCLUSION: PNS would possibly be an effective drug for renal interstitial fibrosis prevention and treatment.

  Saponins with low sugar chain from the leaves of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Mar;25(3):176-8. Chinese.Chen Y, Zhan E, Chen H, Duan X, Guo L.Department of Chemistry, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092.

 Six saponins with low sugar chain were isolated from the leaves of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen. Their structures were elucidated as 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2(I), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3(II), ginsenoside Mc(III), ginsenoside F1(IV), ginsenoside Rh1(V) and daucosterol(VI) by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic samples. Compounds I-IV were first isolated from the plant.

  Studies on saponin accumulative in regularities Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Jan;26(1):24-5. Chinese.Cui XM, Chen ZJ, Wang CL, Zeng J.Wenshan Research Institute of Sanqi Science and Technology, Wenshan 663000, Yunnan, China

 OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal harvest time for P. notoginseng through studying the changes of saponin contents with growth periods. METHODS: P. notoginseng samples were collected from the experimental plot regularly, and then the contents of total saponin and some main single saponins were analyzed by HPLC. RESULTS: Total saponin contents decreased from April through July, and increased from August through December. CONCLUSION: The optimal harvest time is determined as from October through December, which corresponds to the traditional harvest time.
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  Protective effects of trilinolein extracted from panax notoginseng against cardiovascular disease.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002 Dec;23(12):1157-62. Review.Chan P, Thomas GN, Tomlinson B.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Taipei Medical College Affiliated Taipei Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, China.

 Trilinolein is a triacylglycerol purified from a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine Panax notoginseng. Trilinolein has been reported to provide a number of beneficial effects including reducing thrombogenicity and arrhythmias and increasing erythrocyte deformability. Additionally, trilinolein has been reported to be an antioxidant, which can counteract free radical damage associated with atherogenesis, and myocardial damage seen with ischaemia and reperfusion. These pharmacologic effects may explain the perceived benefits derived from treating circulatory disorders with the herb over the centuries.

  Pananotin, a potent antifungal protein from roots of the traditional chinese medicinal herb Panax notoginseng.:Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):1024-8.Lam SK, Ng TB.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

 The roots of the sanchi ginseng, Panax notoginseng, were extracted with an aqueous buffer. The extract was chromatographed on a CM-cellulose column to remove extraneous unadsorbed proteins. The adsorbed fraction was dialyzed and chromatographed on Affi-gel blue gel. The adsorbed fraction was again collected, dialyzed and applied on a column of Mono S. The second peak was dialyzed and chromatographed on an FPLC-gel filtration Superdex 75 column. An antifungal protein with an N-terminal sequence similar to those of chitinases was isolated from the first peak which had a molecular mass of 35 kDa. The sequence was distinctive in that the third and ninth highly conserved N-terminal residues (C and G) were replaced by H and M, respectively. The protein inhibited mycelial growth in Coprinus comatus, Physalospora piricola, Botrytis cinerea, and Fusarium oxysporum with an IC 50 of 100 nM, 1 microM, 630 nM and 560 nM, respectively. It inhibited cell-free translation with an IC 50 of 630 nM. Its antifungal and translation-inhibitory activities were more potent than those of previously reported antifungal proteins. It inhibited human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase by 35.8 % at 12.6 microM and 24.7 % at 1.26 microM.

  Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins combined isovolumic haemodilution on the retinal microcirculation of patients with retinal vein occlusion.:Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2000 Aug 28;25(4):376-8. Chinese.Xi XH, Jiang DY, Tang CZ, Tan JQ, Nie AG.Department of Ophthalmology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410011.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) or isovolumic haemodilution (IHD) and combination of PNS with IHD on retinal microcirculation of patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHOD: Seventy three patients with RVO were allocated at random to three groups which were treated with PNS, IHD, or PNS + IHD respectively. The retinal circulation time (RCT) and retinal hemorrhage, edema, leakage of capillary, cystoid macular edema (CME), and nonperfusion area of capillary in retina were observed before and after treatment. RESULT: RCT of patients with RVO was shortened by three treating methods. RCT in the patients who treated by PNS + IHD was the shortest, especially in the patients with nonischemic RVO and branch retinal vein occlusion(BRVO). The retinal hemorrhage, edema, leakage of capillary, and CME in the patients treated by PNS + IHD disappeared quicker than those treated by PNS or IHD. At the same time, the incidence of nonperfusion area in patients whose course of disease was shorter than fourteen days was decreased. The perfusion of capillaries was increased at the edge of nonperfusion area which existed before the treatment. But the effect for nonperfusion area which existed before the treatment in the type of ischemic RVO was not obvious. CONCLUSION: The treatment of PNS + IHD can both shorten RCT of patients with RVO, and promote absorption of retinal hemorrhage, edema, leakage of capillary, and CME. It is possible that PNS + IHD treatment also has an effect to decrease the forming of nonperfusion area in patients whose course of disease is at early stage.

  Cerebral protective effects of some compounds isolated from traditional Chinese herbs.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 Apr;24(4):238-9, 256-inside back cover. Chinese.Ma L, Xiao P, Guo B, Wu J, Liang F, Dong S.Institute of Medicinal Plants, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the cerebral protective effects of some compounds isolated from traditional Chinese herbs. METHOD: Laser microcirculation dynamic analyzer and cultured rat cortical neurons were used. RESULT: Pueraria lobata flavonoids(LPF), Panax notoginseng saponins(PNS), oxymatrine, anisodamine and berberine could dilate microvessels and increase the cerebral blood flow of anesthetized mice's meninges. LPF, PNS, oxymatrine, and anisodamine also accelerated the flow of blood. Oxymatrine, like anisodamine, increased quantities of erythrocytes in high frequency movements. PNS could protect cultured rat cortical neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity. CONCLUSION: LPF, PNS, oxymatrine, anisodamine and berberine have certain protective effects on brain, but differ in mechanisms of action.

  Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng.:J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Aug;87(8):3691-5.Chan RY, Chen WF, Dong A, Guo D, Wong MS.The Open Laboratory of Chirotechnology, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China.

 Ginsenosides have demonstrated pharmacological effects in the central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. We hypothesize that ginsenosides might mediate some of their actions by binding to the estrogen receptor, as they share many of the protective actions of estrogen in various physiological systems. The present study is aimed to determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 can act like an estrogen analog in stimulating human breast cancer cell growth as well as in the activation of estrogen response element-luciferase activity in HeLa cell. Rg1, but not its aglycone, stimulates [methyl-(3)H] thymidine incorporation in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 in a dose-dependent manner (10(-15)-10(-7) M). The stimulation of MCF-7 cell proliferation by 3 x 10(-13) M Rg1 can be blocked by 10(-6) M of the estrogen antagonist ICI 182780. Moreover, Rg1 stimulates estrogen response element-luciferase reporter gene activity in HeLa cells with an optimal dose of 3 x 10(-10) M. Such stimulation can also be blocked by 10(-6) M ICI 182780. In addition, Rg1 has no effect on [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation in estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Furthermore, Rg1 failed to displace the specific binding of [(3)H]17 beta-estradiol to MCF-7 cell lysates, suggesting that no direct interaction of Rg1 with estrogen receptor is needed for its estrogenic action. Our results indicate that ginsenosides Rg1 has estrogen-like activity and should be classified as a novel class of potent phytoestrogen.
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  A xylanase from roots of sanchi ginseng (Panax notoginseng) with inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase.:Life Sci. 2002 May 10;70(25):3049-58.Lam SK, Ng TB.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

 A xylanase with a molecular weight of 15 kDa, which is lower than those of previously reported xylanases, was isolated from the roots of the medicinal herb Panax notoginseng. The xylanase exhibits a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C and a pH optimum between 5 and 6. It inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 10 microM, but does not affect translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system when tested up to 70 microM. The enzyme is adsorbed on CM-cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. Previously xylanases have been isolated from seeds and not from roots, and have not been demonstrated to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  Synthesis of oligosaccharide derivatives related to those from sanqi, a Chinese herbal medicine from Panax notoginseng.:Carbohydr Res. 2002 Mar 15;337(6):485-91.Yang F, Du Y.Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Academia Sinica, Beijing, PR China.

 Oligosaccharide derivatives from sanqi, a Chinese herbal medicine derived from Panax notoginseng, methyl beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, diosgenyl beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, and methyl beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, were synthesized under standard glycosylation conditions. An unexpected alpha-(1-->4) linkage was formed predominantly in the presence of neighboring participation group during regioselective synthesis of hexasaccharide via 3+3 strategy.

  A validated method for quantitative determination of saponins in notoginseng (Panax notoginseng) using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Dec;53(12):1637-43.Li W, Fitzloff JF.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. wenkuili@uic.edu

 A gradient high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) for the determination of major saponins in a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, Panax notoginseng, is described. Samples were analysed by means of a reverse-phase column (Waters Spherisorb ODS-2, C-18) using acetonitrile and water under gradient conditions as the mobile phase over 60 min. The ELSD used was set at an evaporating temperature of 35 degrees C and pressurized air pressure of 3.4 bars. The detection limit (signal/noise > 3) of the saponins was 50 ng. The method was validated by inter- and intra-day assays and recovery tests.

  Sensitization of a tumor, but not normal tissue, to the cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation using Panax notoginseng extract.:Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(3-4):517-24. Chen FD, Wu MC, Wang HE, Hwang JJ, Hong CY, Huang YT, Yen SH, Ou YH.Faculty of Medical Radiation Technology and Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taiwan.

 The aim of the present study was to investigate any sensitization effect of the Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) and the purified Saponin (Rb1) on the radiation response of an experimental tumor (KHT sarcoma) in mice, in comparison with any effects on a normal tissue (bone marrow). PNE at a concentration of 0.1-100 mg/kg produced an increase in tumor radiosensitivity. The sensitization effect was maximal at 10 mg/kg and at 30 minutes after injection. Higher doses were toxic to the bone marrow stem cells. Similarly Rb1 at a concentration 0.001 to 1 mg/kg also produced an increase in tumor radiosensitivity, with maximum effect at 1 mg/kg. Higher doses were not toxic to the bone marrow stem cells in this case. Radiosensitization factors were calculated as ratios of D0 (the radiosensitivity parameter), and these were highly significant for the tumor and very similar for both compounds at the doses used, namely 1.18-1.19. There was no significant effect for bone marrow stem cells (sensitization factors of 0.99 +/- 0.01 for both compounds). The differential effect on tumor, and the magnitude of the radiosensitization, suggest that further purified or synthetic versions of this extract may be useful not only in vascular-related diseases but also in cancer therapy.

  Effect of Panax notoginseng saponin on Ca2+, CaM in craniocerebral injury.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1999 Apr;19(4):227-9. Chinese.Han J, Hu W, Sun Z.Department of Neurosurgery, 477 Hospital of PLA, Xiangfan, Hubei, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the change of nerve cell Ca(2+)-overload, Ca(2+)-CaM and the effect of Panax Notoginseng saponin (PNS) on it in craniocerebral injury. METHODS: Blood and brain contents of Ca2+, CaM were examined by radio-immunoassay (RIA) and atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS), and effect of PNS on these parameters was observed in craniocerebral injury rabbits. RESULTS: The levels of Ca2+ and CaM in blood and those in brain were significantly positively correlated. PNS could reduce Ca2+ and CaM contents in blood and in cerebral tissue. CONCLUSION: PNS could block the Ca(2+)-overload and Ca(2+)-CaM complex production in nerve cell after cranial cerebral injury, thereby to protect the injured brain in a certain degree. Blood CaM level is an objective index for assessment of Ca(2+)-overload in nerve cell.
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  Effects of hepatocyte growth-promoting factor and panax notoginseng saponins on intrasplenic hepatocellular autotransplantation.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 May;22(5):393-8.Deng XG, Chen JS, Chen WQ, Zeng BS, Ou QJ.Department of General Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou 510120, China.

 AIM: To increase the weight of liver tissue mass present in spleen and to shorten the regeneration period of transplanted hepatocytes by stimulating DNA synthesis and protection against ischemic-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Hepatocyte growth-promoting factor (PHGF) and panax notoginseng saponins (PNGS) were used after intrasplenic hepatocellular autologous transplantation (IHAT) with 70 % partial hepatectomy. Histological examinations were carried out under both light and electron microscopy and content of ALT in hepatized spleen homogenate was investigated 2 weeks after transplantation. Furthermore, 99mTc diethyl-iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-HIDA) splenic scintiphotography was carried out and proliferation index of transplanted hepatocytes was detected by flow cytometry at the 12th week after operation. RESULTS: (1) Hepatocellular degeneration was slightly less in group B [intrasplenic hepatocyte autologous transplantation (IHAT) + PNGS 25 mg/kg, im, qd] vs the control group (group C, IHAT without drugs) at the 2nd week after transplantation, and the ALT content of group B (928 U/g +/- 268 U/g) was higher than that of group C (639 U/g +/- 138 U/g, P < 0.01). (2) At the 12th week, hepatocellular regeneration in group A (IHAT + PHGF 5 mg/kg, im, qd) was obviously better than that in group C, and the ALT content (2325 U/g +/- 401 U/g ), the radioactivity accumulation of 99mTc-HIDA (58 Bq +/- 18 Bq), and proliferation index (3.8 % +/- 0.4 %) of group A were all higher than those of control (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PHGF has effects in increasing the weight of liver tissue grown in spleen and shortening the regeneration period of the transplanted hepatocytes, while PNGS has certain effects on protecting the hepatocytes against ischemic reperfusion injury in the early stage of transplantation.

  Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XIX. Notoginseng (3): immunological adjuvant activity of notoginsenosides and related saponins: structures of notoginsenosides-L, -M, and -N from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2001 Nov;49(11):1452-6.

 New dammarane-type triterpene saponins, notoginsenosides-L, -M, and -N, were isolated from the glycosidic fraction of the dried roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Immunological adjuvant activities of the principal notoginsenosides and related dammarane-type triterpene saponins were examined and notoginsenosides-D, -G, -H, and -K were found to increase the serum IgG level in mice sensitized with ovalbumin.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on vascular endothelial cells in vitro.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Dec;21(12):1101-5.Kwan CY, Kwan TK.Smooth Muscle Research Program, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada. Kwancy@fhs.mcmaster.ca

 AIM: To investigate the inhibition of endothelium-dependent in vitro vascular relaxation induced by the total saponins (gensenosides) from Panax notoginseng (PNS) and the effect of PNS on the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration on cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. METHODS: The endothelial-dependent vascular relaxation was assessed using acetylcholine (ACh) or cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) induced relaxation in endothelium-intact rat aorta. Cytosolic Ca2+ level was assessed in real time using dynamic digital fluorescence ratio imaging. RESULTS: In addition to its direct relaxation of the smooth muscle cells at high concentrations, PNS, at 100 mg/L having little effect on smooth muscle, caused a marked inhibition of endothelium-dependent relaxation brought about by PNS. This inhibitory effect was due to its inhibition of elevation of cytosolic Ca2+, which is required for the activation of NO generation and release from the vascular endothelial cells. Nifedipine has no effect on either the endothelium-dependent relaxation or the cytosolic Ca2+ level in the cultured endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with the known action of PNS on receptor-operated Ca2+ channels and support our contention that PNS inhibits endothelium-dependent relaxation by preventing the increase of Ca2+ level in endothelial cells via the receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in the presence of ACh or the non-selective cation channels opened by CPA.

  Effect of total saponins of Panax notoginseng (TSPNS) on myocardial intracellular Ca2+ and activity of calcium pump of membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum in SHR:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Mar;23(3):173-5, inside backcover. Chinese.Feng P, Jiang H.Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medical College, Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou 310006.

 A comparative study was conducted on the action of TSPNS, NS and Captopril in treating SHR, with WKY of similar ages taken as normal control. The results demonstrate that TSPNS helps increase the effect of calcium pump on the membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum, decrease the myocardial intracellular Ca2+ and reduce the mass of the left ventricular muscle.

  Comparative study on effect of Panax notoginseng and ticlid in treating early diabetic nephropathy.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1998 Dec;18(12):727-9. Chinese.Lang J, Cao H, Wei A.Foshan TCM Hospital, Guangdong 528000.

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the ameliorative effect and mechanism of Panax notoginseng (PNG) and ticlid in treating early diabetic nephropathy (DN). METHODS: Fifty-eight patients were divided randomly into two groups, 28 patients of the ticlid group treated with ticlid 250 mg orally, once a day and 30 patients of the PNG group treated with PNG 8 ml in 250 ml of normal saline intravenous drip once a day. The therapeutic effect and relative indexes of the two groups were observed and compared. RESULTS: After treatment, in both groups, the thromboxane B2 markedly reduced and was more prominent in the ticlid group (P < 0.05), while the 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha increased obviously, so as to cause a significant lowering of T/K ratio, P < 0.01. Levels of urinary albumin, beta 2 microglobulin and blood alpha 1 microglobulin of both groups were lowered significantly, P < 0.01. A significant positive linear correlation was found in the ticlid group between urinary albumin and T/K ratio (r = 0.41, P < 0.01), as well as in blood alpha 1 microglobulin with T/K ratio (r = 0.34, P < 0.05), while it was not found in the PNG group. CONCLUSION: Ticlid and PNG were beneficial to resume the balance of T/K and improve microcirculation, reduce whole blood viscosity and decrease urinary albumin so as to retard the progress of DN.
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  Isolation of a novel thermolabile heterodimeric ribonuclease with antifungal and antiproliferative activities from roots of the sanchi ginseng Panax notoginseng.:Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 13;285(2):419-23.Lam SK, Ng TB.Department of Biochemistry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. biochemistry@cuhk.edu.hk

 An isolation procedure, consisting of ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Mono S, was utilized to purify a base-nonspecific, heterodimeric ribonuclease (RNase) with diverse activities from roots of the sanchi ginseng Panax notoginseng. The RNase is unique in that it consists of two different nonglycoprotein subunits with a molecular weight of 27 and 29 kDa, respectively. The latter subunit is characterized by an N-terminal sequence showing remarkable similarity to that of the bitter gourd RNase. The Panax notoginseng RNase demonstrates potent RNase and translation-inhibitory activities. In addition, it exhibits antiproliferative activity toward leukemia L1210 cells and antifungal activity against Physalospora piricola and Coprinus comatus. Its RNase activity is not heat-resistant, unlike most RNases which are thermostable.

   Panax notoginseng saponins attenuated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Mar;21(3):257-60.Liu SJ, Zhou SW.Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xin Qiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China.

 AIM: To study protective effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PnS) against cisplatin-nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice in vivo, and primary culture of rabbit proximal tubular cells (PTC) in vitro were established. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cell viability, DNA interstrand cross-link, DNA-protein cross-link, and cytosolic free [Ca2+]i were assayed with diacetyl monoxime, alkaline picrate, trypan blue, ethidium bromide binding, 125I-postlabelling, and Fur 2-AM, respectively. RESULTS: With pretreatment for 2 d in mice, PnS 100 and 200 mg.kg-1.d-1 suppressed cisplatin-induced high blood urea nitrogen level to 83% and 31%, and serum creatinine level to 86% and 42%, respectively (P < 0.01). Preincubated with PTC for 24 h, PnS 10 and 100 mg.L-1 inhibited cisplatin-induced decrease of cell viability from 78% to 81% (P < 0.05) and 89% (P < 0.01), respectively. PnS 10 and 100 mg.L-1 suppressed formations of DNA interstrand cross-link to 47% and 40%, DNA-protein interstrand cross-link to 77% and 42%, and cytosolic free [Ca2+]i overload in PTC to 70% and 63%, respectively. (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: PnS was a prophylactic for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and mechanisms were relevant to the effects that PnS reduced cisplatin-induced cytosolic free [Ca2+]i overload, and formations of DNA interstrand cross-link and DNA-protein cross-link.

  Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc on inferior human sperm motility in vitro.:Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(1):155-60.Chen JC, Chen LD, Tsauer W, Tsai CC, Chen BC, Chen YJ.Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical College, Taichung, Taiwan.

 The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of two constituents of Panax notoginseng flower extract, Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc, on human sperm motility and progression in vitro. Semen samples were collected from 20 patients with sperm motility between 20% and 40% of normal. All samples had sperm counts of over 20 million per milliliter, in accordance with the World Health Organization standard. Sperm were separated by a Percoll discontinuous gradient technique, and divided into a Percoll sperm control group, and three Ginsenoside Rb2 experimental groups (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ml) and three Ginsenoside Rc experimental groups (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ml). The results showed that at concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and 0.001 mg/ml, Ginsenoside Rc enhanced both sperm motility and sperm progression significantly at the end of the 1st and 2nd hour. However, the three concentrations of Ginsenoside Rb2 did not increase sperm motility at the 1st or 2nd hour, but promoted sperm progression at the 2nd hour, when compared to the Percoll group.

  Isolation of a small chitinase-like antifungal protein from Panax notoginseng (sanchi ginseng) roots.:Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001 Mar;33(3):287-92.Lam SK, Ng TB.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.

 An antifungal protein, with a molecular weight of 15 kDa and an N-terminal sequence analogous to those of chitinases, was first isolated from the Chinese medicinal material Panax notoginseng, using cation exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. The protein was adsorbed on CM-cellulose, Affi-gel Blue Gel and Mono S. It exerted antifungal activity against Coprinus comatus, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola but not against Rhizoctonia solani. The protein was devoid of ribonuclease activity against yeast tRNA.

  Orally administered Panax notoginseng influence on rat spontaneous behaviour.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Dec;73(3):387-91.Cicero AF, Bandieri E, Arletti R.Biomedical Sciences Department, Pharmacology Section, University of Modena and Reggio nell'Emilia, Via Campi, 287, 41100, Modena, Italy.

 Panax notoginseng root is highly prized in China for its supposed hemorheological properties. Its behavioural effects are still not scientifically investigated; therefore, our preliminary study aim is to evaluate the influence of this phyto-drug on rats spontaneous behaviour. High quality P. notoginseng root dry extract has been orally administered through gastric tube for 10 days in two doses (43 and 86 mg/kg in a volume of 5 ml/kg per day) and its effects on locomotion, emotional reactivity and nutrition have been evaluated in different groups of Wistar rats (ten per group) versus animals treated with 5 ml/kg per day of saline. Actimeter test, open field test and microstructural analysis of unconditioned behaviour were carried out. The data were processed by ANOVA-test followed by the Student's one-tail t-test and a 0.05 significance level was chosen for all statistical tests. A significant increase in spontaneous motility being not associated to an increase in grooming episodes duration and number was found in all tests (P<0.05). Feeding behaviour appeared not to be affected by the treatment. Observed effects did not seem dose-related. Reduction of grooming episodes duration and number and increase of inner crossings in open field suggested that notoginsenoides can modulate emotional responses in rats.
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  The ameliorating effects of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.:Phytother Res. 2000 Aug;14(5):375-7.Hsieh MT, Peng WH, Wu CR, Wang WH.Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Medical College, Taiwan, R.O.C. rei106@tcts1.seed.net.tw

 Ameliorating effects were investigated of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs administered orally for 1 week-Panax ginseng (PG), Panax notoginseng (PNG), Dioscorea opposita (DO), Gastrodia elata (GE), Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Acorus gramineus (AG), Coptis chinensis (CC), Polygonum multiflorum (PM), Cyperus rotundus (CR) and Psoralea corylifolia (PC)-on the scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesia by using a passive avoidance task in rats. Of ten Chinese herbs, only PG, PNG, GE and CC prolonged the SCOP-shortened STL. These results revealed that PG, PNG GE and CC administered orally for 1 week improved the SCOP-induced learning and memory deficit in rats.

  Anti-inflammatory effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 Jun;20(6):551-4.Li SH, Chu Y.Department of Pharmacology, West China University of Medical Sciences, Chengdu, China. ylxh1975@tmmu.edu.cn

 AIM: To study the anti-inflammatory effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng (PnS). METHODS: Rat air-pouch acute inflammatory model was established with s.c. carrageenan (Car, 25 mg.kg-1). The protein content in exudate was measured. Micro-acid titration assay and radioimmunoassay (RIA) were applied respectively to investigate effects of PnS on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and dinoprostone (Din) content in exudate. Fura-2 fluorescence technique was used to determine the intracellular free calcium concentration in neutrophils (Neu-[Ca2+]i). RESULTS: At 12 h, PnS 60-240 mg.kg-1 i.p. reduced Neu counts, protein content [(7.7 +/- 1.3) to (4.4 +/- 1.4) g.L-1], and Din content [(1619 +/- 391) to (883 +/- 268) ng.L-1]; inhibited the PLA2 activity in exudate [(248 +/- 42) to (157 +/- 35) kU.L-1] in a dose-dependent manner. PnS 60, 120, and 240 mg.kg-1 lowered the level of Neu-[Ca2+]i with the inhibitory rate of 9.1%, 33.2%, and 39.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: PnS has an obvious anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanisms are related to the inhibition of the Neu-[Ca2+]i level and PLA2 activity, and reduction of Din content.

  Anti-carcinogenic activity of the roots of Panax notoginseng. II.:Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Oct;22(10):1150-2.

 The extract of the roots of Panax notoginseng (Araliaceae) exhibited a significant anti-tumor-promoting activity on two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and a mycotoxin, fumonisin B1, as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (non-TPA) type promoter. Further, the extract exhibited the anti-tumor-initiating activity on two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumors induced by a nitric oxide donor, (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexen amide (NOR-1) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter.

  Effects of four herbal extracts on adjuvant-induced inflammation and hyperalgesia in rats.:J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Oct;5(5):429-36.Wei F, Zou S, Young A, Dubner R, Ren K.Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, USA.

 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of four herbal medicine extracts on a rat model of inflammatory hyperalgesia. DESIGN/INTERVENTIONS: Inflammation was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into one hindpaw of each rat. Four herbs that are routinely prescribed in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of pain were used: Duhuo (Radix Angelicae Pubescentis), Bai jiang cao (Patriniae Herba cum Radice), Yan hu suo (Rhizoma Corydalis) and Sanqui (Panax Notoginseng). The crude water extracts of the herbs were inected intraperitoneally following a repeated treatment profile. OUTCOME MEASURES: Thermal hyperalgesia was assessed by testing each rat's paw withdrawal response to a noxious thermal stimulus. The magnitude of edema was determined by measuring the maximal thickness of the paw with a caliper. The effect of herb extracts on motor performance was assessed by using an accelerating rotarod test. RESULT: Duhuo, Bai jiang cao, and Yan hu suo significantly attenuated CFA-induced hyperalgesia at 2 hours and facilitated the recovery from hyperalgesia (p < 0.05), when compared to saline-treated rats. The CFA-induced edema was reduced by Duhuo at 24 hours, 72 hours and 168 hours; Bai jiang cao at 24 hours, and Yan hu suo at 24 hours and 168 hours. Sanqi did not produce any significant effect on inflammation and hyperalgesia. The rotarod performance was slightly reduced by Bai jiang cao, Yan hu suo, and Sanqi (p < 0.05) but not by Duhuo treatment. CONCLUSION: The present study identified Duhuo as a selective and effective herbal agent in attenuating persistent hindpaw inflammation and hyperalgesia in rats. These results indicate that some herbal agents may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of persistant inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia.

  Effect of panax notoginseng extracts on inferior sperm motility in vitro.:Am J Chin Med. 1999;27(1):123-8.Chen JC, Xu MX, Chen LD, Chen YN, Chiu TH.Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical College, Taichung, Taiwan.

 The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Panax notoginseng extracts on inferior sperm motility in vitro. Semen samples were collected from 23 patients with sperm motility between 20% and 40%. The sperm count was over 20 x 10(6)/ml in accordance with the World Health Organization standard. 1.0 mg/ml and 2.0 mg/ml of Panax notoginseng extracts including aqueous extract, n-butanol extract, and polysaccharide fraction on sperm motility and progression were evaluated by computer assisted semen analysis. The results demonstrated that sperm motility as well as progression on inferior sperm motility were enhanced at 1 hour and 2 hours after incubation with all three types of extracts.
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  Clinical and experimental study of improving left ventricular diastolic function by total saponins of panax notoginseng.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 Dec;17(12):714-7. Chinese.Feng PF, Qin NP, Qiao Q.Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medical College, Hangzhou.

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of total saponins of Panax Notoginseng (TSPNS) on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and possible mechanism. METHODS: Left ventricular diastolic function (peak E, peak A, E/A, A area fraction, E area fraction), left ventricular muscle mass index (LV-MI), intraerythrocytic calcium and calcium pump activity on erythrocytes membrance of 30 patients with EH before and after the combined treatment of captopril and TSPNS were measured. Captopril was used singly on 30 patients above mentioned that were also studied as self-control. Observation of TSPNS and normal saline was used on a matched control in treating SHR rats. WKY rats of similar age were also studied as normal control. RESULTS: Left ventricular diastolic function were improved markedly by TSPNS. The activity of calcium pump on membrance of sarcoplasmic reticulum were increased and the myocardial intracellular calcium were decreased and the left ventricular muscle mass were reduced after treatment of TSPNS. The calcium and calcium pump of erythrocyte showed marked simple correlation with myocardial cell. CONCLUSIONS: The TSPNS could improve myocardial relaxation function due to enhancing calcium pump activity and inhibiting intracellular calcium overload and lightening left ventricular muscle mass.

  Improvement of early postburn cardiac function by use of Panax notoginseng and immediate total eschar excision in one operation.:Burns. 1999 Feb;25(1):35-41.Huang YS, Yang ZC, Yan BG, Hu XC, Li AN, Crowther RS.Institute of Burn Research, Southwestern Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

 Cardiac dysfunction development in the early stage postburn has been an important problem in burn treatment. However, no effective therapies are available for use in clinical practice. In this study, we sought to determine whether early total eschar excision (EEE) in one operation and the traditional Chinese herb Panax notoginseng (PNS) would be helpful in improving early postburn cardiac function. 160 Wistar rats were randomly divided into burn (burn group, n = 50), burn treated with EEE (EEE group, n = 50), burn treated with PNS (PNS group, n = 50) groups and normal controls (n = 10). All rats except the normal control were given a 30% TBSA full skin thickness burn and resuscitated with Ringer's lactate. EEE was performed immediately after the burn group received the first intraperitoneal injection of Ringer's lactate. The wound was covered with homoskin from normal rats. In the PNS group, two doses of PNS (200 mg/kg for each dose) were given intraperitoneally immediately and 4 h postburn. Cardiac contractile function and cardiac troponin T (TnT) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postburn. Results showed that cardiac contractile parameters including AOSP, AODP, LVSP and +dp/dt(max) all declined and were still significantly lower than the control values at 24 h postburn. Cardiac TnT was elevated markedly and reached a level 25 times higher than control at 12 h postburn. In EEE and PNS groups, the reduction of cardiac contractile function was limited as compared with that in the burn group. Levels of TnT in both EEE and PNS groups were significantly lower than in the burn group 6 h postburn later. The findings of this study demonstrated that both EEE and PNS were effective in improving early postburn cardiac function.

  Effect of notoginsenoside R1 on the synthesis of components of the fibrinolytic system in cultured smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary artery.:Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1997 Jun;43(4):581-7.Zhang WJ, Wojta J, Binder BR.Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, University of Vienna, Austria.

 We have previously reported that notoginsenoside R1 (NG-R1) increases the synthesis of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and decreases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity in cultured human endothelial cells from different vascular sources. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether the effect of NG-R1 on the synthesis of components of the fibrinolytic system is also operative in another cell type of the blood vessel wall, the smooth muscle cell. Therefore cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) were treated with NG-R1. When the HPASMCs (passage 4 or 5) were conditioned with NG-R1, a dose (0.01-100 micrograms NG-R1/ml for 24 hrs.) dependent increase in t-PA an u-PA synthesis was observed, which was significant from 1 microgram NG-R1/ml on. t-PA antigen increased from 2.4 +/- 0.1 to 4.7 +/- 0.5 ng/10(5) cells/24 hrs.; u-PA antigen increased from 1.8 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.4 ng/10(5) cells/24 hrs. In contrast no change in PAI-1 antigen synthesis was seen in the conditioned media from NG-R1 treated HPASMCs. On Northern blot analysis of mRNA obtained from NG-R1-stimulated and control HPASMCs NG-R1 induced a significant increases in mRNA levels of t-PA and u-PA (180% and 200% of control value, respectively) at 100 micrograms NG-R1/ml while PAI-1 mRNA decreased slightly. In conclusion our data give evidence that NG-R1 can increase the fibrinolytic potential in cultured HPASMCs in vitro by increasing the production of t-PA and u-PA. If operative in vivo this effect of NG-R1 on the fibrinolytic system of SMCs might also contribute to the effect of the Chinese herb drug Panax notoginseng in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  Bioactive saponins and glycosides. VIII. Notoginseng (1): new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, notoginsenosides-A, -B, -C, and -D, from the dried root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen.:Chem Pharm Bull. 1997 Jun;45(6):1039-45.

 The glycosidic fraction from the dried roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen was found to show protective effect on liver injury induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. From the glycosidic fraction with hepatoprotective effect, nine new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, notoginsenosides-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -G, -H, -I, and -J and an acetylenic fatty acid glycoside, notoginsenic acid beta-sophoroside, were isolated together with fourteen known dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides. The structures of notoginsenosides-A, -B, -C and -D were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the chemical correlation with ginsenoside-Rb1 using photosensitized oxygenation, as follows: notoginsenoside A; 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] 3 beta, 12 beta,20(S),25-tetrahydroxydammar -23-ene; B; 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl] 3 beta, 12 beta,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-25-en-24-one, C; 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[beta-D -glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] 3 beta,12 beta,20(S)- trihydroxy-24 zeta-hydroperoxydammar-25-ene, and D; 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]20(S)-protopanaxadiol, respectively.

  Effect of saponins of Panax notoginseng on synaptosomal 45Ca uptake.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1997 May;18(3):213-5.Ma LY, Xiao PG, Liang FQ, Chi MG, Dong SJ.Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

 AIM: To explore the calcium uptake antagonism of saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS). METHODS: Synaptosomes were prepared from rat cerebral cortex by using differential Ficoll gradients. The effects of PNS on synaptosomal 45Ca uptake were measured in vitro or after acute treatment. RESULTS: PNS 50-800 mg.L-1 produced a concentration-rated inhibition of Ca2+ uptake [IC50 = 111 (46-176) mg.L-1]. Both initial and maximal uptake were inhibited. Similar effect was obtained after acute PNS treatment with 200 mg.kg-1 i.p. The blocking effect of PNS was reversed by calcium in media. CONCLUSION: PNS is a calcium channel blocker in neurons.
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  Observation of therapeutic effect by combined administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza, ligustrazine and Panax notoginseng on late hemorrhagic shock of rabbits.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 May;17(5):292-4. Chinese.Wang ZW, Gao SZ, Cheng BC.Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Hubei Medical University, Wuhan.

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhize, ligustrazine and Panax notoginseng in treating late hemorrhagic shock in rabbit. METHODS: Rabbit hemorrhagic shock models (MPA 5.3 kPa) were set up according to Wiggers' method and administrated Salvia miltiorrhiza, ligustrazine, Panax notoginseng. The values of blood RBC superoxide dismutase (SOD) and blood lactate (BL), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and magnesium (Mg++) were continuously monitored before shock, 120 minutes after shock, 60 and 120 minutes after hydraulic dilatation. RESULTS: (1) In 120 minutes after shock, the level of SOD decreased and the concentrations of MDA, BL, Mg++ were markedly increased, which indicated that the cell membrane damage caused by oxygen free radicals in rabbit hemorrhagic shock. (2) Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ligustrazine or Panax notoginseng could alleviate lipidperoxidation injury to tissue. Compared with the single drug administration groups, the effects of oxygen free radicals scavangers by combined administration with half dose of 2 drugs were better than the single drug with full dose alone and the side effects such as depression of blood pressure and heart rates would be alleviated. CONCLUSION: Combined administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza, ligustrazine and Panax notoginseng would half the dosage, the blood pressure depression and heart rate reduction alleviated and better result obtained.

  Immunostimulating polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng.:Pharm Res. 1996 Aug;13(8):1196-200.Gao H, Wang F, Lien EJ, Trousdale MD.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, LA 90033, USA.

 PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study is to prepare and characterize polysaccharides from Panax notoginseng, investigate their effects on immune system in vitro in order to find new immunostimulants for the prevention and supporting treatment of infection and immunodeficiency related diseases. METHODS: Polysaccharides were extracted with aqueous solution, separated with column chromatography. Their anticomplementary activities were investigated by using human serum and antibody-sensitized sheep red blood cells. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor inductive activities were studied by using isolated mouse spleen lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages, respectively. RESULTS: Four polysaccharides, homogeneous in gel-filtration chromatography, were prepared and designated PF3111, PF3112, PBGA11, and PBGA12. Component sugar analysis revealed that they are heteroglycans with MWs ranging from 37 kD to 760 kD, composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, and xylose in different molar ratios. Fraction PBGA12 has the most anticomplementary activity which is mediated through both alternative and classical pathways. All the polysaccharides except PBGA11 induced the production of interferon-gamma in the presence of concanavalin A. They induced the production of significant amount of TNF-alpha in cell cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The polysaccharides from P.notoginseng have immunostimulating activities in vitro.

  Studies on the neuroexcitotoxin beta-N-oxalo-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid and its isomer alpha-N-oxalo-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid from the root of Panax species.:Int J Pept Protein Res. 1996 Jan-Feb;47(1-2):42-6.Long YC, Ye YH, Xing QY.Department of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing, China.

 The neuroexcitotoxic nonprotein amino acid, beta-N-oxalo-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-N-ODAP) was found in Panax species such as Panax ginseng 'C.A. Meyer' (cultivated in Northeastern China), Panax quinquefolius (L), Panax notoginseng 'F.H. Chen' (cultivated in Southwestern China), Korean red ginseng and Jilin (China) red ginseng. beta-N-ODAP was verified to be a natural substance, and its isomer alpha-N-oxalo-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (alpha-N-ODAP) is very likely an artifact generated during the separation process. The interconversion between beta-N-ODAP and alpha-N-ODAP was observed. Results showed that both beta-N-ODAP and alpha-N-ODAP can easily be converted into their isomers at higher temperature or in acidic and basic solution. Their interconversion equilibrium constant and rate constants were obtained. Upon extensive study and a good understanding of the interconversion, accurate physical constants and spectroscopic data such as MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV were obtained.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponin Rg1 on cardiac electrophysiological properties and ventricular fibrillation threshold in dogs.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1995 Sep;16(5):459-63.Wu W, Zhang XM, Liu PM, Li JM, Wang JF.Department of Internal Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

 AIM: To study the effects of Rg1 isolated from saponins of Panax notoginseng on cardiac electrophysiological properties and ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT). METHODS: Seventeen open-chest dogs were randomly allocated into a Rg1 group (20 mg kg-1, iv) and a control group. The electrophysiological variables and VFT were evaluated by standard electric stimuli and monophasic action potential (MAP) recording. RESULTS: Rg1 prolonged sinus node recovery time (SNRT) by 19.1%, AV conduction Wenckebach cycle length (AVWCL) by 7.1%, and ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) by 7.9%. It prolonged ventricular MAPD30, MAPD50, and MAPD90 by 25.5%, 24.2%, and 13.5%, respectively. VFT was increased by 19.2%. CONCLUSION: Rg1 prolonged ventricular refractoriness and repolarization, and increased VFT. It was indicated that cardiac electrophysiological effects of Rg1 were similar to those of amiodarone.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on posthypoxic cell damage of neurons in vitro.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1995 Sep;16(5):399-402.Jiang KY, Qian ZN.Department of Pharmacology, Suzhou Medical College, China.

 AIM: To study cerebral protective mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). METHODS: Cultured neurons of chick embryo cerebral hemisphere were used as an in vitro system for investigating the effects of PNS. The hypoxic cell damage of neurons cultured were induced by NaCN. The levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were determined with HPLC. PNS was added 30 min before, beginning or after hypoxia. RESULTS: PNS 50 and 100 mg L-1 retarded the break down of ATP of cultured neurons after 2-h hypoxia for 11.3 +/- 1.5 (P < 0.05) and 12.8 +/- 2.2 mumol/g protein (P < 0.01), respectively and accelerated the restoration of ATP during 30-min reoxygenation for 21.0 +/- 2.0 (P < 0.05) and 22.7 +/- 2.6 mumol/g protein (P < 0.01), respectively. PNS also reduced the release of creatine kinase (CK) from 75 +/- 8 kU L-1/g protein to 52 +/- 6 (P < 0.05) and 41 +/- 3 kU L-1/mg protein (P < 0.01), respectively and promoted the restoration of ATP of neurons 20 h after hypoxia when administered in the beginning of hypoxia from 13.0 +/- 0.9 mumol/g protein to 18.1 +/- 1.4 and 20.5 +/- 2.1 mumol/g protein (P < 0.01), respectively. PNS still promoted the restoration of ATP from 13.0 +/- 0.9 nmol/mg protein to 14.9 +/- 1.0 and 18.3 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg protein (P < 0.01), respectively and reduced (PNS 100 mg L-1) the CK release of neurons 20 h after hypoxia even when added in the recovery. CONCLUSION: The protection against hypoxic damage of PNS was related to improving energy metabolism, preserving the structural integrity of neurons.
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  Vascular effects of selected antihypertensive drugs derived from traditional medicinal herbs.:Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl. 1995 Dec;22(1):S297-9. Review.Kwan CY.Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong.

 1. The pharmacological actions of the active ingredients extracted or purified from two selected traditional Chinese medicinal plants on vascular smooth muscles are briefly reviewed. The active ingredients of these herbal drugs include tetrandrine (TET) and total ginseng saponins (TGS). These natural products have been clinically used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases due to their vasodilatory and antihypertensive actions. 2. Studies from this laboratory have confirmed previously reported characteristics of these drugs as Ca2+ antagonists in vascular tissues. On the other hand, they also elicited inhibitory effects in response to a wide variety of receptor stimulations as indicated by contractility studies using isolated vascular tissues and radioligand binding studies using isolated subcellular membranes. 3. TET has been demonstrated as an effective but not very selective Ca2+ antagonist. Other than the vasodilatory action on arteries and veins, TET also shows a vasoconstrictive effect in veins. 4. TGS from panax notoginseng may be acting as a novel and selective Ca2+ antagonist that does not interact with the L-type Ca2+ channel (e.g. in KCl-induced contraction) but may interact with the putative receptor operated Ca2+ channel (e.g. in phenylephrine-induced contraction). TGS from panax quinquefolium, on the other hand, enhanced the vasoconstrictor effect produced by phenylephrine, but not KCl.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1994 Sep;15(5):392-8.Guan YY, Kwan CY, He H, Sun JJ, Daniel EE.Department of Pharmacology, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou.

 The effects of saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNGS) on the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists-induced contractile responses and Ca2+ movement were studied in dog mesenteric artery (MA) and saphenous vein (SV). PNGS reduced the contractions and the 45Ca influx (from 0.36 +/- 0.03 to 0.14 +/- 0.05 mumol.g-1 wet strip) induced by phenylephrine (Phe) without effect on KCl-induced contraction and 45Ca influx which were nearly completely inhibited by nifedipine 0.1 mumol.L-1. PNGS did not change the 45Ca efflux induced by Phe and the Kd value (from 0.76 +/- 0.04 to 0.72 +/- 0.15 nmol.L-1) for [3H]prazosin binding on the microsomal membrane isolated from MA. Our results indicate that PNGS selectively inhibits Ca2+ entry through receptor-operated Ca2+ channel.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on myocardial adenosinetriphosphatase.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1994 Jul;15(4):347-50.Chen JQ, Zhang YG, Li SL, Zeng Q, Rong MZ.Department of Pathophysiology, Guilin Medical College, China.

 Effects of total Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and Panax notoginseng saponin monomers Rb1 and Rg1 (Rb1, Rg1) on total ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-exchanging ATPase of guinea pig heart were studied. It was found that PNS inhibited the total myocardial ATPase, but had no significant effect on the myocardial Na(+)-K(+)-exchanging ATPase. The total ATPase was inhibited by Rg1, and more clearly by Rb1. The automaticity and contractility of isolated guinea pig atria were inhibited by Rb1. Rg1 decreased the spontaneous frequency of isolated guinea pig right atrium, but not markedly the contractility of the left atrium. These results demonstrate that Rb1 is the main ingredient in PNS.

  The effect of Chinese hepatoprotective medicines on experimental liver injury in mice.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1994 May;42(3):183-91.Liu J, Liu Y, Klaassen CD.Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160-7417.

 The purpose of this study was to compare the hepatoprotective effects of seven Chinese herbal compounds/mixtures on four known hepatotoxicants in mice. These compounds include fulvotomentosides oleanolic acid, total saponins of Panax japonicus (Jgs), total saponins of Panax notoginseng (Ngs), sweroside, oxymatrine, and dimethyl dicarboxylate biphenyl (DDB). All have previously been reported to exhibit hepatoprotective effects. Acute liver injury was produced in male CF-1 mice by CCl4, acetaminophen, cadmium chloride and allyl alcohol. Liver damage was assessed by quantifying serum activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase, as well as by histopathological examination. Fulvomentosides markedly decreased the toxicity produced by all four hepatotoxicants; oleanic acid also remarkably decreased acetaminophen, CCl4 and Cd-induced hepatotoxicity, but had no effect on allyl alcohol; total saponins of Panax japonicus and Panax notoginseng had moderate hepatoprotective effects on these models except that total saponins of Panax japonicus markedly decreased allyl alcohol toxicity; sweroside decreased Cd and CCl4 toxicity but had no effect on the other two hepatotoxicants; oxymatrine only decreased allyl alcohol toxicity; whereas DDB did not protect against any of the hepatotoxicants. The mechanism(s) by which these compounds/mixtures protect against different types of hepatotoxicants requires further investigation. In conclusion, of the seven compounds examined, fulvotomentoside and oleanolic acid appear to be the most effective in protecting against chemical-induced liver injury.

  Effects and mechanism of total saponins of Panax Notoginseng on anti-inflammation and analgesia.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1994 Jan;14(1):35-6, 5-6. Chinese.Wang YL, Chen D, Wu JL.Henan Medical University, Zhengzhou.

 In this study the effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng (TSPN) and electroacupuncture (EA) were compared. Liquid paraffin was intraperitoneally injected (0.1 ml/mouse) to establish the animal model with inflammation. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups with different treatments for 7 days: EA group, TSPN group (100 mg.kg intraperitoneal administration), Naloxone (Nx) plus TSPN group and EA plus TSPN group. The pain threshold was measured by a detector (EQ-9E) and the nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) for polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) bacteriocidal activity and the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) histochemical staining for detection of the focal pattern lymphocyte subpopulation and the toluidine blue histochemical staining for detection of degranulation rate peritoneal mast cells were performed. The results showed that in TSPN, EA and EA plus TSPN group the pain threshold was elevated significantly, the enumeration of NBT positive PMN and the ANAE-F lymphocyte subpopulation was enhanced. All the above effects could be partially inhibited by naloxone. Between TSPN group and Nx group the degranulation rate of peritoneal mast cells had no significant difference. Since the TSPN and EA have similar effects e.g. anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunomodulatory action, it suggested that the TSPN might be somewhat agonist of the opioid like peptide receptor without addiction side reactions.
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  Effects of panaxadiol saponins isolated from Panax notoginseng on intracellular and extracellular calcium:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1993 Nov;14 Suppl:S22-5. Chinese.Dan HX, Zhang BH, Xie SR, Yao JA, Jia JN.Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Medical University, China.

 Panaxadiol saponins (PDS) contain saponins Panax notoginseng B1 and E. The spontaneous beating induced by isoproterenol in isolated rat right atria and the increase of contractile force induced by Ca2+ in isolated guinea pig colon were inhibited by PDS 75 and 150 micrograms.ml-1, respectively and perhexiline 6.25 and 12.5 mumol.L-1, respectively. It suggested that PDS could block the potential-dependent and receptor-operated calcium channel in smooth muscle. PDS 150 micrograms.ml-1 and perhexiline 6.25 mumol.L-1 depressed the contractile force induced by norepinephrine and Ca2+ in isolated rat aortic strips in Ca(2+)-free Krebs' solution. It suggested that PDS and perhexiline not only inhibited the release of intracellular Ca2+ but also blocked the inflow of extracellular Ca2+.

  Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on increased proliferation of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells stimulated by hypercholesterolemic serum.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1993 Jul;14(4):314-6.Lin SG, Zheng XL, Chen QY, Sun JJ.Division of Pharmacology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, China.

 Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) was extracted from a Chinese herb medicine. After preparation of cultured aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) from primary aortic explants, the cytotoxicity of hypercholesterolemic serum (HCS) for cultured cells was determined by trypan blue exclusion test, and [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell numbers were counted at the same time. The results showed that HCS (0.5 mg cholesterol.ml-1) increased the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into cultured cells (3722 +/- 440 vs 1655 +/- 288 dpm/microgram cell proteins, P < 0.01), stimulated the proliferation of SMC [(6.5 +/- 1.5) x 10(5) vs (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(5) cells/plate, P < 0.01], and that high concentration HCS (final cholesterol concentration 2 mg.ml-1) was cytotoxic to the cultured cells. PNS (100 and 400 micrograms.ml-1) decreased the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into SMC in culture with or without HCS (1292 +/- 260 and 982 +/- 314 or 4111 +/- 886 and 2361 +/- 751 dpm/microgram cell protein), and inhibited the proliferation of the cultured cells [(3.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(5) and (2.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(5) or (4.7 +/- 1.4) x 10(5) and (4.1 +/- 1.2) x 10(5) cells/plate). We conclude that PNS can inhibit the proliferation of aortic SMC stimulated by HCS. These results also suggest that HCS may play an atherogenic role in the arterial wall and that PNS may prevent atherosclerosis and inhibit progression of the atherosclerotic lesions by interfering with the proliferation of arterial SMC.

  Blood-lipid decreasing action of total saponins of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Jun;18(6):367-8, 383. Chinese.Xu Q, Zhao Y, Cheng GR.Guilin Medical College.

 Blood-lipid decreasing action of total saponins of Panax notoginseng was studied. The results showed that after the saponins were given po 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg to rats and quails, two high lipid model animals, for seven days, their TCH and TG were evidently decreased (P < 0.05).

  Effects of panaxatriol saponins (PTS) isolated from panax notoginseng on the action potential and delayed rectifier current (Ix) in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1993;28(2):81-4. Chinese.Li XJ, Fan JS, Liu YW, Zhang BH.Department of Pharmacology, Beijing Medical University.

 The electrophysiological effects of PTS in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers were studied. PTS was shown to increase the duration of action potential (APD30, APD50 and APD90) at the concentrations of 2.5 micrograms/ml and 5.0 micrograms/ml. However, the amplitude of action potential (APA) remained unchanged. The result of using double microelectrode voltage clamp method showed that PTS (1.25-10.0 micrograms/ml) depressed the delayed (outward) rectifier current (Ix) in time- and dose-dependent manners, when the holding potential was held at +20 mV, the command potential was held at +10 mV, 0.2 Hz and the clamping time at 1-1.5 s. It may be concluded that the effect of PTS on APD is mainly related to blocking the delayed rectifier potassium channel.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on monophasic action potentials of heart and automaticity and contractility of isolated atria.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1992 Nov;13(6):538-40. Chinese.Chen JQ, Zhang YG, Xiong C, Zhang SZ, Zeng Q, Rong MZ.Department of Pathophysiology, Guilin Medical College, China.

 The effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on monophasic action potentials (MAP) recorded from the myocardial surface by means of contact electrode were studied in 30 open-chest rabbits. The MAPA was increased and MAPD50, MAPD90 were prolonged with PNS (100, 200 mg.kg-1, iv), while the Vmax remained unchanged. PNS (300-1200 micrograms.ml-1) inhibited the automaticity of isolated guinea pig right atria and the contractility of the left atria. The positive inotropic action of ouabain (0.2 mumol.L-1) on isolated guinea pig left atria was decreased in the presence of PNS 300 micrograms.ml-1.
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  Comparative effects of Panax notoginseng saponins, verapamil, and norepinephrine on cerebral circulation in anesthetized rats and rabbits.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1992 Nov;13(6):520-3. Chinese. Wu JX, Sun JJ. Department of Pharmacology, SUN Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

 In urethane-anesthetized New Zealand rabbits, mean blood pressure (MBP) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) fell by 27-47% and 11-17% (P < 0.05), respectively after Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) 20-80 mg.kg-1 i.v. Verapamil (Ver) 30 micrograms.kg-1 i.v. showed similar effects, but norepinephrine (NE) 30 micrograms.kg-1 i.v. showed opposite effects. PNS and Ver reduced the MBP and CVR in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized Wistar rats. The actions of PNS and Ver on cerebral blood flow (CBF) were related to the animal species, i.e. PNS increased CBF in rats but reduced that in rabbits, Ver increased CBF in rabbits but had no effects on that in rats. In isolated ring segments of New Zealand rabbit basilar arteries, PNS 1 and 3 mg.ml-1 non-competitively inhibited the contractions induced by KCl with the pD2' value 2.69 +/- 0.20 (-lg g.ml-1). The results indicate that PNS and Ver are vasodilators of brain blood vessel, which would be beneficial to cerebral circulation, while NE is a vasoconstrictor of brain blood vessel.

  Saponins in the fruit pedicels of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (continue).:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Oct;17(10):611-3, 639-40 concl.. Chinese. Wei J, Chen Y, Cao S.Research Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, Kunming Medical College.

 Six saponins were isolated from the fruit pedicels of Panax notoginseng. Five of them were identified as gypenoside-XVII, -XV, ginsenoside-Rb1, and notoginsenoside-Fc, -Fa on the basis of chemical methods, spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic standards. Quantitative determination of the major saponins in fruit pedicels from the plant was made by thin layer chromatography-densitometry.

  Studies on film-covered soil setting seedling of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chengfu.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Sep;17(9):526-7, 575. Chinese.Cui X, Wang C, He C.Yunnan Province, Wenshan District Institute of Panax notoginseng.

 Film-covered soil setting seedling can markedly raise the yield of seedling and seedling establishment of Panax notoginseng, thus providing higher economic benefit. The increase of yield in trial plots was about 8.82%-24% higher than the control.

  Effects of artificial cultured Panax notoginseng cell on cardiovascular system.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Jun;17(6):361-3, 384. Chinese.Hu Y, Li Y, Jin R, Qi L, Dai Y.Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

 Alcoholic extract from artificial cultured Panax notoginseng cell (SCC) ip has been found conducive to increasing the resistance of mice to anoxia. In vitro it helps to increase the outflow of coronary vessels, decrease the heart rate, inhibit the constriction of aortic strip stimulated by nor-epinephrine and relax spasmodic constriction of ileum smooth muscles markedly. SCC powder suspension on po administration can contract bleeding and coagulation time. The pharmacologic activities of SCC are similar to those of crude Panax notoginseng.

  Saponins in fruits pedicels of Panax notoginseng (Burk.). F.H. Chen.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Feb;17(2):96-8, 126. Chinese.Wei J, Cao S.Research Department of Phytochemistry, Kunming Medical College.

 Six saponins were isolated from the fruit pedicels of Panax notoginseng for the first time. They were identified as ginsenoside-Rc, -Rb3, -Re, notoginsenoside-Fe, -R1 and gypenoside IX by chemical and spectroscopic analysis.
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  Effect of panaxatriol saponins isolated from Panax notoginseng (PTS) on myocardial ischemic arrhythmia in mice and rats.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992;27(9):641-4. Chinese.Gao BY, Li XJ, Liu L, Zhang BH.Deparment of Pharmacology, Beijing Medical University.

 PTS, one of the major effective components of Panax notoginseng was found to exert remarked antiarrhythmic activities on coronary artery ligation induced ischemic and reperfused arrhythmias in rats. PTS also reduced the size of myocardial infarct. For i.v. CaCl2-Ach induced atrial fibrillation and/or flutter in mice, PTS produced a significant protective effect. In addition, PTS showed an action of prolonging the life under the condition of normobaric hypoxia.

  Effects of saponins of Panax notoginseng on sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphatase and calcium-magnesium-adenosine triphosphatase.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1991 Nov;12(6):504-6.Jin LQ, Shi L.Department of Pharmacology, Suzhou Medical College, China.

 Rat brain synaptosomal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was activated by Panax notoginseng (PNS, 0.1-1.0 mg.ml-1), fraction Rb1 (25-200 micrograms.ml-1), and fraction Rg1 (50-200 micrograms.ml-1). Activating rates were respectively 84-227%, 12-48%, and 12-22%. Results implied that Rb1 and Rg1 were not the major components of PNS, which were responsible for the activating effects. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase was inhibited by PNS (0.1-1.0 mg.ml-1) and Rb1 (100-200 micrograms.ml-1), but not by Rg1. It was proposed that PNS activated Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, leading to a reduced Na+/Ca2+ exchange, a lowered intracellular Ca2+ level, and heart contractility.

  Hypoglycemic effect of sanchinoside C1 in alloxan-diabetic mice.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1991;26(2):81-5. Chinese.Gong YH, Jiang JX, Li Z, Zhu LH, Zhang ZZ.Department of Pharmacology, Kunming Medical College.

 Sanchinoside C1 (ginsenoside Rg1), one of the major effective components of Panax notoginseng, was reported to be effective in lowering glucose-induced hyperglycemia and synergizing the action of insulin in normal animals. The present study was aimed at investigating its effects on diabetic animals and comparing them with that of insulin. The results showed that sanchinoside C1 was able to lower plasma glucose level in alloxan-diabetic mice. The action was strengthened with repeated administration and tended to be dose-dependent; its effect lasted for more than four hours and no synergism or antagonism between sanchinoside C1 and insulin was observed. A single dose of sanchinoside C1 neither elevated plasma insulin level nor lowered hepatic cAMP level in alloxan-diabetic mice; while the uptake of [3H] glucose by isolated rat hepatocytes, oxidation of glucose and sodium succinate in liver homogenate and synthesis of liver glycogen in normal mice were increased.

  Protective effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on experimental myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rat.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1990 Jan;11(1):26-9. Chinese.Li X, Chen JX, Sun JJ.Department of Pharmacology, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

 Effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS) and purified ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 from PNS on myocardial injury induced by cardiac ischemia and reperfusion were studied with rat hearts in situ and in vitro. In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, PNS pretreatment (100 and 200 mg/kg) provided significant reduction in myocardial infarct size after left descending coronary artery ligation (40 min) and reperfusion (120 min) in comparison with the control. PNS 12.5 and 25 mg/L, Rb1 10 mg/L, and Rg1 10 mg/L significantly decreased cardiac CPK release, attenuated myocardial Ca2+ accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) production and prevented reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in comparison with the control in perfused isolated rat hearts with global ischemia (40 min) and reperfusion (15 min). The results show that PNS, Rb1, and Rg1 prevent cardiac ischemia and the action is considered to be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponin Rb1 and Rg1 on myocardial action potential and slow inward current.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1989 Nov;10(6):520-2. Chinese.Xiong ZG, Sun JJ.

 The effects of Rb1, Rg1 (purified saponin of Panax notoginseng) on contraction force, action potential and slow inward current of guinea pig papillary muscles were studied by intracellular microelectrodes and voltage clamp techniques. The contraction force was decreased and the APD20 was shortened in the presence of Rb1 1 mg/ml, while the RP, APA and Vmax remained unchanged. The amplitude of Isi was decreased from a peak value of 9.8 +/- 1.6 to 7.3 +/- 3.4 microA after 20 min perfusion with Rb1 solution. This effect was reversed by increasing calcium concentration. Rg1 1 mg/ml decreased the contraction force significantly without affecting the configuration of action potential and the amplitude of slow inward current. The results indicate that Rb1 has a blocking effect on calcium channels, but Rg1 has not.
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  Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on cardiac action potentials and slow inward current.:Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1989 Mar;10(2):122-5. Chinese.Xiong ZG, Chen JX, Sun JJ

 The effects of total saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS) on contraction force, normal and slow response action potentials and slow inward current of guinea pig papillary muscles were studied by intracellular microelectrodes and voltage clamp techniques. The contraction force was decreased and the APD20, APD90 of normal AP were shortened in the presence of PNS 1 mg/ml, while the RP, APA and Vmax remained unchanged. The APA of slow AP induced with high K+ was decreased to 85% of its normal value after 20 min of perfusion with PNS solution. Isi was decreased from a peak value of 9.8 +/- 2.0 to effects of PNS on slow affecting INa. The 6.9 +/- 3.6 microA without AP and Isi were reversed by increasing calcium concentration. The results indicate that PNS has a selective blocking effect on calcium channels.

  Cardiovascular pharmacology of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen and Salvia miltiorrhiza.:Am J Chin Med. 1986;14(3-4):145-52.Lei XL, Chiou GC.

 The cardiovascular pharmacology of two Chinese herbs, Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) and Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen (PNG) were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Extracts of both herbs suppressed systemic blood pressure in albino rats and rabbits, an effect which was blocked or reversed by atropine, propranolol, and chlorpheniramine plus cimetidine. This reversed hypertension was blocked by phenoxybenzamine. These results indicate that these herbs have multiple effector sites in the cardiovascular system. This could be due to an increased utilization of extracellular calcium ions since the activity of SM on isolated blood vessels of rabbits was enhanced by 2 mM Ca++. The effects of aqueous extract of SM and purified active principles of SM (tanshinones) on rat and rabbit blood vessels in vitro were very similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Both caused vasodilation of coronary arteries at all concentrations tested but induced vasodilation of renal, mesenteric and femoral arteries only at low concentrations. At higher concentrations, vasoconstriction was induced in these vessels. These results indicate that an economical decoction of SM is as efficacious as the more expensive isolated tanshinones. Both SM and PNG would be useful as antianginal agents since they dilate coronary vessels. Their use in hypertension is questionable since they induce both vasodilation and vasoconstriction depending on dose and target vessel.

  An oxepane derivative of panaxadiol from the leaves of Panax notoginseng.:Planta Med. 1984 Feb;50(1):47-52.Junxiang W, Liangyu C, Jufen W, Wei-Shin C, Friedrichs E, Puff H, Breitmaier E.Yunnan Institute of Materia Medica, Academica Sinica, Kunming Yunnan, VR China.

 Hydrolysis of the crude saponin isolated from the leaves of PANAX NOTOGINSENG (Burk.) F. H. Chen yields five sapogenins which are separated by column chromatography. The structures of four of those were elucidated earlier to be panaxadiol, panaxatriol, dammar-20(22)en-3beta, 12beta,26-triol and 20(R)-dammaran-3beta, 12beta,20,25-tetrol. The fifth sapogenin is identified as an oxepane derivative probably arising from acid catalyzed dehydration and rearrangement of panaxadiol. The structure as proposed from NMR data was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry.

  Two New Dammaran Sapogenins from Leaves of Panax notoginseng.:Planta Med. 1982 Jul;45(7):167-71. German.Junxian W, Liangyu C, Jufen W, Friedrichs E, Jores M, Puff H, Breitmaier E.Yunnan Institute of Materia Medica, Kunming, VR China.

 Hydrolysis of the crude saponin extracted from the leaves of PANAX NOTOGINSENG (B URK.) F. H. C HEN yields five sapogenins which are separated by column chromatography. Two of these are identified to be panaxadiol and panaxatriol whose structures were elucidated earlier. The third sapogenin ist found to be Dammar-20(22)en-3beta, 12beta,-26-triol by carbon-13 NMR. The structure of the fourth sapogenin is established by X-ray diffractometry and carbon-13 NMR to be 20 ( R)-Dammaran-3beta, 12beta, 20, 25-tetrol.
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  • Name:Panax Notoginseng Extract
  • Serie No:S-050.
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    Ginsenoside Rb3 10%HPLC,Total Triterpenes 60%HPLC.
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  • CAS:88105-29-7
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  • Other Names:Radix Notoginseng Extract.Notoginseng Root Extract.Folium Notoginseng Extract.Notoginseng Leaf Extract.Panax notoginseng (Burk. ) F. H. Chen Extract.San Qi.

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