Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
- Botanical Basic Data of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Description of Capsicum.
- Narrative History of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Properties and Constituents of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Images and Classification of peppers.
- Common Uses.Medicinal Action and Uses of Capsicum:Cayenne,Red Pepper.
- Capsicum:Mode of Action.
- Applications and Preclinical Studies of Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.
- Suggestions and Administration of Capsicium.
- Toxicology and Safety:Capsaicin and Capsicium Extract.
- Cayenne for Weight Control.
- Cayenne for Pain Control.
- How Search engine think about Capsium:red pepper.
- Research Update:Capsium.
- Photo Gallery of Capsicum.
Description of Capsicum(Cayenne,Red Pepper):
Fruits dull orange-red in colour, oblong-conical in shape,obtuse at the apex;two-celled varying from 12-25 mm in length and up to 7 mm wide at the centre. Sometimes attached to a five toothed, inferior calyx and a straight slender pedicel up to 2-3 cm long. Pericarp shriveled, translucent and leathery enclosing 10-20 flat reniform seeds 2-4 mm long.Odour characteristic and powerful; taste extremely pungent.
An annual herb growing up to 1 m in height, C. annuum is native to the tropical Americas and widely cultivated throughout the tropics and elsewhere (Rosengarten, 1969). There is confusion regarding the classification of Capsicum species. Currently, all varieties of mild and hot peppers (not to be confused with black and white pepper derived from Piper nigrum and related species) are considered as the fruits of a single species, C. annuum and its many varieties, or of 2 species, C. annuum and C. frutescens. Current practice is to classify the pungent varieties of pepper (chile peppers or cayenne peppers) as C. frutescens, and the milder-flavored sweet peppers (bell peppers, sweet peppers, green peppers) as varieties of C. annuum (Ensminger et al., 1993); however, most botanists agree that they should properly be regarded as varieties of a single species (Rosengarten, 1969).
Brown-red powder, outer epidermal cells of pericarp in rows of 5 to 7, walls straight and uniformly thickened with a striated cuticle; droplets of red oil in pericarp parenchymatous cells, characteristic inner epidermis with groups of sclerenchymatous cells separated by thin-walled parenchyma. Seed epidermis of large sinuous cells, thin outer walls and thickened and pitted radial and inner walls.
Capsicum (Digestive, Circulatory),aptly described as the plant that bites back,is a common condiment in certain diets. The plant grows in warm climates and is added to many herbal formulas as a catalyst for the other herbs.
It's red color is partly due to its high vitamin A content. Capsicum has been used for decades as a catalyst for other herbs. Because Capsicum stimulants circulation and enhances blood flow, it is considered food for the circulatory system, a common condiment to the diet.
As a cardiovascular stimulant,Capsicum assists in lowering blood pressure and breaking down cholesterol buildup. The warming properties of Capsicum are useful for people suffering from poor circulation to the hands and feet and other related conditions.
Capsicum has been used as a digestive aid to ease intestinal inflammation,stimulate protective mucus membranes of the stomach, and also relieve pain caused by ulcers.
Capsicum is commonly used to buffer pain from other ailments,including arthritis,varicose veins,headaches,menstrual cramps and respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Archeologists estimate that in Mexico, Capsicum was used as a food as long as 9,000 years ago (Rumsfield and West, 1991). The medicinal use of a number of Capsicum species, including C. annuum by the Mayans, is described in Chichewicz and Thorpe (1996). They include the use of roots, leaves, as well as the fruits in applications for infections, fresh burns, respiratory complaints, earaches, and sores. Capsicum was used in weaning by the Navajo-Ramah, and has also been used by the Cherokee (Willard, 1991).
In folk medicine, Capsicum is regarded as an aphrodisiac, depurative, digestive, stomachic, carminative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, antiseptic, counterirritant, rubefacient, stypic, and tonic. Internally, Capsicum has been used to treat asthma, pneumonia, diarrhea, cramps, colic, toothache, flatulent dyspepsia without inflammation; insufficiency of peripheral circulation; as a gargle for sore throat, chronic pharyngitis and laryngitis; and externally as a lotion or ointment to treat neuralgia, including rheumatic and arthritic pain, and unbroken chilblains (cold injuries) (Duke, 1985; Leung and Foster, 1996; Newall et al., 1996).
The root is an Indonesian folk-remedy for gonorrhea. Capsicum is used in central Africa as a calming medicine, and in Hawaii for backaches, rheumatism, and swollen feet. Regular ingestion of hot red pepper is recommended by some authors for anorexia, hemorrhoids, liver congestion, varicose veins, and vascular conditions (Duke, 1985). Pedersen (1994) states that "the most striking use of Capsicum is as a catalyst herb in nearly every herbal combination conceivable." He adds female complaints, athletic injury and thyroid imbalance as indications for herbalist applications of Capsicum.
Capsicum spp.Family: Solanaceae
Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum; Capsicum annuum var. angulosum Synonym: Capsicum annum var. grossum (Mill); Capsicum annuum var. aviculare Synonym: Capsicum annum var. glabriusculum)
Capsicum annuum var. anomalum. Synonym: Turbocapsicum anomalum (Makino); Capsicum annuum var. baccatum Synonym: Capsicum baccatum var. baccatum (Kuntze)
Capsicum annuum var. cerasiforme; Capsicum annuum var. conoide; Capsicum annuum var. conicum, (GFW Meyer - Cone pepper); Capsicum annuum var. cordiforme (Edwall); Capsicum annuum var. cuneatum (Paul); Capsicum annuum var. fasciculatum
Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum Synonym: Capsicum annum var. aviculare; Capsicum annum var. minimum (Heiser); Capsicum hispidum var. glabriusculum (Dunal)
Capsicum annuum var. grossum (Sendt); Capsicum annuum var. leucocarpum (Kuntze); Capsicum annuum var. longum (Bailey)
Capsicum annuum var. luteum (Lam); Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme (Auquier); Capsicum annuum var. minimum
Synonym: Capsicum annum var. glabriusculum; Capsicum annuum var. minus Synonym: Capsicum annum var. annuum; Capsicum annuum var. microcarpum; Capsicum annuum var. parvo-acuminatum Synonym: Capsicum annum var. acuminatum
Capsicum annuum var. pyramidale (Mill); Capsicum annuum var. violaceum (Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth)
PLANT. Uterine pain associated with childbirth is treated with soup which contains the plant (Sumner, 2000).
LEAVES. The leaves are used to treat toothache (Wee and Hsuan, 1990).
FRUITS. The fruits are used to stimulate gastric activities and increase blood circulation (Wee and Hsuan, 1990). It is also a stimulant, carminative, used locally for neuralgia and for rheumatism (Jain and DeFilipps, 1991).
Narrative History of Capsicum(Cayenne,Red Pepper):
Cayenne or Capsicum derives its name from the Greek, 'to bite,' in allusion to the hot pungent properties of the fruits and seeds.
Cayenne pepper was introduced into Britain from India in 1548, and Gerard mentioned it as being cultivated in his time. The plant was described by Linnaeus under the name of C. frutescens proper. This species appeared in Miller's Garden Dictionary in 1771. It is a shrubby perennial plant 2 to 6 feet high. Branches angular, usually enlarged and slightly purple at the nodes; petioles medium; peduncles slender, often in pairs, and longer than the fruit; calyx cup-shaped, clasping base of fruit which is red, ovate, and long; seeds small and flat, from ten to twenty-nine. The cuticle of the pericarp is uniformly striated and in this particular is distinct from other species. Taste very pungent and smell characteristic. It is difficult to determine the source of true powdered Capsicum, as the colour is affected by light, so that it should always be kept in dark receptacles. African pepper is generally light brownish-yellow colour and very pungent; its pungency appears to depend on a principle called Capsicin. Cayenne is sometimes adulterated with oxide of red lead, which may be detected by digesting in dilute nitric acid. Other adulterants are coloured sawdust which can be found by the aid of the microscope. The British Pharmacopceia requires that capsicum should yield not more than 6 per cent of ash, and this test detects the presence of most adulterants.
Capsicum:Mode of Action
Despite the widespread use of chili peppers in the diet, little is known about the pharmacological activities of capsaicin in humans. Much of the pharmacological information has been obtained from animals with intravenous or intraperitoneal injections, or direct application of capsaicin to exposed nerves. Intravenous administration of capsaicin has been observed to induce bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea in animals; effects from administration to humans are unclear (Rumsfield and West, 1991).
Mode of Action:
Cayenne is first and foremost a powerful stimulant. In the herbal sense, stimulant is a substance that increases circulation. Capsicum has been called the "purest and most certain stimulant in the herbal materia medica".
The Dispensatory of the United States of America, 23 ed., 1943, states that "Capsicum is a powerful local stimulant, producing, when swallowed, a sense of heat in the stomach, and a general glow over the body without narcotic effect." Capsicum sp. are known to be very strong local stimulants in the circulatory system. In studies performed on female rabbits, capsaicin, the major constituent of cayenne, has been shown to significantly lower both plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, but even more important, lower the LDL-HDL ratio. The mechanism for this is not understood, but the authors felt it was possibly due to decreased intestinal absorption of the lipids.Capsicum and capsaicin both significantly prevent the increase of liver cholesterol levels while enhancing fecal cholesterol excretion via bile in rats. Capsaicin has also been shown to decrease platelet aggregation. Its reduction of thromboxane B2 formation and erythrocyte hemolysis suggests a membrane stabilizing property that interferes with the activation of phospholipase A2. The mechanism for thinning the blood is different than the explanatory models created for aspirin.
The production of substance P by Cayenne has the known effect of dilating the arteries thereby aiding the reduction of blood pressure. Capsaicin is a very strong pain reliever, especially when applied to herpes zoster. It can regulate nerve response and work as a cardiac tonic. Capsaicin has been studied extensively. The research indicates an effect on bronchiole function, cAMP, and cardiac function. There is even some speculation that capsaicin might have some anti-carcinogenic properties.
The anti-inflammatory action of capsaicin suggests an antioxandant action that may interfere with oxygen radical tranfer mechanism common to lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Used externally as an anti-spasmodic, Cayenne can be used to release muscular pain (especially in shoulder, arm, and spine). It can also be used for rheumatism, arthritis, frostbite and chronic lumbago. Some practitioners feel its use internally is contraindicated ( as well as most of the nightshade family) in conditions of rheumatism and arthritis.
Cayenne pepper sprays have become a common means of self defense. It was originally developed to protect a person from attacking bears. It has proven to be a relatively safe mechanism of protection, but there have been over 600 deaths associated with its use. People most at risk are large framed men over 250 pounds, under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
Besides its action as a local stimulant, Capsicum acts as a powerful stimulant to the digestive tract when taken internally. Capsicum is a gastric,stimulant,stomachic, carminative and an internal tonic.Cayenne is of particular value for atonic gastric dyspepsia for atony of the stomach and intestines and has been widely used to treat flatulence. Capsicum is used externally as local counterirritant for rheumatism, neuralgia, arthritis, chilblains, lumbago, and ``generally where counterirritation is indicated."Cayenne has been used in North America, Europe, China and in India. It was listed in Gerard (1597), Lewis (1769) and Comfort (1853). It can also be found in Aztec herbals (1552).(Crellin, J.K. and Philpott, J., Herbal Medicine: Past and Present (Vol. II), Duke University Press, London, 1990, p. 142.) Cayenne has been used as an Ayurvedic herb for many centuries. The Cherokee and the Navaho-Ramah, are known to have used this plant traditionally. Its stimulant properties were used by the Cherokee while the Navaho used the powder as a means of weaning children.
Toxicology and Safety:Capsaicin and Capsicium Extract.
High doses of red pepper could be toxic. High doses administered over extended period of time can cause chronic gastritis, kidney damage, liver damage and neurotoxic effects (Gruenwald et al, 2000). Vesicant. Extremely vesicant in undiluted form (Skidmore-Roth, 2001)
Beilstein Reference No:2816484.Reference.4-13-00-02588(Beilstein Handbook Reference).
CAS.No.404-86-4.Molecular Formula:C18-H27-N-O3. Molecular Weight:305.46.
Description Class: Tumorigen,Mutagen,Natural Product.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-rat.9500 ug/kg.
Toxic Effects:Behavioral.convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Behavioral.excitement.Behavioral.muscle contraction or spasticity.
Reference:TOXIA6 Toxicon.(Pergamon Press Ltd.,Headington Hill Hall,Oxford OX3 OBW,UK)V.1-1962-Volume(issue)/page/year:18,215,1980.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.rodent-mouse.47200 ug/kg.
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
Reference:YAHOA3 Yakhak Hoe Chi.Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society.(Taehan Yakkakhoe,c/o College of Pharmacy,Seoul National Univ.,Seoul 151,S.Korea)V.1-1956(?)-Volume(issue)/page/year:25(3),101,1981.
Capsaicin.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intravenous.Rodent-mice.0.56 mg/kg.
Capsaicin.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mice.7.56 mg/kg.
Capsaicin.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Subcutaneous.Rodent-mice.9 mg/kg.
Capsaicin.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Oral.Rodent-mice.190 mg/kg.
Capsaicin.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Dermal.Rodent-mice.512 mg/kg.
The LD50 values reported for capsaicin in mice are: intravenous, 0.56 mg/kg; intraperitoneal, 7.56 mg/kg; subcutaneous, 9 mg/kg; oral, 190 mg/kg. The metabolism of capsaicin and related capsaicinoids may reduce their acute toxicity (Srinivasan et al., 1980). In rats, the intraperitoneal LD50 for capsaicin is reported as 10 mg/kg. Toxicity of capsaicin in dogs and cats from i.v. administration has been attributed to a combination of respiratory failure, hypotension, and bradycardia (Monsereenusorn et al., 1982).
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Administration onto the skin.Rodent-mouse.>512 mg/kg.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.6500 ug/kg.Toxic Effects: Behavioral.convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Behavioral.excitement.Behavioral.muscle contraction or spasticity.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Subcutaneous.Rodent-mouse.9000 ug/kg.Toxic Effects: Behavioral.convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Behavioral.excitement.Behavioral.muscle contraction or spasticity.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intramuscular.Rodent-mouse.7800 ug/kg. Toxic Effects: Behavioral.convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Behavioral.excitement.Behavioral.muscle contraction or spasticity.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intratracheal.Rodent-mouse.1600 ug/kg. Toxic Effects: Behavioral.convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Behavioral.excitement.Behavioral.muscle contraction or spasticity.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Rectal.Rodent-mouse.>218 mg/kg.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-rabbit.>50 mg/kg.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-guinea pig.1100 ug/kg.Toxic Effects: Behavioral.convulsions or effect on seizure threshold.Behavioral.excitement.Behavioral.muscle contraction or spasticity.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-hamster.>120 mg/kg.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
Reference:TOXIA6 Toxicon.(Pergamon Press Ltd.,Headington Hill Hall,Oxford OX3 OBW,UK)V.1-1962-Volume(issue)/page/year:18,215,1980.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Intravenous.Rodent-mouse.400 ug/kg.
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
Reference:YAHOA3 Yakhak Hoe Chi.Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society.(Taehan Yakkakhoe,c/o College of Pharmacy,Seoul National Univ.,Seoul 151,S.Korea)V.1-1956(?)-Volume(issue)/page/year:25(3),101,1981.
LDLo-Lowest published lethal dose.Intravenous.Mammal-cat.1600 ug/kg.
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value.
Reference:FAONAU FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series.(Rome,Italy)No.?-57,1948-77.Discontinued.Volume(issue)/page/year:48A,60,1970.
Other Multiple Dose Toxicity Data:Capsaicin
TDLo.Lowest published toxic dose.Subcutaneous.Rodent-rat.2400 mg/kg/2W-I.Toxic Effects:Behavioral.food intake(animal).Nutritional and Gross Metabolic-weight loss or decreased weight gain.
Reference:TOXID9 TOxicologist.(Soc.of Toxicology,Inc.,475 wolf Ledge Parkway,Akron,OH 44311)V.1-1981-Volume(issue)/page/year:5,99,1985.
TDLo-Lowest published toxic dose.Oral.Rodent-mouse.3318 mg/kg/5W-C.Toxic Effects:Tumorigenic.equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria.Gastrointestinal.tumors.
Reference:ANTRD4 Anticancer Research.(5 Argyropoulou St.,Kato Patissia,Athens 907,Greece)V.1-1981-volume(issue)/page/year:4,117,1984.
Mutation in microorganisms.Bacteria-Salmonella typhimurium.10 ug/plate.
Micronucleus test.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.7500 ug/kg.
DNA inhibition.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.1800 ug/kg.
Reference:ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis.(New York,NY)V.1-9,1979-87.For publisher information,see EMMUEG.Volume(issue)/page/year:7,881,1985.
Sister chromatid exchange.Intraperitoneal.Rodent-mouse.93120 ug/kg/32D(Intermittent).
Reference:MUREAV Mutation Research.(Elsevier Science Pub.B.V.,POB 211,1000AE Amsterdam,Netherlands)V.1-1964-Volume(issue)/page/year:345,105,1995.
Mutation in microorganisms.rodent-hamster Lung.5 mg/L.
Reference: CALEDQ Cancer Letters(Shannon,Ireland).(Elsevier Science Pub.Ireland Ltd.,POB85,Limerick,Ireland)V.1-1975-volume(issue)/page/year:48,109,1989.
Azizan and Blevins (1995) reported that although capsaicin was weakly mutagenic in the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, and TA100, with or without S9 metabolic activation, when capsaicin was combined with an acetone extract of C. annuum fruit it became nonmutagenic. They also found that chlorophyll could suppress capsaicin's mutagenicity.
Chronic Toxicity:Capsicum extract
Chronic administration of Capsicum extract (20 mL to cheek pouch until death) was reported to be toxic in hamsters, producing reduced life-span and eye abnormalities; the latter effect was attributed to the depletion of SP by capsaicin in primary afferent neurons, causing a loss of corneal pain sensation and consequent loss of protective corneal reflexes (Agrawal et al., 1985).
Rabbits fed high levels of red pepper (0.2% capsicum-containing peppers constituting 14% of the diet) for 1 yr. showed adverse nutritional effects starting at 6 months, which was attributed to the large proportion of Capsicum used in this study (Srinivasan et al., 1980). A long-term comparative, controlled feeding study of rats given various levels of red Capsicum peppers (0.3% capsaicin), capsaicin, and a synthetic analogue of capsaicin (N-vanillyl nonanamide) was carried out with short- and long-term evaluations of effects. The animals fed red pepper in amounts varying from 0.05% to 5.0% of their diet did not show any adverse effects in food intake, growth, nitrogen balance, or blood constituents. Both the rats fed capsaicin (at 3 mg/100 g and 15 mg/100 g) and those fed the synthetic analogue of capsaicin (at 15 mg/100 g) showed slower food intake in the first month An increase to control levels by 8 weeks was found in the capsaicin group, and overall weight gain was depressed, especially at the higher dose level of 15 mg/100 g of feed (Srinivasan et al., 1980).
Subchronic toxicity studies of capsaicin and capsicum in rats.
Rats were fed by stomach tube with 50 mg/kg B.W./day capsaicin (Sigma) or 0.5 gm/kg B.W./day capsicum fruit crude extract for 60 days. The influences of capsaicin or capsicum upon body weight, rectal temperature, food and water consumptions, haematological parameters, plasma chemistry, urine concentration and dilution tests, together with the relative organ weight, were evaluated at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days. The results showed that there were significant reductions of the growth rate in both capsaicin and capsicum treated groups. However, the food intake in both experimental groups increased steadily throughout the experimental periods. There were no significant differences from the control rats in the rectal temperature, water intake, plasma chemistry, urine dilution and concentration, and the relative organ weights. After one month of oral administration of capsaicin or capsicum, there were significant reductions of plasma urea nitrogen, glucose, phospholipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. It is also interesting to observe that capsicum fruit crude extract exerted more influences on the various biological parameters being studied here than its pungent substance, capsaicin. Therefore, it is concluded that capsaicin or capsicum, if given orally for a relatively longer period, may have a mild effect on the experimental animals.[Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1983 Jul;41(1):95-110.]
Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.[Int J Toxicol. 2007;26 Suppl 1:3-106.]
Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were noted in groups fed 0.5% to 5.0% red pepper. The results of 9-and 12-month extension of this study showed normal large intestines and kidneys. In rabbits fed Capsicum Annuum Powder at 5 mg/kg day-1 in the diet daily for 12 months damage to the liver and spleen was noted. A rabbit skin irritation test of Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% produced no irritation, but Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract induced concentration-dependent (at 25 to 500 microg/ml) cytotoxicity in a human buccal mucosa fibroblast cell line. An ethanol extract of red chili was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in TA100, or in Escherichia coli. Other genotoxicity assays gave a similar pattern of mixed results. Adenocarcinoma of the abdomen was observed in 7/20 mice fed 100 mg red chilies per day for 12 months; no tumors were seen in control animals. Neoplastic changes in the liver and intestinal tumors were observed in rats fed red chili powder at 80 mg/kg day-1 for 30 days, intestinal and colon tumors were seen in rats fed red chili powder and 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, but no tumors were observed in controls. In another study in rats, however, red chile pepper in the diet at the same dose decreased the number of tumors seen with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Other feeding studies evaluated the effect of red chili peppers on the incidence of stomach tumors produced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, finding that red pepper had a promoting effect. Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract promoted the carcinogenic effect of methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine (carcinogen) or benzene hexachloride (hepatocarcinogen) in inbred male and female Balb/c mice dosed orally (tongue application). Clinical findings include symptoms of cough, sneezing, and runny nose in chili factory workers. Human respiratory responses to Capsicum Oleoresin spray include burning of the throat, wheezing, dry cough, shortness of breath, gagging, gasping, inability to breathe or speak, and, rarely, cyanosis, apnea, and respiratory arrest. A trade name mixture containing 1% to 5% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract induced very slight erythema in 1 of 10 volunteers patch tested for 48 h. Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract at 0.025% in a repeated-insult patch test using 103 subjects resulted in no clinically meaningful irritation or allergic contact dermatitis. One epidemiological study indicated that chili pepper consumption may be a strong risk factor for gastric cancer in populations with high intakes of chili pepper; however, other studies did not find this association. Capsaicin functions as an external analgesic, a fragrance ingredient, and as a skin-conditioning agent--miscellaneous in cosmetic products, but is not in current use. Capsaicin is not generally recognized as safe and effective by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for fever blister and cold sore treatment, but is considered to be safe and effective as an external analgesic counterirritant. Ingested Capsaicin is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in animal studies. Subcutaneous injection of Capsaicin in rats resulted in a rise in the blood concentration, reaching a maximum at 5 h; the highest tissue concentrations were in the kidney and lowest in the liver. In vitro percutaneous absorption of Capsaicin has been demonstrated in human, rat, mouse, rabbit, and pig skin. Enhancement of the skin permeation of naproxen (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent) in the presence of Capsaicin has also been demonstrated. Pharmacological and physiological studies demonstrated that Capsaicin, which contains a vanillyl moiety, produces its sensory effects by activating a Ca2 +-permeable ion channel on sensory neurons. Capsaicin is a known activator of vanilloid receptor 1. Capsaicin-induced stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis has been shown using bull seminal vesicles and rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Capsaicin inhibits protein synthesis in Vero kidney cells and human neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y cells in vitro, and inhibits growth of E. coli, Pseudomonas solanacearum, and Bacillus subtilis bacterial cultures, but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oral LD50 values as low as 161.2 mg/kg (rats) and 118.8 mg/kg (mice) have been reported for Capsaicin in acute oral toxicity studies, with hemorrhage of the gastric fundus observed in some of the animals that died. Intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous LD50 values were lower. In subchronic oral toxicity studies using mice, Capsaicin produced statistically significant differences in the growth rate and liver/body weight increases. Capsaicin is an ocular irritant in mice, rats, and rabbits. Dose-related edema was observed in animals receiving Capsaicin injections into the hindpaw (rats) or application to the ear (mice). In guinea pigs, dinitrochlorobenzene contact dermatitis was enhanced in the presence of Capsaicin, injected subcutaneously, whereas dermal application inhibited sensitization in mice. Immune system effects have been observed in neonatal rats injected subcutaneously with Capsaicin. Capsaicin produced mixed results in S. typhimurium micronucleus and sister-chromatid exchange genotoxicity assays. Positive results for Capsaicin were reported in DNA damage assays. Carcinogenic, cocarcinogenic, anticarcinogenic, antitumorigenic, tumor promotion, and anti-tumor promotion effects of Capsaicin have been reported in animal studies. Except for a significant reduction in crown-rump length in day 18 rats injected subcutaneously with Capsaicin (50 mg/kg) on gestation days 14, 16, 18, or 20, no reproductive or developmental toxicity was noted. In pregnant mice dosed subcutaneously with Capsaicin, depletion of substance P in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves of pregnant females and fetuses was noted. In clinical tests, nerve degeneration of intracutaneous nerve fibers and a decrease in pain sensation induced by heat and mechanical stimuli were evident in subjects injected intradermally with Capsaicin. An increase in mean inspiratory flow was reported for eight normal subjects who inhaled nebulized 10(-7) M Capsaicin. The results of provocative and predictive tests involving human subjects indicated that Capsaicin is a skin irritant. Overall, studies suggested that these ingredients can be irritating at low concentrations. Although the genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and tumor promotion potential of Capsaicin have been demonstrated, so have opposite effects. Skin irritation and other tumor-promoting effects of Capsaicin appear to be mediated through interaction with the same vanilloid receptor. Given this mechanism of action and the observation that many tumor promoters are irritating to the skin, the Panel considered it likely that a potent tumor promoter may also be a moderate to severe skin irritant. Thus, a limitation on Capsaicin content that would significantly reduce its skin irritation potential is expected to, in effect, lessen any concerns relating to tumor promotion potential. Because Capsaicin enhanced the penetration of an anti-inflammatory agent through human skin, the Panel recommends that care should be exercised in using ingredients that contain Capsaicin in cosmetic products. The Panel advised industry that the total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/pesticide contamination should be limited to not more than 40 ppm, with not more than 10 ppm for any specific residue, and agreed on the following limitations for other impurities: arsenic (3 mg/kg max), heavy metals (0.002% max), and lead (5 mg/kg max). Industry was also advised that aflatoxin should not be present in these ingredients (the Panel adopted < or =15 ppb as corresponding to "negative" aflatoxin content), and that ingredients derived from Capsicum annuum and Capsicum Frutescens Plant species should not be used in products where N-nitroso compounds may be formed. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
Toxicity and repellency of hot pepper extracts to spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41(8):1383-91.Antonious GF, Meyer JE, Snyder JC.Department of Plant and Soil Science, Land Grant Program, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY 40601, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Increasing concern about persistence and environmental impact of synthetic pesticide residues require development of biodegradable and environmentally safe alternatives. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Twenty-four Capsicum accessions (Solanaceae) were screened for their toxicity and repellency to the spider mites. Crude extracts from fruits of C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were prepared in methanol and tested for their acaricidal properties. Spider mite mortality was greatest (45%) when fruit extract of accession Grif-9169 (C. annuum) was used. Results from diving board bioassays indicated that mites avoided filter paper strips treated with hot pepper extracts from accessions PI-596057 (C. baccatum), PI-195299 (C. annuum), and Grif- 9270 (C. annuum). This investigation suggests that methanolic extracts of these three accessions may have a great potential for repelling spider mites and should be field-tested on a large-scale to assess their value in managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. An attempt was made to correlate repellency with chemical constituents of fruit extracts of the most repellent accessions to identify chemical sources of repellency. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that these are not likely related to the toxicity or repellency of the pepper fruit extracts. Other, unidentified chemicals are likely responsible for toxicity and repellency to the two-spotted spider mite.
Immunotherapy of tumors with neuroimmune ligand capsaicin.:J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1;178(5):3260-4.Beltran J, Ghosh AK, Basu S.Center for Immunotherapy of Cancer and Infectious Diseases, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-1601, USA.
Red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) is a highly consumed spice throughout the world. Its principal pungent ingredient is the phenol capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide). Capsaicin causes neurogenic inflammation and has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. We have observed previously that dendritic cells, a key cell type in immune responses, have the receptor for capsaicin, and engagement of this receptor has powerful immune consequences. In this study, we demonstrate that intratumoral administration of capsaicin into a preexisting tumor results in retarded progression of the injected tumor regardless of whether the tumor is at its early or late stage. Furthermore, it leads to significant inhibition of growth of other, uninjected tumors in the same animal. Capsaicin-elicited immunity is shown to be T cell-mediated and tumor-specific. These results reflect the immunological potency of a neurological ligand in modulating immune response against an established tumor.
Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review.:Spine. 2007 Jan 1;32(1):82-92.Gagnier JJ, van Tulder MW, Berman B, Bombardier C.Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. email@example.com
STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine compared with placebo, no intervention, or "standard/accepted/conventional treatments" for nonspecific low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Low back pain is a common condition and a substantial economic burden in industrialized societies. A large proportion of patients with chronic low back pain use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and/or visit CAM practitioners. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in low back pain. METHODS: The following databases were searched: Medline (1966 to April 2003), Embase (1980 to April 2003), Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 1, 2003), and Cochrane Complementary Medicine (CM) field Trials Register. Additionally, reference lists in review articles, guidelines, and in the retrieved trials were checked. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), using adults (>18 years of age) suffering from acute, subacute, or chronic nonspecific low back pain. Types of interventions included herbal medicines defined as a plant that is used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. Two reviewers (J.J.G. and M.W.T.) conducted electronic searches in all databases. One reviewer (J.J.G.) contacted content experts and acquired relevant citations. Authors, title, subject headings, publication type, and abstract of the isolated studies were downloaded or a hard copy was retrieved. Methodologic quality and clinical relevance were assessed separately by two individuals (J.J.G. and M.W.T.). Disagreements were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Ten trials were included in this review. Two high-quality trials utilizing Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's claw) found strong evidence for short-term improvements in pain and rescue medication for daily doses standardized to 50 mg or 100 mg harpagoside with another high-quality trial demonstrating relative equivalence to 12.5 mg per day of rofecoxib. Two moderate-quality trials utilizing Salix alba (White willow bark) found moderate evidence for short-term improvements in pain and rescue medication for daily doses standardized to 120 mg or 240 mg salicin with an additional trial demonstrating relative equivalence to 12.5 mg per day of rofecoxib. Three low-quality trials using Capsicum frutescens (Cayenne) using various topical preparations found moderate evidence for favorable results against placebo and one trial found equivalence to a homeopathic ointment. CONCLUSIONS: Harpagophytum procumbens, Salix alba, and Capsicum frutescens seem to reduce pain more than placebo. Additional trials testing these herbal medicines against standard treatments will clarify their equivalence in terms of efficacy. The quality of reporting in these trials was generally poor; thus, trialists should refer to the CONSORT statement in reporting clinical trials of herbal medicines.
Screening of herbal extracts for activation of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.:Pharmazie. 2006 Nov;61(11):952-6.Rau O, Wurglics M, Dingermann T, Abdel-Tawab M, Schubert-Zsilavecz M.Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry/ZAFES, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors play a pivotal role in metazoan lipid and glucose homeostasis. Synthetic activators of PPARalpha (fibrates) and PPARgamma (glitazones) are therefore widely used for treatment of dislipidemia and diabetes, respectively. There is growing evidence for herbal compounds to influence nuclear receptor signalling e.g. the PPARs. We recently reported carnosic acid and carnosol, both being diterpenes found in the labiate herbs sage and rosemary, to be activators of PPARgamma. The subsequent screening of a variety of ethanolic extracts, obtained from traditionally used herbs, for PPAR activation, led to an exceptionally high hit rate. Among 52 extracts nearly the half significantly activated PPARgamma and 14 activated PPARalpha in addition, whereas three of them were pan-PPAR activators, which also activated PPARdelta. The most active extracts, for which a concentration dependent effect could be shown, were the extracts of Alisma plantago aquatica (ze xie/european waterplantain), Catharanthus roseus (madagascar periwinkle), Acorus calamus (sweet calamus), Euphorbia balsamifera (balsam spurge), Jatropha curcas (barbados nut), Origanum majorana (marjoram), Zea mays (corn silk), Capsicum frutescens (chilli) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). The results of the present study provide a possible rationale for the traditional use of many herbs as antidiabetics.
A lectin with antifungal and mitogenic activities from red cluster pepper (Capsicum frutescens) seeds.:Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Feb;74(2):366-71. Epub 2006 Nov 3.
A monomeric mannose/glucose-binding lectin, with a molecular mass of 29.5 kDa and an N-terminal sequence GQRELKL showing resemblance to that of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor from the rabbit, has been isolated from the seeds of red cluster pepper Capsium frutescens L. var. fasciculatum. The protocol involved anion exchange chromatography on diethylamino ethanol-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and fast protein liquid chromatography on Mono Q. Its hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes was inhibited by D: -mannose and glucose, specifically. The activity was stable from 0 to 40 degrees C, reached a maximum at pH 7 and 8, and was potentiated by Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions. The lectin showed strong mitogenic activity toward spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mice. The mitogenic activity, which reached a peak at a lectin concentration of 0.27 microM, was inhibited specifically by D(+)-mannose. The lectin was capable of inhibiting the germination of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme spores and hyphal growth in the two fungi.
QTL analysis for capsaicinoid content in Capsicum.:Theor Appl Genet. 2006 Nov;113(8):1481-90. Epub 2006 Sep 8.Ben-Chaim A, Borovsky Y, Falise M, Mazourek M, Kang BC, Paran I, Jahn M.Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, 313 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
Pungency or "heat" found in Capsicum fruit results from the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloid compounds known as capsaicinoids in the dissepiment, placental tissue adjacent to the seeds. Pepper cultivars differ with respect to their level of pungency because of quantitative and qualitative variation in capsaicinoid content. We analyzed the segregation of three capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin in an inter-specific cross between a mildly pungent Capsicum annuum 'NuMex RNaky' and the wild, highly pungent C. frutescens accession BG2814-6. F(3) families were analyzed in three trials in California and in Israel and a dense molecular map was constructed comprised mostly of loci defined by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Six QTL controlling capsaicinoid content were detected on three chromosomes. One gene from the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway, BCAT, and one random fruit EST, 3A2, co-localized with QTL detected in this study on chromosomes 3 and 4. Because one confounding factor in quantitative determination of capsaicinoid is fruit size, fruit weight measurements were taken in two trials. Two QTL controlling fruit weight were detected, however, they did not co-localize with QTL detected for capsaicinoid content. The major contribution to the phenotypic variation of capsaicinoid content (24-42% of the total variation) was attributed to a digenic interaction between a main-effect QTL, cap7.1, and a marker located on chromosome 2 that did not have a main effect on the trait. A second QTL, cap7.2 is likely to correspond to the QTL, cap, identified in a previous study as having pronounced influence on capsaicinoid content.
Antioxidants in hot pepper: variation among accessions.:J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41(7):1237-43.Antonious GF, Kochhar TS, Jarret RL, Snyder JC.Department of Plant and Soil Science, Water Quality/Environmental Toxicology, Land Grant Program, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY 40601, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm collection contains several thousand members or accessions. Many of these species and cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, and total phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidants having a number of benefits for human health. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accessions of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, free sugars, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Seventeen accessions of pepper from the core Capsicum germplasm collection (four accessions of Capsicum chinense; five accessions of C. baccatum; six accessions of C. annuum; and two of C. frutescens) were field grown and their mature fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant composition. Concentrations of these compounds tended to be higher in C. chinense and C. baccatum, than in C. annuum and C. frutescens. Across all accessions the concentration of total phenols was correlated with ascorbic acid (r = 0.97) and free sugars (r = 0.80). Concentrations of total phenols (1.4, 1.3, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) and ascorbic acid (1.6, 1.2, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) were significantly greater in PI-633757, PI-387833, and PI-633754, respectively, compared to other accessions analyzed. Total capsaicinoids concentrations were greatest (1.3 mg g-1 fruit) in PI-438622 and lowest (0.002 mg g-1 fruit) in Grif-9320. The great variability within and among Capsicum species for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with value-added traits.
Purification and structure determination of glucosides of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from various Capsicum fruits.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Aug 9;54(16):5948-53.
Two new glucosides, capsaicin-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and dihydrocapsaicin-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were discovered in the fruit of the Capsicum annuum cultivar 'High Heat'. They were sequentially purified by acetone extraction, n-hexane extraction, and acetonitrile extraction, followed by medium-pressure liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography performed on an octadecylsilane column. Their chemical structures were elucidated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, and hydrolysis with alpha- and beta-glucosidases. The glucosides were also detected in various pungent cultivars of C. annuum, Capsicum frutescens, and Capsicum chinense by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, they were not detected in nonpungent cultivars of C. annuum. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between the quantity of the capsaicinoids, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin and their glucosides.
Fungicidal and Cytotoxic Activity of a Capsicum chinense Defensin Expressed by Endothelial Cells.:
Plant defensins are antimicrobial peptides that exhibit mainly antifungal activity against a broad range of plant fungal pathogens. However, their actions against Candida albicans have not been extensively studied. The mRNA for gamma-thionin, a defensin from Capsicum chinense, has been expressed in bovine endothelial cells. The conditioned medium of these cells showed antifungal activity on germ tube formation (60-70% of inhibition) and on the viability of C. albicans (70-80% of inhibition). Additionally, C. albicans was not able to penetrate transfected cells. Conditioned medium from these cells also inhibited the viability (80%) of the human tumor cell line, HeLa.
Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake.:
Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of red pepper (capsaicin) on feeding behaviour and energy intake. In the first study, the effects of dietary red pepper added to high-fat (HF) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals on subsequent energy and macronutrient intakes were examined in thirteen female subjects. After the ingestion of a standardized dinner on the previous evening, the subjects ate an experimental breakfast (1883 kJ) of one of the following four types: (1) HF; (2) HF and red pepper (10 g); (3) HC; (4) HC and red pepper. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were measured at lunch-time. The HC breakfast significantly reduced the desire to eat and hunger after breakfast. The addition of red pepper to the HC breakfast also significantly decreased the desire to eat and hunger before lunch. Differences in diet composition at breakfast time did not affect energy and macronutrient intakes at lunch-time. However, the addition of red pepper to the breakfast significantly decreased protein and fat intakes at lunch-time. In Study 2, the effects of a red-pepper appetizer on subsequent energy and macronutrient intakes were examined in ten Caucasian male subjects. After ingesting a standardized breakfast, the subjects took an experimental appetizer (644 kJ) at lunch-time of one of the following two types: (1) mixed diet and appetizer; (2) mixed diet and red-pepper (6 g) appetizer. The addition of red pepper to the appetizer significantly reduced the cumulative ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes during the rest of the lunch and in the snack served several hours later. Moreover, the power spectral analysis of heart rate revealed that this effect of red pepper was associated with an increase in the ratio sympathetic: parasympathetic nervous system activity. These results indicate that the ingestion of red pepper decreases appetite and subsequent protein and fat intakes in females and energy intake in Caucasian males. Moreover, this effect might be related to an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in Caucasian males.
The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway.:
Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in 'hot' chilli peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. We have used an expression cloning strategy based on calcium influx to isolate a functional cDNA encoding a capsaicin receptor from sensory neurons. This receptor is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. The cloned capsaicin receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo.
Dietary red pepper ingestion increases carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise in runners.:
The effects of dietary hot red pepper on energy metabolism at rest and during exercise were examined in long distance male runners 18-23 yr of age. A standardized meal was given on the evening prior to the experiment. The subjects had a meal (2720 kJ) with or without 10 g of hot red pepper for breakfast. During rest (2.5 h after meal) and exercise (pedaling for 1 h at 150 W, about 60% VO2max, using cycling ergometry), expired gasses and venous blood were collected. The meal with hot red pepper significantly elevated respiratory quotient and blood lactate levels at rest and during exercise. Oxygen consumption at rest was slightly but nonsignificantly higher in the hot red pepper meal at 30 min after the meal. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in those who had only hot red pepper at 30 min after the meal. These results suggest that hot red pepper ingestion stimulates carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise.
Screening capsicum accessions for capsaicinoids content.:
Ninety Capsicum accessions selected from the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection were screened for their capsaicinoids content using gas hromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC/NPD). Fresh fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were extracted with methanol and analyzed for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. Mass spectrometry of the fruit crude extracts indicated that the molecular ions at m/z 305, 307, and 293, which correspond to capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, respectively, have a common benzyl cation fragment at m/z 137 that can be used for monitoring capsaicinoids in pepper fruit extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the dominant capsaicinoids detected. Capsaicin concentrations were typically greater than dihydrocapsaicin. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from not detectable to 11.2 mg fruit-1. Statistical analysis revealed that accession PI-441624 (C. chinense) had the highest capsaicin content (2.9 mg g-1 fresh fruit) and accession PI-497984 (C. frutescens) had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (2.3 mg g-1 fresh fruit). Genebank accessions PI-439522 (C. frutescens) and PI-497984 contained the highest concentrations of total capsaicinoids.
Capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum spp. suspension cultures.:
Fruits of chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) specifically synthesize and accumulate a group of analogs known as capsaicinoids in the placenta tissues. These secondary metabolites are responsible for the hot taste of chili pepper fruits. Capsaicinoids are of economic importance because of their use in the food, cosmetic, military, and pharmaceutical industry. Several efforts have been focused to investigate the biosynthetic capacity of in vitro chili pepper cells and tissue cultures in order to determine the production feasibility of these compounds at the industrial level under controlled conditions. A description of techniques for the establishment of in vitro cultures of chili pepper, the addition of precursors and intermediates to the culture medium, and the selection of cell lines as a means to increase the production of capsaicinoids as well as the extraction, separation, and quantification of capsaicinoids from chili pepper cell cultures is reported in this chapter.
Pressurized liquid extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers.:
A method has been developed for the extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE); these compounds are determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with detection by fluorescence spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry (MS). The stability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin has been studied at different temperatures (50-200 degrees C), and several extraction variables have been assayed: solvent (methanol, ethanol, and water), different percentages of water in the methanol (0-20%) and in the ethanol (0-20%), and the number of extraction cycles. The study has evaluated the repeatability (RSD < 7%) and the reproducibility (RSD < 7%) of the method. Finally, the PLE method developed has been applied to quantify the capsaicinoids present in three varieties of hot peppers cultivated in Spain, quantifying five capsaicinoids: nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, an isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin.
Short-term control of capsaicin on blood and oxidative stress of rats in vivo.:
Capsaicin (8-methyl-n-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), a pungent component found in red pepper can induce body heat and possibly enhance blood flow as well as increase energy expenditure, and prevent oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into vehicle, 1 mg/kg body weight capsaicin and 3 mg/kg body weight capsaicin groups. Samples were taken from the animals on day 1 of i.p. treatment with capsaicin and on 3 consecutive days of i.p. treatment with capsaicin. Our investigation demonstrated that blood flow measurements in rats was negatively correlated with LDL after treatment with capsaicin. Although capsaicin did not show a noticeable effect on the serum total cholesterol level, LDL decreased while HDL and triglyceride increased in rats treated with 3 mg/kg capsaicin for 3 days. The antioxidant effect of capsaicin was not shown when the rats were treated with 1 mg/kg body weight capsaicin. However, rats treated with 3 mg/kg body weight capsaicin for 3 days showed a reduction of oxidative stress measured as malondialdehyde in the liver, lung, kidney and muscle. Liver glycogen was found to decrease after 3 days treatment with 3 mg/kg body weight capsaicin. From this study, it is hypothesized that capsaicin can be a potent antioxidant and aid in lowering LDL even when consumed for a short period.
Negative Effects Research:
Gastroesophageal reflux in healthy subjects induced by two different species of chilli (Capsicum annum).:
Background: Although the ingestion of chilli has been associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms, there are no studies that have explored the effect of a chronic ingestion of different kinds of chilli with a variable content of capsaicin as a cause of GER. Methods: The effect of chilli on esophageal 24-hour pH monitoring was studied in 12 healthy subjects without GER symptoms before and after of ingestion one of two kinds of chilli. Patients were randomized to ingest 3 g daily of cascabel chilli (Capsicum annum coraciforme containing 880 ppm of capsaicin) or ancho chilli (Capsicum annum grossum containing 488 ppm of capsaicin). Results: After chilli ingestion, the Johnson De Meester Index (JDI) increased significantly [basal: 7 (1-14), after chilli: 13 (2-69), p = 0.0047]. When considering both kinds of chilli separately, the JDI varied, although nonsignificantly, with the ancho chilli [basal: 3 (1-8), after chilli: 10 (2-69), p = 0.11], and significantly with the cascabel chilli [basal: 10 (5-14), after chilli: 18 (2-44), p = 0.028]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the chronic ingestion of chilli induces GER, and that the magnitude of the induced reflux seems to be related to the kind of chilli.
Topical treatment of chronic low back pain with a capsicum plaster.:
The efficacy and tolerance of a capsicum plaster in non-specific low back pain was investigated in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre parallel group study. A total of 320 patients were randomly assigned to two groups of n=160 subjects treated by the active or the placebo plaster. The main outcome measures used were a compound pain subscore of the Arhus low back rating scale (continuous variable), and a response criterion of a reduction in pain subscore=30% from baseline to final assessment (secondary, non-continuous variable). In addition, the partial pain scores, disability and mobility restriction subscores, the total score of the Arhus low back rating scale, the global evaluation of efficacy by investigator and patient, adverse events, a patient questionnaire on use of the plaster, and an evaluation of tolerance by investigator and patient were obtained. After 3 weeks treatment with capsicum and placebo plaster respectively, the compound pain subscore was reduced by 42% (capsicum) and 31% (placebo) from values on entry. Responder rate was 67% versus 49% (p=0.002). The investigators rated efficacy as "excellent" or "good" by 74% and 36%; the patient's efficacy rating "symptomfree" or "improved" reached 82% and 50%. Adverse local drug reactions were found in 12 patients (7.5%) on capsicum and 5 (3.1%) on placebo. No systemic side-effects were observed. The superiority of the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain with capsicum plaster compared to placebo was clinically relevant and highly statistically significant. The capsicum plaster offers a genuine alternative in the treatment of non-specific low back pain.
Histological investigations on the effects of feeding a diet containing red hot pepper on the reproductive organs of the chicken.:
In the present study the growth and reproductive organ differences in chickens fed a diet containing 1% red hot pepper (10 g/kg diet) from the first day of age were investigated. In birds fed with the experimental diet it was observed that the abdominal fat content decreased. During the experiment the increase in weight gain in the treated group in the first 4 months was reversed in favour of the control group in month 5. Follicular development in the treated group was faster and laying started 11 days before the control group, and the epithelial and muscular development of the oviduct was always greater than that of the control group.The results indicated that red hot pepper consumed in lower concentrations during the development period in the chickens caused faster development of the reproductive system organs. Laying started 11 days earlier in chicks fed with the red hot pepper added diet, an important economic aspect for egg producers, but which may have implications for other animals. A decrease in abdominal fat content and disorders of lipid metabolism are still under investigation.
QTL analysis of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile pepper.:
Fertility restoration of Peterson's cytoplasmic male-sterility in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is quantitative and environment-dependent. QTL analysis of fertility restoration was performed based on the test-cross progeny of 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile line) and a doubled haploid population of 114 lines obtained from an F1 hybrid between Yolo wonder (a sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (a fertility-restorer line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed under greenhouse and open field conditions using three criteria related to pollen or seed production. One major QTL for fertility restoration was mapped to chromosome P6. It was significant in all the environments and for all the traits, accounting for 20-69% of the phenotypic variation, depending on the trait. Four additional minor QTLs were also detected on chromosomes P5, P2, and linkage groups PY3 and PY1, accounting for 7-17% of the phenotypic variation. Most of the alleles increasing fertility originated from the restorer parent, except for two alleles at minor QTLs. Phenotypic analysis and genetic dissection indicated that breeding pepper for complete sterility of female lines and high hybrid fertility requires complex combinations of alleles from both parents and a strict control of the environment.
Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition.:
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a natural dietary supplement produced favorable changes in body composition during a 4-week diet- and-exercise program. The active compound contains a patented combination of chromium picolinate, inulin, capsicum, L-phenylalanine, and other lipotropic nutrients. A double-blind, weight-loss intervention design was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either a diet/exercise/supplement group (n = 56) or a diet/exercise/placebo group (n = 67). Caloric intake was reduced to 1500 kcal/d and participants walked for 45 minutes, 5 days a week, to attain between 60% and 80% of predicted maximal heart rate. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed significant differences (P < .05) between groups in percent body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass; no significant differences were found (P > .05) in body weight, body mass index, or energy intake. Independent t tests showed no significant differences (P > .05) in diet composition between groups. Results indicate that the addition of a natural dietary supplement during a 4-week diet-and-exercise weight-loss program accelerates the rate of body fat loss and helps maintain fat-free mass (lean tissue), thereby producing favorable changes in body composition.
The treatment of functional dyspepsia with red pepper.:
AIM: : To decrease the intensity of dyspeptic symptoms by impairing the visceral nociceptive C-type fibres with capsaicin, contained in red pepper powder. METHODS: : The study was performed on 30 patients with functional dyspepsia and without gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome. After a 2-week washout period, 15 patients received, before meals randomly and in a double-blind manner, 2.5 g/day of red pepper powder for 5 weeks, and 15 patients received placebo. A diary sheet was given to each patient to record, each day, the scores of individual and overall symptom intensity, which subsequently were averaged weekly and over the entire treatment duration. RESULTS: : The overall symptom score and the epigastric pain, fullness and nausea scores of the red pepper group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group, starting from the third week of treatment. The decrease reached about 60% at the end of treatment in the red pepper group, whilst placebo scores decreased by less than 30%. CONCLUSIONS: : Red pepper was more effective than placebo in decreasing the intensity of dyspeptic symptoms, probably through a desensitization of gastric nociceptive C-fibres induced by its content of capsaicin. It could represent a potential therapy for functional dyspepsia.
Inhibitory effects of capsaicinoids on fatty acid desaturation in a rat liver cell line:
The inhibitory effects of such vanillylamides as capsaicin and nine capsaicinoids on fatty acid desaturation in liver cells were investigated by using the cultured rat liver cell line, BRL-3A. When capsaicin was added to the medium, it had a relatively strong inhibitory effect on delta6 desaturation and clear inhibitory effects on delta5 and C24delta16 desaturation (delta16 desaturation of C24-polyunsaturated fatty acids). Capsaicinoids with side carbon chain lengths of C10:0 and C12:0 expressed the maximum inhibitory effects of the nine capsaicinoids on fatty acid desaturation in the BRL-3A cells. The inhibitory effects of the capsaicinoids were not correlated with their pungency.
Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L).:
Four cultivars (Bronowicka Ostra, Cyklon, Tornado, and Tajfun) of pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. were studied for phenolics contents and antioxidant activity. Two fractions of phenolics, flavonoids (with phenolic acids) and capsaicinoids, were isolated from the pericarp of pepper fruit at two growth stages (green and red) and were studied for their antioxidant capacity. Both fractions from red fruits had higher activities than those from green fruits. A comparison of the capsaicinoid fraction with the flavonoid and phenolic acid fraction from red fruit with respect to their antioxidant activity gave similar results. Phenolic compounds were separated and quantified by LC and HPLC. Contents of nine compounds were determined in the flavonoid and phenolic acid fraction: trans-p-feruloyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, trans-p-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, trans-p-ferulyl alcohol-4-O-[6-(2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionyl] glucopyranoside, luteolin 6-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside, lutoeolin 7-O-[2-(beta-d-apiofuranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside], quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside, and luteolin 7-O-[2-(beta-d-apiofuranosyl)-4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6-malonyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside. The main compounds of this fraction isolated from red pepper were sinapoyl and feruloyl glycosides, and the main compound from green pepper was quercetin-3-O-l-rhamnoside. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the main components of the capsaicinoid fraction. A high correlation was found between the content of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of both fractions. Their antioxidant activities were elucidated by heat-induced oxidation in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system and the antiradical activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decoloration test. The highest antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system was found for trans-p-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, which was lower than the activity of free sinapic acid. Quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside had the highest antiradical activity in the DPPH system, which was comparable to the activity of quercetin. The activities of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were similar to that of trans-p-feruloyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside in the DPPH model system.
Characterization and quantitation of antioxidant constituents of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).:
Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. Vergasa have been studied at four maturity stages (immature green, green, immature red, and red). The individual phenolics (hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids), vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), and individual carotenoids were characterized and quantified. Five hydroxycinnamic derivatives and 23 flavonoids were characterized and quantified from the pericarp of sweet pepper by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Identification was carried out by their UV spectra, chromatographic comparisons with authentic markers, identification of hydrolysis products, and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Hydroxycinnamic derivatives, O-glycosides of quercetin, luteolin, and chrysoeriol, and a large number of C-glycosyl flavones have been characterized. Some of these compounds were found for the first time in nature. Clear differences in the individual and total phenolic content were detected between the different maturity stages. Immature green pepper had a very high phenolic content while green, immature red, and red ripe peppers showed a 4-5-fold reduction. Ascorbic acid was the main form of vitamin C, and its content increased as the pepper reached maturity. The red ripe stage had a relevant impact on the carotenoids content. Thus, immature green peppers showed the highest content of polyphenols, while red ripe fruits had the highest content of vitamin C and provitamin A.
Antioxidant activity of a new capsaicin derivative from Capsicum annuum.:
A new capsaicin derivative, 6' ',7' '-dihydro-5',5' "-dicapsaicin (1), and a known capsaicin metabolite, omega-hydroxycapsaicin (2),(1) were isolated from the fruit of Capsicum annuum. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 showed almost the same antioxidant activity as capsaicin, but did not have a pungent taste.
Antioxidant activity of capsinoids.:
Hot peppers are a good source of dietary antioxidants, encompassing, apart from widespread compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, tocopherols), also specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and related analogues). We have shown that capsinoids also show remarkable antioxidant activity. These benign analogues of capsaicin could protect linoleic acid against free radical attack in simple in vitro systems, inhibiting both its autoxidation and its iron- or EDTA-mediated oxidation. These properties were retained in some simple synthetic analogues (vanillyl nonanoate and its dimerization products). Capsiate, dihydrocapsiate, and their analogues were devoid of pro-oxidant activity and showed a highly significant antioxidant activity in all systems investigated. Vanillyl nonanoate, a simple capsinoid mimic, was also tested on cell cultures for cytotoxic activity and the capacity to inhibit FeCl(3)-induced oxidation.
Carotenoids in human blood plasma after ingesting paprika juice.:
We investigated the presence of different carotenoids in male human subject after the ingestion of paprika juice, and identified capsanthin, capsanthone, cucurbitaxanthin A, 11-cis-capsanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin in the human plasma. These results suggest that capsanthone and 11-cis-capsanthin might be as important as capsanthin for human health.
Chemical and elemental comparison of two formulations of oleoresin capsicum.:
In-custody deaths following the application of pepper spray weaponry by law enforcement personnel have increased in California over the last few years. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), an oily extract of hot peppers, is the active ingredient in the spray, but little detailed information on product mixtures is available. Since OC extracts contain a multitude of natural compounds at irregular concentrations, there could be considerable, variation in overall chemical composition among the different formulations of both 'natural' and 'synthetic' OC preparations. This was confirmed by organic and inorganic analyses performed on OC sprays produced by two manufacturers licensed for distribution within the state of California. The results indicated that the differences could lead to considerable inconsistency in weapon effectiveness, and suggested that more comprehensive studies are warranted.
Steroidal glycosides from Capsicum annuum.:
Four new steroidal glycosides, named capsicosides A-D together with proto-degalactotigonin, were isolated from the roots and seeds of Capsicum annuum var. conoides and Capsicum annuum var. fasciculatum. On the basis of detailed chemical and spectroscopic evidence, the structures of capsicosides A-D were shown to be furostanol glycosides corresponding to gitogenin and tigogenin oligoglycosides. Capsicoside A was regarded as the same compound as the previously described capsicoside, whose structure now needs to be revised according to the data presented in this report.
Analysis of eight capsaicinoids in peppers and pepper-containing foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.:
Diverse procedures have been reported for the isolation and analysis of secondary metabolites called capsaicinoids, pungent compounds in the fruit of the Capsicum (Solanaceae) plant. To further improve the usefulness of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), studies were carried out on the analysis of extracts containing up to eight of the following capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin-I, homocapsaicin-II, homodihydrocapsaicin-I, homodihydrocapsaicin-II, nonivamide, and nordihydrocapsaicin. HPLC was optimized by defining effects on retention times of (a) the composition of the mobile phase (acetonitrile/0.5% formic acid in H2O), (b) the length of the Inertsil column, and (c) the capacity values (k) of the column packing. Identification was based on retention times and mass spectra of individual peaks. Quantification was based on the UV response at 280 nm in HPLC and recoveries from spiked samples. The method (limit of detection of approximately 15-30 ng) was successfully used to quantify capsaicinoid levels of parts of the pepper fruit (pericarp, placenta, seeds, and in the top, middle, and base parts of whole peppers) in 17 species of peppers and in 23 pepper-containing foods. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the method for the analysis of capsaicinoids ranging from approximately 0.5 to 3600 microg of capsaicin equiv/g of product. The water content of 12 fresh peppers ranged from 80.8 to 92.7%. The described freeze-drying, extraction, and analysis methods should be useful for assessing the distribution of capsaicinoids in the foods and in defining the roles of these biologically active compounds in the plant, the diet, and medicine.
Characterization of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.:
Carotenoids and carotenoid esters were extracted from red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) without saponification. Among the 42 compounds detected, 4 non-esterified, 11 mono- and 17 diesters were characterized based on their retention times, UV/Vis spectra and their fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Positive and negative ion mode measurements were used for the characterization of major and minor carotenoids and their esters. Capsanthin esterified with lauric, palmitic and myristic acids represented the predominant compounds in the red pepper extracts. Additionally, three beta-cryptoxanthin and one zeaxanthin monoester were tentatively identified in red pepper pods for the first time. Furthermore, the specific fragmentation patterns of capsanthin-laurate-myristate and capsanthin-myristate-palmitate were used for the distinction of both regioisomers. The results obtained from LC-DAD-APCI-MSn experiments demonstrated that the carotenoid profile of red pepper pods is considerably more complex than considered hitherto.
Quantitative determination of capsaicinoids by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.:
Eight naturally occurring capsaicinoids have been determined in Capsicum by use of high-purity standards, with norcapsaicin as an internal standard. The solid standards were rigorously checked for purity. The sensitivity of electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and coordination ion-spray (CIS; with silver) toward the capsaicinoids were measured and compared. The highest sensitivity was found for positive-ion ESI. Method validation of the liquid chromatography-ESI-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) determination is reported, including tests for repeatability (4%), detection limit (5 pg injected), linear range (20-6 ng injected), quantitation (excellent linearity; < 2% relative standard deviation), and recovery (99-103%). The major and minor capsaicinoids in a commercial plant extract and in chili pepper fruits were quantified.
Identification of the major vanilloid component in Capsicum extract by HPLC-EC and HPLC-MS.:
A sensitive multi-channel HPLC-electrochemical (EC) method has been developed to determine the vanilloid content in the complex Capsicum annuum extract Capsibiol. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 10 min using a YMC Basic S5 column with a mobile phase containing chloroacetic acid, heptane sulphonic acid and acetonitrile. The multi-channel detector simultaneously applied four potentials between +500 and +800 mV (referenced to a silver/silver chloride electrode) to four glassy carbon working electrodes. The most abundant (0.94 mg/g) vanilloid analogue in the Capsibiol sample demonstrated an electrochemical reactivity and retention time similar to that of vanillic acid in HPLC-EC analysis. Its identity was confirmed by HPLC-MS using a Zorbax SB-CN column with a mobile phase containing formic acid and methanol.
Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid and phenolic acid glycosides from pericarp of hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L.:
Hot pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) var. Bronowicka Ostra have been studied with regard to content of flavonoids and other phenolics. Nine compounds were isolated from pericarp of pepper fruits by preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by chromatographic (analytical HPLC) and spectroscopic (UV, NMR) techniques. Two of the identified compounds, trans-p-ferulylalcohol-4-O-(6-(2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionyl) glucopyranoside and luteolin-7-O-(2-apiofuranosyl-4-glucopyranosyl-6-malonyl)-glucopyranoside were found for the first time in the plant kingdom. Additionally compounds: trans-p-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, trans-p-sinapoyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-[2-(beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] were found for the first time in pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L.
Stability of capsinoid in various solvents.:
To investigate the stability of capsinoid in solvents, the quantitative change of vanillyl nonanoate, a synthetic model capsinoid, in various solvents was measured by HPLC. Vanillyl nonanoate was stable in nonpolar solvents, whereas it was labile in polar solvents. In particular, vanillyl nonanoate tended to decompose in protic solvents such as alcohol and water. Structures of the decomposition products from vanillyl nonanoate in methanol and ethanol were determined to be methyl and ethyl vanillyl ethers, respectively. To clarify the decomposition mechanism of capsinoid, six analogues of vanillyl nonanoate were tested. The stability of the analogues in organic solvents suggested that the hydroxyl group in the para-position of the benzene ring largely contributes to the decomposition of capsinoid.
Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.:
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the predominant capsaicinoid analogues in extracts of fresh peppers, in oleoresin capsicum, and pepper sprays. The concentration of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers was variable. Variability was dependent upon the relative pungency of the pepper type and geographical origin of the pepper. Nonivamide was conclusively identified in the extracts of fresh peppers, despite numerous reports that nonivamide was not a natural product. In the oleoresin capsicum samples, the pungency was proportional to the total concentration of capsaicinoids and was related by a factor of approximately 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)/microg of total capsaicinoids. The principle analogues detected in oleoresin capsicum were capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and appeared to be the analogues primarily responsible for the pungency of the sample. The analysis of selected samples of commercially available pepper spray products also demonstrated variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations. Variability was observed among products obtained from different manufacturers as well as from different product lots from the same manufacturer. These data indicate that commercial pepper products are not standardized for capsaicinoid content even though they are classified by SHU. Variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations in oleoresin capsicum-based self-defense weapons could alter potency and ultimately jeopardize the safety and health of users and assailants.
Isolation of a series of apocarotenoids from the fruits of the red paprika Capsicum annuum L.:
Eleven apocarotenoids (1-11) including five new compounds, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 11, were isolated from the fruits of the red paprika Capsicum annuum L. The structures of new apocarotenoids were determined to be apo-14'-zeaxanthinal (4), apo-13-zeaxanthinone (6), apo-12'-capsorubinal (9), apo-8'-capsorubinal (10), and 9,9'-diapo-10,9'-retro-carotene-9,9'-dione (11) by spectroscopic analysis. The other six known apocarotenoids were identified to be apo-8'-zeaxanthinal (1), apo-10'-zeaxanthinal (2), apo-12'-zeaxanthinal (3), apo-15-zeaxanthinal (5), apo-11-zeaxanthinal (7), and apo-9-zeaxanthinone (8) which have not been previously found in paprika. These apocarotenoids were assumed to be oxidative cleavage products of C(40) carotenoid such as capsanthin in paprika.
Paprika (Capsicum annuum) oleoresin extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide.:
Paprika oleoresin was fractionated by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide (SCF-CO(2)). Higher extraction volumes, increasing extraction pressures, and similarly, the use of cosolvents such as 1% ethanol or acetone resulted in higher pigment yields. Within the 2000-7000 psi range, total oleoresin yield always approached 100%. Pigments isolated at lower pressures consisted almost exclusively of beta-carotene, while pigments obtained at higher pressures contained a greater proportion of red carotenoids (capsorubin, capsanthin, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and small amounts of beta-carotene. The varying solubility of oil and pigments in SCF-CO(2) was optimized to obtain enriched and concentrated oleoresins through a two-stage extraction at 2000 and 6000 psi. This technique removes the paprika oil and beta-carotene during the first extraction step, allowing for second-stage oleoresin extracts with a high pigment concentration (200% relative to the reference) and a red:yellow pigment ratio of 1.8 (as compared to 1.3 in the reference).
- 1.Capsicum.Cayenne.Red Pepper.Capsicum Annuum and Capsicum Frutescens.
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