Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
- Botanical Basic Data of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Description of Capsicum.
- Narrative History of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Properties and Constituents of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Images and Classification of peppers.
- Common Uses.Medicinal Action and Uses of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Capsicum:Mode of Action.
- Applications and Preclinical Studies of Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.
- Suggestions and Administration of Capsicium.
- Toxicology and Safety:Capsaicin and Capsicium Extract.
- Cayenne for Weight Control.
- Cayenne for Pain Control.
- How Search engine think about Capsium:red pepper.
- Research Update:Capsium.
- Photo Gallery of Capsicum.
Description of Capsicum.:
Fruits dull orange-red in colour, oblong-conical in shape,obtuse at the apex;two-celled varying from 12-25 mm in length and up to 7 mm wide at the centre. Sometimes attached to a five toothed, inferior calyx and a straight slender pedicel up to 2-3 cm long. Pericarp shriveled, translucent and leathery enclosing 10-20 flat reniform seeds 2-4 mm long.Odour characteristic and powerful; taste extremely pungent.
An annual herb growing up to 1 m in height, C. annuum is native to the tropical Americas and widely cultivated throughout the tropics and elsewhere (Rosengarten, 1969). There is confusion regarding the classification of Capsicum species. Currently, all varieties of mild and hot peppers (not to be confused with black and white pepper derived from Piper nigrum and related species) are considered as the fruits of a single species, C. annuum and its many varieties, or of 2 species, C. annuum and C. frutescens. Current practice is to classify the pungent varieties of pepper (chile peppers or cayenne peppers) as C. frutescens, and the milder-flavored sweet peppers (bell peppers, sweet peppers, green peppers) as varieties of C. annuum (Ensminger et al., 1993); however, most botanists agree that they should properly be regarded as varieties of a single species (Rosengarten, 1969).
Brown-red powder, outer epidermal cells of pericarp in rows of 5 to 7, walls straight and uniformly thickened with a striated cuticle; droplets of red oil in pericarp parenchymatous cells, characteristic inner epidermis with groups of sclerenchymatous cells separated by thin-walled parenchyma. Seed epidermis of large sinuous cells, thin outer walls and thickened and pitted radial and inner walls.
Capsicum (Digestive, Circulatory),aptly described as the plant that bites back,is a common condiment in certain diets. The plant grows in warm climates and is added to many herbal formulas as a catalyst for the other herbs.
It's red color is partly due to its high vitamin A content. Capsicum has been used for decades as a catalyst for other herbs. Because Capsicum stimulants circulation and enhances blood flow, it is considered food for the circulatory system, a common condiment to the diet.
As a cardiovascular stimulant,Capsicum assists in lowering blood pressure and breaking down cholesterol buildup. The warming properties of Capsicum are useful for people suffering from poor circulation to the hands and feet and other related conditions.
Capsicum has been used as a digestive aid to ease intestinal inflammation,stimulate protective mucus membranes of the stomach, and also relieve pain caused by ulcers.
Capsicum is commonly used to buffer pain from other ailments,including arthritis,varicose veins,headaches,menstrual cramps and respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Archeologists estimate that in Mexico, Capsicum was used as a food as long as 9,000 years ago (Rumsfield and West, 1991). The medicinal use of a number of Capsicum species, including C. annuum by the Mayans, is described in Chichewicz and Thorpe (1996). They include the use of roots, leaves, as well as the fruits in applications for infections, fresh burns, respiratory complaints, earaches, and sores. Capsicum was used in weaning by the Navajo-Ramah, and has also been used by the Cherokee (Willard, 1991).
In folk medicine, Capsicum is regarded as an aphrodisiac, depurative, digestive, stomachic, carminative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, antiseptic, counterirritant, rubefacient, stypic, and tonic. Internally, Capsicum has been used to treat asthma, pneumonia, diarrhea, cramps, colic, toothache, flatulent dyspepsia without inflammation; insufficiency of peripheral circulation; as a gargle for sore throat, chronic pharyngitis and laryngitis; and externally as a lotion or ointment to treat neuralgia, including rheumatic and arthritic pain, and unbroken chilblains (cold injuries) (Duke, 1985; Leung and Foster, 1996; Newall et al., 1996).
The root is an Indonesian folk-remedy for gonorrhea. Capsicum is used in central Africa as a calming medicine, and in Hawaii for backaches, rheumatism, and swollen feet. Regular ingestion of hot red pepper is recommended by some authors for anorexia, hemorrhoids, liver congestion, varicose veins, and vascular conditions (Duke, 1985). Pedersen (1994) states that "the most striking use of Capsicum is as a catalyst herb in nearly every herbal combination conceivable." He adds female complaints, athletic injury and thyroid imbalance as indications for herbalist applications of Capsicum.
Capsicum spp.Family: Solanaceae
Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum; Capsicum annuum var. angulosum Synonym: Capsicum annum var. grossum (Mill); Capsicum annuum var. aviculare Synonym: Capsicum annum var. glabriusculum)
Capsicum annuum var. anomalum. Synonym: Turbocapsicum anomalum (Makino); Capsicum annuum var. baccatum Synonym: Capsicum baccatum var. baccatum (Kuntze)
Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme; Capsicum annuum var. conoide; Capsicum annuum var. conicum, (GFW Meyer - Cone pepper); Capsicum annuum var. cordiforme (Edwall); Capsicum annuum var. cuneatum (Paul); Capsicum annuum var. fasciculatum
Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Synonym: Capsicum annum var. aviculare; Capsicum annum var. minimum (Heiser); Capsicum hispidum var. glabriusculum (Dunal)
Capsicum annuum var. grossum (Sendt); Capsicum annuum var. leucocarpum (Kuntze); Capsicum annuum var. longum (Bailey)
Capsicum annuum var. luteum (Lam); Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme (Auquier); Capsicum annuum var. minimum
Synonym: Capsicum annum var. glabriusculum; Capsicum annuum var. minus Synonym: Capsicum annum var. annuum; Capsicum annuum var. microcarpum; Capsicum annuum var. parvo-acuminatum Synonym: Capsicum annum var. acuminatum
Capsicum annuum var. pyramidale (Mill); Capsicum annuum var. violaceum (Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth)
After much argument and amendment, it is now widely accepted that the genus Capsicum consists of five domesticated species and twenty-six wild species.The five domesticated species Annuum, Baccatum, Chinense, Frutescens and Pubescens are the most commonly available species to the Chile enthusiast and each species has its own distinguishing characteristics.
Capsicum Annuum:Line Pepper
Annuum meaning 'annual' is actually an incorrect designation given that Chiles are perennials under suitable growing conditions. This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated species and includes the Ancho, Bell Pepper, Cayenne, Cherry, Cuban, De Arbol, Jalapeno, Mirasol, Ornamental, New Mexican, Paprika, Pimiento, Pequin, Serrano, Squash and Wax pod types.
Annuum's used to be dividend into two categories, sweet (or mild) peppers and hot Chile peppers. However, modern plant breeding has removed that distinction as hot bell varieties and sweet Jalapenos have now been bred.
In the past some woody forms of this species have been called C. frutescens, but the features that were used to distinguish those forms appear in many populations of C. annuum and there is no consistently recognizable C. frutescens species.
Capsicum annuum L is also called Xian Jiao,or Line Pepper,looks long and slim,it is one of the three major chile species in China(other 2 kinds are Capsicum frutescens,and Capsicum Annuum var conoides)
Capsicum Frutescens:Yang Jiao Pepper
Frutescens meaning 'shrubby' or 'bushy' is not widely cultivated with the exception of the Tabasco, which has been used in the manufacture of the world famous sauce since 1848. Another famous variety is the Malagueta, which grows in the amazon basin in Brazil where the species probably originated. Its is also called Yang Jiao Jiao or Yang Jiao Pepper in China,means ram's horn shape chile.
Frutescens plants have a compact habit, have many stems and grow between 1 and 4 feet high depending upon local conditions. The flowers have greenish white corollas with no spots and purple anthers. Pod types are less varied than the other species (with the exception of Pubescens) are often small, pointy and grow erect on the plants. This species is particularly good for container gardening and a single plant can produce 100 or more pods.
Capsicum Annuum var conoides:Chao Tian Jiao
Capsicum Annuum var conoides is very hot! Normally its fruit end point to upward,thus got a local name Chao Tian Jiao,its fruit small size,and also called small pepper.Capsicum Annuum has character small fruits,very hot,easy to dry,majorly used as dry chile for applications,it is one of the three major chile species in China(other 2 kinds are Yang Jiao Pepper/Capsicum frutescens L,and Line Pepper/Capsicum annuum L.).
Chinense meaning 'from China' is also a misnomer as this species originated in the Amazon Basin and is now common throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America and in the tropics.
This species includes many of the world's hottest cultivars including the Habanero, Scotch Bonnet and the legendary Red Savina. The pod types, as well as the plants are very varied in this species although they are characterised by a distinctive fruity aroma often described as apricot like.
The Chinense being a tropical species tend to do best in areas of high humidity. They are relatively slower growers, having longer growing seasons than many of the other species and seeds can take a long time to germinate.
Baccatum meaning 'berry-like' consists of the South American cultivars known as Aji's. They are almost as many baccatum cultivars as annuums with pods ranging from non-pungent to very hot.
The baccatum species is generally distinguished from the other species by the yellow or tan spots on the corollas (on the flowers) and by the yellow anthers. Many of the baccatum species are tall growing, often reaching 5 feet in height and pods are usually erect and become pendant as they mature.
Pubescens meaning 'hairy' is probably the least common on the five domesticated species and is the only domesticated Capsicum species with no wild form. However two wild species 'Cardenasii' and 'Eximium' are believed to be closely related. Pubescens has a compact to erect habit (sometimes sprawling and vine like) and can grow up to 8 feet tall, although 2 feet is more usual. The flowers have purple corollas, purple and white anthers and stand erect from the leaves. The pods are normally pear or apple shaped.
One interesting point to note is that the species is 'isolated' from the other domesticated species as it cannot cross pollinate with them. Another distinguishing feature of the species is the black seeds of the fruits. Varieties include the Peruvian 'Rocoto' and the Mexican 'Manzano'. Probably the most difficult of the five domesticated species to grow.
The Wild Species:The twenty six wild species lack extensive study on their biology and seeds are much harder to come by as they are often subject to restricted seed distribution. An interesting generalisation is that most of the wild Chile species have small fruits, which are eaten with ease by birds; the natural dispersal agent for Capsicum species. The 23 widely recognised wild species are:
Buforum:A wild Chile species native to Brazil.
Caatingae:A recent classfication (2011) from north east Brazil.
Campylopodium:A wild Chile species native to Southern Brazil
Cardenasii:A tubular purple flowering wild species native to La Paz, Bolivia. enetically it is part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens and is more commonly known as 'Ulupica'.
Chacoense:A small white flowering wild species native to Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. It is known locally as 'Tova' in Paraguay. The Plant has an erect growing habit and is approximately 80 cm tall. The erect pods are elongated, triangular, 2.5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide and mature from green to red. Very scarce.
Coccineum:A white flowering wild Chile species native to Bolivia and Peru.
Cornutum:A wild Chile species native to Southern Brazil.
Dimorphum:A wild Chile species native to Colombia.
Dusenii:A wild Chile species native to south-east Brazil.
Exile:A white flowering wild species not commercially grown, although several Chile enthusiasts have successfully grown the cultivar 'Cobincho'. This plant is very unlike most other capsicums. Plants can grow to over 130 cm tall with small, smooth leaves.
Eximium:A purple flowering wild species native to Bolivia and northern Argentina. Said to be a wild relative of the Rocoto. Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens and said to grow like a small tree.
Galapaqoense:A white flowering wild species native to the Galapagos Islands of Isabela and Santa Cruz. Also found in Ecuador. The pods of this plant are very hot and grow to 0.25 inches long, maturing from dark green to red.
Geminifolium:A wild Chile species native to Colombia and Ecuador.
Hookerianum:A wild Chile species native to Ecuador.
Lanceolatum:A wild Chile species native to Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico.
Leptopodum:A wild Chile species native to Brazil.
Longidentatum:A recent classfication (2011) from north east Brazil.
Minutiflorum:A wild Chile species native to Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay.
Mirabile:A wild Chile species native to southern Brazil.
Parvifolium:A wild Chile species native to north-east Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela.
Praetermissum:Sold commercially in parts of Brazil and also known as Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum. This variety can grow up to six feet tall in a single growing season and has hundreds of cranberry sized fruit that ripen to red. The flowers are totally flat when fully opened, are purple edged with a white inner band and have a greenish yellow centre. The ripe fruits are said to be very seedy.
Rhomboideum:A very unusual and scarce wild Capsicum species initially believed to be a sister to Capsicum Tovarii although after further study by Eshbaugh in 1988, it has since been omitted from Capsicum species list. Native to Southern Mexico and South America, this species has pubescent stems and leaves and yellow flowers. The tiny red fruits have no heat. Now a synonym for Witheringia ciliata although more recently it has been reclassified (yet again) as Capsicum rhomboideum.
Schottianum:A wild Chile species native to Argentina, south Brazil and south-east Paraguay. These 80-100 cm tall erect plants have many branches which grown in a zig zag pattern. The flowers are white with yellow-green spots at the base of the petals. Fruits are pendulous and reddish-orange at maturity.
Scolnikianum:A wild Chile species native to Peru.
Tovarii:A purple flower wild species native to the Rio Mantaro basin in south-central Peru. Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens.
Villosum:A wild Chile species native to southern Brazil.
PLANT. Uterine pain associated with childbirth is treated with soup which contains the plant (Sumner, 2000).
LEAVES. The leaves are used to treat toothache (Wee and Hsuan, 1990).
FRUITS. The fruits are used to stimulate gastric activities and increase blood circulation (Wee and Hsuan, 1990). It is also a stimulant, carminative, used locally for neuralgia and for rheumatism (Jain and DeFilipps, 1991).
- 1.Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
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