Constituents of Lesser Galangal.
- Our City: Floating Poems.
- Botanical Information of Galangal.Lesser Galangal.
- Differentiation of Lesser Galangal from Great Galangal.
- Origin of Galangal:Alpiniae Officinarum.Lesser Galangal.
- Botanical Description of Galangal:Alpiniae Officinarum.Lesser Galangal.
- Constituents of Lesser Galangal.
- Applications of Lesser Galangal.
- History of Lesser Galangal.
- Historical Notes on the Radix Galangae of Pharmacy.
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- Application Guide,Warnings and Precautions of Galangal.
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- Galangal and Its Cosmetic Uses:Sun protection.
- Modern Researches of Galangal.
Constituents of Lesser Galangal.
The root contains a volatile oil, resin, galangol, kaempferid, galangin and alpinin, starch, etc. The active principles are the volatile oil and acrid resin. Galangin is dioxyflavanol, and has been obtained synthetically. Alcohol freely extracts all the properties, and for the fluid extract there should be no admixture of water or glycerin.
Medicinal Action and Uses of Galangal(Alpiniae Officinarum.,Lesser Galangal):
Stimulant and carminative. It is especially useful in flatulence, dyspepsia, vomiting and sickness at stomach, being recommended as a remedy for sea-sickness. It tones up the tissues and is sometimes prescribed in fever. Homoeopaths use it as a stimulant. Galangal is used in cattle medicine, and the Arabs use it to make their horses fiery. It is included in several compound preparations, but is not now often employed alone.
galangin (C15H10O5); eugenol(C10H12O2); quercetin (C15H10O7).
Other Content: kaempferol; quercetin-3-methylether;Isorhamnetin;galangin-3-methylether; kaempferol-7-methyl ether; 7-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyflavone; alpinin; 7-(4"-hydroxyphenly)-1-phenyl-4-hepten-3-one;5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl)-3-heptanone; 5-methoxy-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone; 5-hydroxy-7-(4"-hydroxy-3"-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone;(3R,5R)-1-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-7-phenylheptane-3,5-diol; octahydrocurcumin; 17-diphenylhept-4-en-3-one;7-(4"-hydroxy-3"-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one; 7-(4"-hydroxy-3"-methoxyphentl)-1-phenyl-3,5-heptadione; 5-hydroxy-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; Beta-sitosterol; stigmasterol; campesterol; 6-zingerol; benzylacetone; eualpinol.
Content in volatile oil(1%): 1,8-cineloe;4-phenylon-2-one; 3-phenyl-propanal; alpha-pinene;phenol-4-3-hydroxy-l-propenyl;palmitic;beta-guaiene;alpha-lerpineol;gamma-elemene;galangol; methyl cinnamate; cadinene.
Functions: Dispels cold, kills pain, warms the spleen and stomach and arrests coughing. The powder is used as a snuff for catarrh.
This is another popular culinary and medicinal plant of the ginger family. The fresh galanga rootstock (rhizome) is typical for the cuisine of Thailand. For example it is used finely sliced in soups of the tom yam type. The ginger-like rhizome is built up from cylindrical subunits marked by characteristic rings. Its flavour is completely different from that of ginger. The fresh rhizome has a piney flavour due to fenchyl acetate and bornyl acetate. Its other major volatiles are 1,8-cineole, guaiol and methyl cinnamate. The 'sharp' constituents, causing the burning sensation on the mucous membranes, partly consists of phenylalkanones like those in ginger.
Nitric oxide inhibitors Group.
Following content from Alpinia officinarum Hance proved show Nitric oxide inhibitory activity: galanganal (IC50=68 microM), galanganols B (88 microM) and C (33 microM), 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (2.3 microM), 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (11 microM), trans-p-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (ca. 20 microM), trans-p-coumaryl alcohol (72 microM), and trans-p-coumaryl diacetate (19 microM) were found to show inhibitory activity.
Two diarylheptanoids identified :7-(4''-hydroxy-3''-methoxyphenyl-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one and 3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-diphenylheptane; and flavonol constituent galangin identified.
Antiallergic phytochemicals Group.
Following phenylpropanoids and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde show strong inhibit release of beta-hexosaminidase:-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate,1'- and 4-acetoxyl groups of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate,etc.
5alpha-reductase Inhibitor Group.
Following four diarylheptanoids constituents from acetone extract of Alpinia officinarum rhizomes were identified as 5alpha-reductase Inhibitors: 1,7-diphenylhept-4-en-3-one, dihydroyashabushiketol (1,7-diphenyl-5-hydroxy-3-heptanone), 5-hydroxy-7-(4"-hydroxy-3"-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone and 5-hydroxy-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone.
Conclusion:this could be a potential source as DHT inhibitor Groups for many interesting and benefit uses.
Immunostimulating activators Group.
Hot water polysaccharide extracts of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd showed a marked stimulating effect on the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and increased the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and spleen cells of mice. In this case, the optimum doses were 50 and 25 mg/kg for the two fractions, respectively.
Gastroprotective effects:1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and related phenylpropanoids isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga proved gastroprotective effects,1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate markedly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions (ED(50)=0.61 and ca. 0.90 mg/kg).
- 1.Lesser Galangal:the Root of Alpinia officinarum,a warm tonic and herb of PureYang,its botanical introduction,recorded uses from ancient herbalists and new applications.
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