What is Transresveratrol?Basic Information,Super Function and Researches of resveratrol and Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.
- What is Transresveratrol:Basic Botanical Data and Product Data of Transresveratrol.
- What is Polygonum cuspidatum?Is Polygonum cuspidatum same as Reynoutria japonica?
- Analysis Method,differentiation of MDidea Transresveratrol.
- High-speed counter-current chromatography separation and purification of resveratrol and piceid.
- Narrative History and Origin of Resveratrol.
- Phytochemicals of Polygonum cuspidatum.
- Health Benefits and research of transreveratrol.
- Reveratrol Biological Activities.
- Anti-platelet effects of trans-resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum Extract.
- Anti-HIV Effects of transresveratrol.
- Research Update:Protective effects of polydatin against CCl4-induced injury to primarily cultured rat hepatocytes.
- The chemistry and biosynthesis of resveratrol.
- Cosmetic compositions containing resveratrol and retinoids.
- Polygonum Caspidatum and treatment of viral myocarditis:Coxsackie Virus Infections
- SARS and Polygonum Caspidatum new use.
- Polygonum Caspidatum and West Nile virus treatment.
- Reveratrol and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.
- Reveratrol Safety and Administration.
- Research update of Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.Resveratrol.
- Photo Gallery of Polygonum Cuspidatum.
SARS and Polygonum Caspidatum new use.
SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) appeared suddenly in the news during March 2003, but cases of the syndrome had been observed at least five months earlier as an unusual type of pneumonia described in Guangdong province, China. In December, health workers there had relayed their worries about this disease to authorities who, unfortunately, did not respond effectively. The first official case, with the disease being named SARS, was described later by a visiting Italian doctor in Vietnam. On February 26th, a man was admitted to a hospital in Hanoi with high fever, dry cough, muscle soreness, and mild sore throat. Over the next four days, he developed increasing breathing difficulties, severe thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) and signs of respiratory distress syndrome requiring ventilator support.
By March 18, over 200 cases and 4 deaths had been reported. During a period of just three weeks afterward, the number of SARS cases soared to over 2,000, with about 75 deaths, which triggered the alarms worldwide. The spread of the disease then slowed from this exponential growth rate seen in March and early April, to a linear rate of nearly 1,000 new cases per week until mid-May while frantic steps were taken to inhibit its spread. The disease was then largely confined to China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), where the infection rate has since slowed further to about 600/week. At the time of this writing (end of May 2003), the World Health Organization cites about 8,300 cumulative cases worldwide, most of them in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, with about 750 deaths (about 9% of those infected); the rate of new cases has declined dramatically to less than 300 per week.
The elderly and those with other health problems are at highest risk of fatality from SARS. Most people recover from the disease, though it may take several weeks to do so, and the number of SARS cases reported in the media refers to the cumulative total, not the number of people who are sick at any one time. There have been tentative reports of relapses in those who recovered, though these appear to be other ailments, not recurrence; most people recover completely.
The main effective preventive measure for SARS is to quarantine those already infected (or likely to have been infected) coupled with actions that reduce the spread of the disease that could occur with crowding (e.g., cancellation of school classes and business meetings, reduced air travel between the main disease areas and the rest of the world). Beijing, which has been hard hit by the disease, had to take extraordinary measures, stopping most gatherings of people to minimize the chance of spread of the disease in crowds and restricting travel in and out of the city. Depending on where infected people now are, the disease may remain reasonably contained or may again spread rapidly. It was reported that there are cases of SARS suspected in some remote areas of China, which indicates a potential for a sudden spread due to inability to effectively quarantine people in these areas.
A problem with SARS control, which may also be the key to preventing its further spread, is that there appear to be a small number of individuals who become "superspreaders:" one person infects many others. For example, the epidemic in Toronto that led to the city being temporarily put on the WHO list of places to avoid, was generated by a single "superspreader." The infection came into the city just once; from Toronto, the disease was spread to the Philippines by a single traveler; the disease reappeared in Toronto at the end of May after several weeks of apparent successful control, the result of one lingering case causing 35 suspected new cases. Preventing a few superspreaders from contact with others and from traveling to uninfected areas during the time they are contagious could greatly limit the epidemic. The disease also may have a seasonal aspect, flaring up during the usual cold/flu season, and then fading during the summer.
It was quickly understood that SARS is due to a coronavirus (illustrated below, named for the array of projections), and this one was genetically mapped following three weeks of day and night work by Canadian researchers. SARS has been renamed Corona Virus Pneumonia (CVP), but the original term is still used. Other coronaviruses are a common cause of mild to moderate upper-respiratory illness in humans; they are associated with respiratory diseases in animals; animals may also experience gastrointestinal, liver, and neurologic diseases from coronaviruses. These viruses are known to survive in the environment for as long as three hours, but with SARS, there is evidence already that it can remain in the environment for longer under optimal conditions. For example, it was found to survive for two days on plastic at room temperature. The virus is excreted in urine and feces and may remain in sewage for days; a major outbreak in a Hong Kong apartment complex was traced to a leaky sewage pipe.
The origin of the disease is believed to be a virus in an animal or group of animals that was brought into Guangdong province of China and transmitted to a person or group of people, who then spread it to other people. Guangdong is a crowded province with much intermingling of human and animal populations, especially with chickens and pigs. A likely explanation for the origin of the current epidemic is that a wild animal from a remote forest was brought into a Guangdong meat market, and the virus was transmitted during handling. It was noted that an unusually high number of food handlers were among the first people infected by the virus (about 5% of the first 900 patients diagnosed), giving some support to the idea that contact with an animal to be used as food was the starting point. Researchers have suggested that the animal that originally transmitted the disease was a type of mongoose called a "civet cat" (which is not related to cats, but has a cat-like appearance). This is a delicacy in Guangdong; a civet cat seller was among the first to get SARS in China last December.
Elisabeth Rosenthal, writing for the New York Times News Service, described a potential starting point for the disease, in the Dongyuan animal market, an hour south of Canton (Guangzhou, the main city):
In hundreds of cramped stalls that stink of blood and guts, wholesale food vendors tend to veritable zoos that will grace Guangdong province's tables: snakes, chickens, cats, turtles, badgers, frogs. They are stacked, one on top of another, in cages that in turn serve as seats, card tables, and dining quarters for the poor migrants who work there,For a corona virus, like the one that causes SARS, it would be easy to move from animals to humans in the kitchens and food stalls of Guangdong, a province known for exotic cuisine prepared with freshly killed beasts.
She relays some of the early cases:
One of the earliest victims, in December, was a seller of snakes and birds in the area who died of severe pneumonia at Shunde's First People's Hospital. His wife and several members of the hospital staff contracted it as well, setting off an outbreak that now sounds eerily familiar....Around the same time in December, Huang Xinchu, a chef, was admitted to the Heyuan People's Hospital, 100 miles to the north, ultimately infecting eight doctors there. On January 2, another desperately ill chef was hospitalized in the city of Zhongshan, south of Shunde, setting off an outbreak....Thirteen medical workers were infected, who in turn infected 15 others.
This scenario was repeated several times in January and February, at which point the epidemic was already out of the range of easy control. People leaving the area to visit other parts of China, or other parts of the world, were taking the disease with them. For example, as Rosenthal related:
On February 21, Dr. Liu Jianlu, a 64-year-old lung specialist from the Zhongshan hospital, attended his nephew's wedding in Hong Kong, even though he was running a fever. At the Metropole Hotel, where he stayed, he passed SARS to a number of other guests, including two Canadians, an American, and a man and three women in Hong Kong."
The disease began its rapid spread from that hotel, setting off a panic in that city.
The health departments in Sunde, Heyuan, and Zhongshan reported the rapidly spreading acute pneumonia to Guangdong authorities in early January. However, the messages seems to have gotten stuck there, or were considered inconsequential, as it was not until the Hanoi case of the disease was announced that the Chinese government realized what they had been experiencing for about three months. Other slow reactions, particularly in Beijing, led to disastrous consequences, as the disease appeared out of control in that city; the health minister and mayor in Beijing were dismissed for their reticence to acknowledge the extent of the disease and accompanying failure to mount an adequate defense against its spread in the early stages. In April, the central government of China ordered immediate construction of new hospitals for the sole purpose of handling SARS patients (and avoiding having these patients at other hospitals).
Active Preventions of Sars with herbs:
Items like ginseng, Andrographis (Andrographis peniculata; green chiretta),Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium),Ginseng (Panax ginseng),and Tremella (Tremella fuciformis; white fungus; silver ear) are selling fast, many other herbs suggested for this purpose, including:Isatis root (Isatis tinctoria; banlangen) and Polygonum cuspidatum (huzhang),Wild barley (from Coix lacryma-jobi),etc.
Wu King-shing, another Chinese medicine practitioner, was prescribing another plant root believed to be able to fight a wide range of viruses. "I'd treat the disease with huzhang [Polygonum cuspidatum]. It can suppress many kinds of viruses, including flu virus and coronavirus and has showed very satisfactory results," Wu said. "And there is no side effect." Some Hong Kong scientists believe a new strain of coronavirus, which causes the common cold, is the primary cause for the disease. "I drink the tea every other day myself," Wu said, eagerly writing a prescription for a prospective client
Many formulations come out special for this purpose, including Jade Screen Formula (Yu Ping Feng San),combinations of Isatis leaf (daqingye), isatis root (banlangen), dryopteris (guanzhong), Guanzhong Decoction [dryopteris (guanzhong), perilla leaf (zisuye), and schizonepeta (jingjie), 10 grams each; and licorice, 3 grams. Boil, and take as tea 3 times a day.],etc.
Also six Chinese herbal prescriptions were recommended to the Chinese population for preventing SARS:
|Designation||Formula 1||Formula 2||Formula 3|
|Ingredients List||Astragalus (huangqi)
Isatis leaf (daqingye)
Perilla leaf (zisuye)
|Therapeutic Functions||benefit qi, remove moisture, clear heat, clean toxin||clear heat, clean toxins, resolve turbidity||clear heat, clean toxin, dispel wind, expel pathogens|
|Designation||Formula 4||Formula 5||Formula 6|
|Ingredients List||Phragmites (lugen)
Red Atractylodes (cangzhu)
Isatis leaf (daqingye)
Perilla leaf (zisuye)
Red Atractylodes (cangzhu)
|Therapeutic Functions||clear heat, dispel wind-chill, expel pathogens||strengthen spleen, benefit qi, resolve damp, clean toxins||benefit qi, disperse pathogens, clean toxins, remove moisture|
At the end of the 19th century, traditional Chinese medicine was eclipsed by the profound effect of Western medicine on another epidemic that swept through China. The main western method was quarantine. Today, quarantine along with biological testing and rapid drug and vaccine development are clearly in the forefront. Yet, Chinese medicine has played a role, at least to the extent of providing some action that millions of worried people in China could take while awaiting the progress of modern medical methods. As a result of this SARS experience, more research into the effects of Chinese herbs is likely to focus on the actual clinical responses to antiviral herbs. China has developed remedies for many viral infections, including hepatitis, influenza, viral myocarditis, and viral encephalitis; the population there relies on the herbs. This is not the first time that a new epidemic has raised questions about what Chinese herbs might contribute. In the U.S., practitioners who routinely prescribe Chinese herbs have been asked about providing herbal assistance for HIV infection, West Nile Virus, Hepatitis C, and Lyme disease, to name a few. Perhaps the Chinese government and private enterprises will be encouraged by this experience to more carefully evaluate the herb effects and make sure that they are better understood so that they can promptly be utilized when needed.
- What is Transresveratrol?Basic Information,Super Function and Researches of resveratrol and Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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