Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
- Botanical Basic Data of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Description of Capsicum.
- Narrative History of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Properties and Constituents of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Images and Classification of peppers.
- Common Uses.Medicinal Action and Uses of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Capsicum:Mode of Action.
- Applications and Preclinical Studies of Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.
- Suggestions and Administration of Capsicium.
- Toxicology and Safety:Capsaicin and Capsicium Extract.
- Cayenne for Weight Control.
- Cayenne for Pain Control.
- How Search engine think about Capsium:red pepper.
- Research Update:Capsium.
- Photo Gallery of Capsicum.
Properties and Constituents of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.:
Properties of Capsicum(Cayenne,Red Pepper):
Alterative, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Blood Purifier, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Rubefacient, Sialoguge, Stimulant, Vulnerary Stimulant. Spasmolytic. Carminative. Diaphoretic.Externally - Counter- Irritant. Antiseptic. Rubefacient
Primary Nutrients: Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Rutin, Selenium, Sodium, Sulphur, Vitamins A, B-complex, Vitamin C, G, and Zinc
Constituents of Capsicum(Cayenne,Red Pepper):
Capsaicin, a red colouring matter, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids.
Nitrogenous Compounds,Miscellaneous Nitrogenous Compounds
The most potent and predominant chemical entity in Capsicum is capsaicin (0.14%) (Cordell and Araujo, 1993). A series of homologous branched- and straight-chain alkyl vanillylamides, collectively known as capsaicinoids, is present in lesser concentrations than the parent compound, capsaicin. Of the capsaicinoid fraction, capsaicin (48.6%) is quantitatively followed by 6,7-dihydrocapsaicin (36%), nordihydrocapsaicin (7.4%), homodihydrocapsaicin (2%), and homocapsaicin (2%) (Duke, 1985). Capsaicinoids and capsaicin are collectively found in amounts of 0.1% to 1%, with quantities varying according to soil and climate (Rumsfield and West, 1991).
Capsaicin, a colorless crystalline substance, was first synthesized in 1930. Capsaicin has been studied since the mid-19th century and its structure is elucidated as 8-methyl-6-nonenoyl vanillylamide (Cordell and Araujo, 1993). Most pharmacological studies performed with isolated constituents of chile pepper have focused on Capsaicin, which is the major pungent constituent.
The crude extract of Capsicum fruits, known as Capsicum oleoresin, contains at least 100 different volatile chemical constituents, and therefore may function in differing ways from pure capsaicin. Thus, it is important to distinguish between studies using capsaicin and those employing Capsicum oleoresin (Cordell and Araujo, 1993).
Nonivamide (pelargonic acid vanillylamide) is a common synthetic adulterant of Capsicum products. Although structurally different from Capsaicin, its presence in Capsicum or capsaicin samples can be detected spectrographically and there is no evidence that this compound occurs naturally in Capsicum (Cordell and Araujo, 1993).
The most important constituents of Capsicum are pungent phenol compounds (0.05 - 1.5 %), the most prominent is capsaicin (C18H27NO3) the vanillyl amide of isodecenoic acid. Besides capsaicin (69% or 10 - 800 mg %of herb), the pungent principle contains dihydrocapsaicin (22%), nordihydrocapsaicin (7%), homo-capsaicin (1%), and homodihydrocapsaicin (1%). Some other constituents include carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, carotene, lutein etc.). There is also a minute quantity of a liquid alkaloid, a saponin capsicidin and a fixed oil. Capsicum also contains up to 0.2% ascorbic acid.
The vitamin and mineral content (per 100 gm) is: calcium (29 mg), phosphorus (78 mg), iron (1.2 mg), potassium (374 mg) beta-carotene 12,960 IU), thiamine (0.22 mg), riboflavin (0.36 mg), and niacin (4.4 mg).
Other parts of the plant contain steroidal alkaloid glycosides (solanine, solanidine, solasodine) (Newall et al., 1996). The seeds contain the steroidal glycosides capsicoside A through D, all furostanol glycosides (Yahara et al., 1994)
C. annuum is rich in carotenoid pigments,including capsanthin,capsorubrin, carotene,luteine,zeaxanthin,and cucurbitaxanthin A) (Leung and Foster, 1996; Hornero-Mendez and Minguez-Mosquera, 1998).
Capsicum is also rich in fats (9-17%) and protein (12-15%) (Leung and Foster, 1996) and is an excellent source of vitamin C (~370 mg/100 g) and vitamin A (77,000 IU/100 g, equivalent to 7,700 RE/100 g) (Ensminger et al., 1993).
Volatile oils are present as a trace component, including over 125 individual constituents, 24 of which have been identified (Marsh, 1977).
Scopoletin, a coumarin, also occurs in the plant (Newall et al., 1996).
Other Phytochemicals of Red Pepper including following:
Capsaicin, solanidine, solanine, solasdine, scopoletin, chlorogenic acid, alanine, amyrin, caffeic acid, camphor, carvone, cinnamic, citric acid, linalool, linoleic acid, oleic,piperine,vitamin B1,B3,C,E,oleoresin, hexanal,2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine,2,3-butanedione,3-carene,trans-2-hexenal,linalool;trans-p-ferulylalcohol-4-O-(6-(2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionyl) glucopyranoside and luteolin-7-O-(2-apiofuranosyl-4-glucopyranosyl-6-malonyl)-glucopyranoside;trans-p-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside; trans-p-sinapoyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside;quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside;luteolin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside;apigenin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-[2-(beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside];prenigroxanthin or all-E,3R,3'S,6'S)-beta,gamma-carotene-3,3',6'-triol;capsicosides A-D, 6",7"-dihydro-5',5'"-dicapsaicin, capsicosides E-G;26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-22-O-methyl-5alpha-furost-25(27)-en-2alpha,3beta,22xi,26-tetraol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1);26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside;and 26-O-beta-D-gluco-pyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furosta-3beta,22xi,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (Li, 2000; Uquiche et al, 2004; 2004; Materska et al, 2003; Yahara et al, 1994; Ochi et al, 2003; Iorizzi et al, 2002).
Nutritional Components: Capsicum is rich in Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and Zinc, two nutrients which are vital for a strong and healthy immune system. It is also high in vitamins, A, C, rutin (a bioflavonoid), beta carotene, iron, calcium and potassium. Capsicum also contains magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur, B-complex vitamins, sodium and selenium. The nutritional breakdown of Capsicum is as follows:
Fats: 9-17% Proteins: 12-15%
Vitamin A and red carotenoids (capsanthin, carotene, lutein) Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) B-Complex vitamins
Potassium: 2014 mg per 100 edible grams
PABA Note: Capsicum's red color is due in part to its very high content of vitamin A, which is vital for normal vision, cellular activity, growth and strong immune defenses.
The Nature of Capsaicin:
Merck Index show the basic info:Capsaicin (aka trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-noneamide) is the pungent principle in fruit of various species of Capsicum, Solanaceae.Internally its a GI stimulant and externally it's a counter-irritant (which would be your topical pain reliever).
The active principle that causes the heat in chile peppers is a crystalline alkaloid generically called Capsaicin. It is produced by glands at the junction of the placenta and the pod wall. The capsaicin spreads unevenly throughout the inside of the pod and is concentrated mostly in the placental tissue.
Basic Info and Characteristics:
Capsaicin is an incredibly powerful and stable alkaloid seemingly unaffected by cold or heat, which retains its original potency despite time, cooking, or freezing. Because it has no flavor, color, or odor, the precise amount of capsaicin present in chiles can only be measured by a specialized laboratory procedure known as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Although it has no odor or flavor, it is one of the most pungent compounds known, detectable to the palate in dilutions of one to seventeen million. It is slightly soluble in water, but very soluble in alcohols, fats, and oils.
Narrative History of Capsaicin:
P.A. Bucholtz in 1816 first discovered that the pungent principle of peppers could be extracted from the macerated pods with organic solvents. In 1846, L. T. Thresh reported in Pharmacy Journal that the pungent principle could be extracted in a crystalline state. It was Thresh who named the substance Capsaicin. In 1878, the Hungarian medical scientist Endre Hogyes extracted Capsaicin, which he called capsicol, and discovered that it stimulated the mucous membranes of the mouth and stomach and increased the secretion of gastric juices. Capsaicin was first synthesized in 1930 by E. Spath and F.S. Darling. It has virtually no odor or flavor, but it is one of the most pungent compounds known, detectable to the palate in dilutions of one to seventeen million. It is slightly soluble in water, but very soluble in alcohol, fats, and oils.
The word capsaicin actually describes a complex of related components named capsaicinoids by chemists in 1964. Capsaicinoids are the chemical compounds that give chile peppers their bite. Scientists have identified and isolated six naturally occurring members of this fiery family and one synthetic cousin, which is used as a reference gauge for determining the relative pungency of the others.
Brief info of major Capsaicinoids:
The major capsaicinoids that are contained in the crystalline extract and their percentages are capsaicin (69%), dihydrocapsaicin (22%), and three minor related components: nordihydrocapsaicin (7%), homocapsaicin (1%), and homodihydrocapsaicin (1%).
The synthetic capsaicinoid vanillylamide of n-nonanoic acid (VNA), was administered to sixteen trained tasters by researchers Anna Krajewska and John Powers at the University of Georgia. The tasters compared the heat of VNA to the four natural capsaicinoids and the results were as follows.
The mildest capsaicinoid was nordihydrocapsaicin (NDHC), which was described as the "least irritating" and "fruity, sweet, and spicy." Next was homodihydrocapsaicin (HDHC), a compound described as "very irritating," and one that produced a "numbing burn" in the throat, which also was the most prolonged and difficult to rinse out.
The two most fiery capsaicinoid compounds were Capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), which produced burning everywhere from the mid-tongue and palate down into the throat. Evidently, all of the capsaicinoids work together to produce the pungency of peppers, but Capsaicin itself is still rated the strongest.
Pure capsaicin is so powerful that chemists who handle the crystalline powder must work in a filtered "tox room" in full body protection. The suit has a closed hood to prevent inhaling the powder. Said pharmaceutical chemist Lloyd Matheson of the University of Iowa, who once inhaled some capsaicin accidentally: It's not toxic, but you wish you were dead if you inhale it. One milligram of pure Capsaicin placed on your hand would feel like a red-hot poker and would surely blister the skin
- 1.Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
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