Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
- Botanical Basic Data of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Description of Capsicum.
- Narrative History of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Properties and Constituents of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Images and Classification of peppers.
- Common Uses.Medicinal Action and Uses of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Capsicum:Mode of Action.
- Applications and Preclinical Studies of Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.
- Suggestions and Administration of Capsicium.
- Toxicology and Safety:Capsaicin and Capsicium Extract.
- Cayenne for Weight Control.
- Cayenne for Pain Control.
- How Search engine think about Capsium:red pepper.
- Research Update:Capsium.
- Photo Gallery of Capsicum.
Suggestions and Administration of Capsicium.:
Cayenne is prepared into decoctions, infusions, ointments, powder, paste and tinctures.
Cayenne is seldom used in the vagina as in Boluses; it could be, but it is too uncomfortable.
Very seldom is a decoction used because some of the value of the Cayenne is lost when it is simmered for any length of time.
The most common form of preparation is the INFUSION. This is made by pouring hot water over the Cayenne and letting it set. The infusion can be used with absolute safety.
Cayenne can be used as a liniment:use 1/8 or 1/6 part to other oils or salves. Use very little at a time, as it is very potent. With ointments, Cayenne is used in approximately 1/8 proportion to other herbs.
Cayenne is used in nearly all fomentations, plaster, and poultices where speed is necessary, or where quick relief (as in arthritis, rheumatism, bursitis, sore muscles c.) is necessary.
It is used dry on wounds, and it is used in prescriptions and formulas mixed with many other types of herbs. In using the powder in poultices, plasters, suppositories, enemas, etc., the Cayenne used should be 1/8 part in proportion to the other herbs that are used, according to the individual case.
In the liquid extract or in the tincture, Cayenne is easily kept and very valuable to have on hand. Use this moderately, as it is many times stronger than the infusion.
The only preparation necessary, it to have it ground or pounded to a fine powder. For a dose, from half to a full teaspoon full may be taken in hot water sweetened with honey. It will produce a free perspiration, which should be kept up by repeating the dose, until the disease is removed.
One spoonful of this preparation may be taken to good advantage, and will remove faint, sinking feelings which some are subject to, especially in the spring of the year.
Doses For a gargle:1/2 drachm of powder to 1 pint of boiling water, or 1/2 fluid ounce of the tincture to 8 fluid ounces of rose water. If the throat is very sensitive it can be given in pill form - generally made with 1 to 10 grains powder. The infusion is made with 2 drachms to 1/2 pint boiling water taken in 1/2 fluid ounce doses. The tincture is used as a paint for chilblains.
Dosage of the whole fruits or red pepper powder for medicinal purposes varies between 30-120 mg, 3 X/day (Newall et al., 1996), and 30 mg to 1.2 g, with the usual dose at 60 mg (Willard, 1991). (Note: do not bite, chew or open capsules.)
The British Pharmaceutical Codex (BPC) of 1968 lists the dose of Capsicum tincture as between 0.3-1.0 mL; the BPC for 1934 lists the dose of "Stronger Tincture" of Capsicum at between 0.06-2.0 mL (Newall et al., 1996).
According to a U.S. governmental nutrition survey, the average daily consumption of hot pepper in Thailand is 60-70 mg (U.S. Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense, 1962; quoted in Anuras et al., 1977).
The oleoresin dosage is listed as 0.6-2.0 mg in the BPC of 1934. Other sources (cited in Newall et al., 1996) list a dose of 1.2-1.8 mg for the oleoresin internally, and state that topical preparations should contain a maximum strength of oleoresin of 2.5%.
Capsaicin content of creams used in clinical trials have ranged from 0.025 to 0.075% capsaicin; the cream being applied 4-5 X/day to the affected area for at least 4 weeks (Rumsfield and West, 1991; Lynn, 1990; Capsaicin Study Group, 1991; Robbers et al., 1996).
Capsules:1-2 , 2 times daily.
Infusion:1/4-1 tsp. per cup
Powder: 60-300 mg.,30-120 mg,.03-1.2 gm.
Usual dose:60 mg.
Official Recognition and Medical References:
Tincture of Capsicum N.F., B.P. Conc. Tinct. B.P.
PDR for Herbal Medicine
German Commission E 1990, p. 178
5 to 15 drops of the tincture can be mixed in water (1:5 dilution) and administered four times daily. Topically, the cream (0.025-0.075% concentration) can be applied for at least 2 weeks for beginning pain relief, up to four times daily (Skidmore-Roth, 2001).
Two cups of the decoction is recommended to be drunk daily. It can be prepared by mixing 0.5 L water with 5 g powdered drug, 3 g powdered cascarilla bark and 5 g powdered rhubarb root. Homeopathically, it is used for inflammation of the efferent urinary tract, alimentary canal, mouth and throat and middle ear infection. 5 drops, 1 tablet or 10 globules every 30 to 60 mins (acute) or 1 to 3 times daily (chronic) (Gruenwald et al, 2000).
Dosage and Combinations:
Infusion:Steep the Cayenne in hot water for a few minutes, allow to cool and drink; it is OK to drink the Cayenne along with the water, but not necessary. Start with about a level ? teaspoon three times daily;
Then after three days, increase the dose to 1/2 teaspoon three times a day;
Then add 1/4 teaspoon each day thereafter until the minimum recommended dosage of one teaspoonful three times daily is reached.
For Heart Palpitation:In the acute stage, repeated dosages of one to two teaspoonfuls every half-hour (or more frequently when required).
Hemorrhage:One Teaspoonful of powder in a cup of hot water. Let cool and drink the water; drink the cayenne as well if possible.
Liniments:A good liniment fro sprains, bruises, rheumatism, and neuralgia may be made as follows:
Tincture of Capsicum:Two Fluid Ounces.
Fluid Extract of Lobelia:Two Fluid Ounces.
Oil of Wormwood: One Fluid Drachm.
Oil of Rosemary:One Fluid Drachm.
Oil of Spearmint:One Fluid Drachm.
Use for sprains, bruises, rheumatism and neuralgia.
Homeopathic Rubrics:Amaurosis; asthma; brain irritation; delirium tremens; cough; diarrhea; diphtheria; dysentery; ear affections; glandular swellings; hemorrhoids; headache; heartburn; hernia; homesickness; intermittent fevers; affections of the lungs; measles; mouth ulcers; neuralgia; affections of the nose; obesity; esophagus stricture; paralysis; pleuro-pneumonia; pregnancy disorders; disease of the rectum; rheumatic gout; rheumatism; sciatica; scrofula; sea-sickness; stomatitis; sore throat; tongue paralysis; trachea tickling; disorders of urinary system; whooping cough; yellow fever.
Dose For a gargleone half drachm of powder to one pint of boiling water.
One half ounce of the tincture to eight ounces of water.
If the throat is very sensitive it can be given in pill form,generally made with one to ten grains of powder. The infusion is made with two drachms to one half pint boiling water taken in one half fluid ounce doses. The tincture is used as a paint for chilblains (inflammatory swelling or soreness caused by exposure to the cold).
To make Chilli vinegar: pour hot vinegar over Capsicum powder, steep for twenty minutes or so, and drink for stomach problems.
Bayberry Bark (powdered):one ounce.
Wild Ginger:one half ounce.
A teaspoonful of the mixture to a teacupful of boiling water is taken warm at bed-time to ward off the effects of chill, and as a general stimulant.
Capsicum has been cited as contraindicated in topical applications on damaged skin and near the eyes, and for internal use by individuals who are sensitive to the herb and may in some cases develop gastrointestinal irritations. Further contraindications in the German Commission E are found in topical applications by individuals who are allergic (sensitive) to Capsicum (Blumenthal et al., 1998).
Lynn (1990) describes that relatively mild capsaicin topical treatment has been reported to worsen contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in some individuals.
Willard (1991) considers use of Capsicum contraindicated in ulcers and chronic bowel irritation states.
Excessive doses have been said to cause severe irritation of mucous membranes, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The active, pungent principle of Capsicum can be an irritant to the eyes and to tender skin, producing a strong burning sensation. This irritative effect "... differs from other local irritants in that there is practically no reddening of the skin even when there is very severe subjective sensation. In other words, while it exerts a strongly irritating effect upon the endings of the sensory nerves, it has very little action upon the capillary or other blood vessels. Therefore it does not cause blistering even in strong solution."
Capsicum is contraindicated for gastric catarrh or in cases of ulcers and chronic bowel irritation. Over the last century several herbalists have used it to alleviate these problems. I have seen it help some and cause severe irritation in others. Capsicum annum and several other species of Capsicum including C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. pubescens, and C. baccatum have great medicinal value. Formerly the species C. minimum was considered the official drug; due to botanical renaming this has been replaced by C. annuum.
Should not be used during pregnancy and lactation, in people with hypersensitivity and in children (Skidmore-Roth, 2001). Should not be used on open wounds or abrasions, or near the eyes (Skidmore-Roth, 2001).
Capsicum may interfere with antidepressant therapy utilizing MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors), or with antihypertensive therapy, and may stimulate the hepatic metabolism of drugs (Newall et al., 1996)
Aspirin and salicylic compounds (Lininger et al, 1999; Gruenwald et al, 2000).
Decrease actions of alpha-adrenergic blockers, clonidine (anti-hypertensive), methyldopa (anti-hypertensive) (Skidmore-Roth, 2001).
Hypertensive crisis with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Skidmore-Roth, 2001).
Pregnancy and Lactation
No documented cases of adverse effects from use of capsaicin during pregnancy have been found. Brinker (1983) states that Capsicum oleoresin was found to be a uterine stimulant in animals.
No information has been found regarding the entry of capsaicin into breastmilk, though anecdotal information suggests that it does. This information is based on the informal observation that children nursed by habitual users of chili peppers will eat chili pepper-seasoned solids at an early age (less than 12 months). When a mother is a regular consumer of Capsicum, no reports of adverse effects related to breast-feeding have been found in the literature or from anecdotal sources. Unpublished anecdotes from lactation consultants report occasional isolated episodes of diarrhea/irritated perineums with breast-feeding infants, but only when the mother consumed a large amount of spicy food in an episodic manner.
A multi-cultural traditional use of chili involves weaning; specifically, applying the chili product to the breast to "encourage" weaning in an older child (Willard, 1991).
Initial topical application of capsaicin creams results in burning sensations for most but not all people, which lessens or disappears with repeated applications. Erythema often accompanies the burning, sometimes with rash. Coughing and sneezing from aerosolized particles from dried cream residues has also been noted in some studies. These effects fade with repeated daily use (see Clinical Studies for references). Accidental contamination of other body parts, particularly the eyes, mouth or perineal regions, can occur without careful hand-washing or the use of rubber gloves for cream application (Mitchell and Rook, 1979). In a controlled study, Jones et al. (1997) found that cool tap water was more effective at providing immediate relief from the pain of chili burns of the hands than room temperature vegetable oil. Immersing the hands in the vegetable oil provided significantly better long-term pain relief, provided the hands were immersed in the oil for at least 1 hour Further studies of using cold temperature oil may reveal the effect of temperature on pain relief from chili burn.
Capsaicin and capsaicinoids are strongly irritating to mucous membranes and can produce dermatitis. Inhalation can produce allergic alveolitis (Mitchell and Rook, 1979). Oral use of Capsicum and its extractives may cause gastrointestinal irritation, though it does not inhibit the healing of duodenal ulcers and does not need to be avoided by persons with such a condition (Leacock, 1985).
Use of topical capsaicin by a parent or caretaker of an infant or young child requires special care with hand washing to avoid any direct transfer to the child's mucous membranes.
No information on overdosage is available.
- 1.Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
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