Plantain:Pharmacology and Applications.
- Basic Botanical Information of Plantain.
- Botanical Description of Common plantain.
- What is Plantain Seed?
- Functions of Plantain Seed.Semen plantaginis.
- Indications,Combinations and Administration of Plantain.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Plantain.
- Plantain:Pharmacology and Applications.
- Plantain:Psyllium seed,Psyllium husk,The Amazing Fiber!
- Plantain Herb:Notes from Ancient Classics and Ancient Herbalists.
- Rearch Update:Plantain Seed.
Plantain:Pharmacology and Applications.
Uses in General:
The Plantain contains Ascorbic-acid, Apigenin, Baicalein, Benzoic-acid, Chlorogenic-acid, Citric-acid,
and Ferulic-acid, Oleanolic-acid, Salicylic-acid, and Ursolic-acid are beneficial for human body.
Traditionally used for the treatment of:Respiratory Complaints.Coughs.Inflammation.
Plantain leaves and seed are used as:Antibacterial.Antidote.Astringent.Antiinflammatory.Antiseptic.Antitussive;Cardiac.
Psyllium has three major uses that have been well documented by modern scientific research. These include the treatment of diarrhea, the relief of constipation,and the lowering of serum cholesterol levels. Psyllium also has other uses in folk medicine that have not been scientifically documented.
Psyllium seed is high in dietary fiber, making it a good bulk laxative for treating chronic constipation. It is also used to soften stools and ease bowel movements after operations involving the anus and rectum, when hemorrhoids or anal fissures are present; or during pregnancy to lessen the strain of bowel movements.
Psyllium seeds are coated with a substance called mucilage that swells or "bulks up" when exposed to water. This extra volume stimulates the movement of material through the bowel. In addition, the moist, gummy mucilage lubricates the lining of the intestine. Both United States health authorities and the German Federal Health Agency's Commission E, established in 1978 to independently review and evaluate scientific literature and case studies pertaining to herb and plant medications, approve the use of psyllium to treat constipation.
Although it may at first seem contradictory, psyllium is also used to treat diarrhea and bouts of irritable bowel syndrome, a condition in which periods of diarrhea alternate with periods of constipation. As psyllium passes through the intestines, it absorbs water. This reduces the amount of fluid in the bowel and helps to control diarrhea. Both United States health authorities and the German Commission E have approved the use of psyllium to treat diarrhea.
German health authorities approved the use of psyllium to reduce serum cholesterol levels in the early 1990s, while the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not permit health claims to be made for psyllium content in foods until 1997. In that year, the FDA reviewed several scientific studies indicating that a daily intake of 10.2 grams of psyllium seed husk, combined with a diet low in saturated fats, consistently lowered blood cholesterol levels. A recent Canadian study confirmed the FDA's daily intake recommendation. Moreover, an improvement in the ratio of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, or "good" cholesterol) to low-density lipoproteins (LDL, or "bad" cholesterol) occurs when psyllium is used on a daily basis. The beneficial effects of psyllium on blood cholesterol levels, however, are somewhat affected by sex and age. Other surveys have found that wellness programs in which psyllium intake is one component of personalized behavioral change recommendations are more effective in lowering blood cholesterol than simply taking psyllium by itself.
In addition to these approved therapeutic uses, psyllium is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat stomach and intestinal ulcers, heartburn, and to help manage non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes. One Western study showed that psyllium taken before meals reduced the rise in blood glucose that occurred after eating, suggesting a valid role for psyllium in diabetes management. Additional studies are being undertaken.
In Ayurvedic medicine, psyllium is used to cleanse the body by absorbing toxins in the large intestine so that they can be eliminated from the body. Some herbalists believe this action helps reduce the risk of colon cancer. Psyllium is also used by Ayurvedic practitioners to treat urethritis.
Plantain has long been considered by herbalists to be a useful remedy for cough, wounds, inflamed skin or dermatitis, and insect bites.Bruised or crushed leaves have been applied topically to treat insect bites and stings, eczema, and small wounds or cuts. It was considered by herbalists to be a gentle, soothing expectorant, and additionally to have a mild astringent effect said to help remedy hemorrhoids or bladder infections with mild amounts of blood in the urine.
It is thought to have been a European herb originally, but nowadays, it can be found growing throughout the world. Plantain seeds have even been found in Egyptian tombs, so you know it's been around a LONG time.
Plantain has long been associated with agriculture. Certain species have been spread by human colonization, particularly that of Europeans. As such, North American Indians and New Zealand Maori refer to plantain as "Englishman's foot," because it spread from areas of English settlement. P. lanceolata and P. major have been used in herbal remedies and sometimes were carried to colonies intentionally for that purpose. Psyllium seed has been found in malt refuse (formerly used as fertilizer) and wool imported to England. It has been commonly used in birdseed. Pulverized seeds are mixed with oil and applied topically to inflamed sites. Decoctions have been mixed with honey for sore throats. The seeds and refined colloid are used commonly in commercial bulk laxative preparations.
The psyllium in plantain has been used as GI therapy, to treat hyperlipidemia, for anticancer effects, and for respiratory treatment. In human studies, plantain has been effective for chronic bronchitis, asthma, cough, and cold. Clinical studies show that psyllium seed is useful as a bulk laxative. Many reports on psyllium have concluded that it can be helpful in treating various hyperlipidemias. A polyphenolic compound from P. major leaves was found to exhibit cholesterol-lowering activity. In addition, the mechanism by which plantago reduces cholesterol also may include enhancement of cholesterol elimination as fecal bile acids. Research reveals no information regarding the use of plantain as an anticancer agent.
Plantain is very edible, though a little strong. It is best before flowering since the leaves begin to get really tough after that. I still use it throughout the year; just slice the leaves across the fibers and cook well. It has an interesting and hearty taste, and it's very good for you, with lots of calcium and vitamin C and a good amount of vitamin A. The flower shoots can also be eaten when tender and provide you with some B1 (thiamine).
Plantain (plantago) carries the old label of waybread. This term usually refers to a hard bread that you can take traveling. It keeps for a long time and will sustain you on a journey.Now where plantain fits into this definition, I don't know. I did find mention of an herb that you could eat that would sustain you for 12 days. That begins to make some sense, because plantain is a very nutritious and medicinal herb.
Plantain Seed can significantly decrease capillary permeability in the skin and in the abdominal cavity, and decrease red blood cell membrane's permeability.Experiments on the adherence of Neisseria gonorrheae to human urethra epithelial cells show that Plantain Seed can significantly decrease the number of NG adhered to the surface of human urethra epithelial cells, and help keep the host organism relatively intact.
Experiments show that administered to mice, Plantain Seed can significantly increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), decrease the lipid peroxide level, increase the median hemolytic concentration (HC50), lengthen the subjects'swimming time, and enhance their anti-hypoxic capability.
Effects on gastrointestinal movement:
Plantain Seed can increase the water content in the intestine, improve peristalsis and bowel movement, and relieves diarrhea.Plantain Seed gelatin, however, has a lapactic effect, and helps ameliorate constipation.
Effects on the joint capsule:
Experiments show that injected to rabbits' knee cavity, 5%Plantain Seed solution can promote the proliferation of join capsule synovium's connective tissue, thereby recovering the normal tension of relaxed joint capsules.
Effects on intraocular pressure:
Experiments show that administered to rabbits by endogastric perfusion at 2.5g/kg for 3-6 days, Plantain Seed can slightly lower the subjects' intraocular pressure. The treatment can not counteract water load-induced increase in intraocular pressure in rabbits, however.
Fast acting bulk laxative:
Psyllium is a natural fast acting bulk laxative that is high in fiber and mucilage. It helps restore normal bowel functions, promotes healthy colon function, cleanses the large intestines, expels toxins, and may be beneficial for constipation, intestinal inflammation, stomach and duodenal ulcers. irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and cholesterol levels. Studies at the University of Kentucky and the Veterans Affairs medical center in Lexington Ky showed that Serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were 4.7% and 6.7% lower in a 24-26 week time span after being given psyllium.
Astringent,anti-toxic,antimicrobial,anti-inflammatory,as well as demulcent, expectorant, styptic and diuretic:
Plantago spp. are often used as herbal remedies. The herb is astringent, anti-toxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, as well as demulcent, expectorant, styptic and diuretic. Externally, a poultice of the leaves is useful for insect bites, poison-ivy rashes, minor sores, and boils. In folklore it is even claimed to be able to cure snakebite (but at least for actually dangerous snakebites this is certainly untrue). Internally, it is used for coughs and bronchitis, as a tea, tincture, or syrup. The broad-leaved varieties are sometimes used as a leaf vegetable for salads, green sauce, et cetera.
Plantain seed husks expand and become mucilaginous when wet, especially those of P. psyllium, which is used in common over-the-counter bulk laxative and fiber supplement products such as Metamucil. P. psyllium seed is useful for constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, dietary fiber supplementation, and diverticular disease. Recent research is also showing it to be promising in lowering cholesterol and controlling diabetes.
Psyllium supplements are typically used in powder form, along with adequate amounts of fluids. A dose of at least 7 grams daily taken with adequate amounts of fluid (water, juice) is used by some for management of elevated cholesterol. There are a number of psyllium products used for constipation. The usual dose is about 3.5 grams twice a day. Psyllium is also a component of several ready-to-eat cereals.
In India, mucilage from (Plantago ovata) is obtained by grinding off the husk. The mucilageis sold as Isabgol, a laxative which is used to control irregular bowel syndrome and constipation. It is also used in cereals as a treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia and for reducing blood glucose. It has been used as an indigenous Ayurvedic and Unani medicine for a whole range of bowel problems including chronic constipation, amoebic dysentry and diarrhoea.
In Romania and Bulgaria, leaves from Plantago major are used as a folk remedy to preventing infection on cuts and scratches because of its antiseptic properties.
Uses of Plantain leaf and Seeds:
If use externally a poultice of the leaves is useful to cure insect bites, poison-ivy rashes, minor sores, and boils if taken internally its useful for coughs and bronchitis, as a tea, tincture, or syrup.
Taken internally, common plantain is diuretic,expectorant, and decongestant. It is commonly prescribed for gastritis, peptic ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery,irritable bowel syndrome, respiratory congestion, loss of voice and urinary tract bleeding.
The seeds are closely related to psyllium seeds and can be used similarly, a tablespoon or two soaked in hot sweetened water or fruit juice until a mucilage is formed and the whole gruel drunk as a lubricating laxative.
The fresh juice can be made into a douche for vaginitis by combining two tablespoons and a pint of warm water with a pinch of table salt.
Proteolytic enzymes found in the fresh leaf and the fresh or dried root make plantain useful as a gentle internal vasoconstrictor for milk intestinal inflammation.
The fresh juice or dried leaves in tea can help bladder inflammations.
The fresh juice can be preserved with 25% vodka or 10% grain alcohol.
Take one teaspoon in warm water one hour before every meal for mild stomach ulcers.
For bed-wetting plantain leaf can be given as a beverage-strength tea throughout the day (but not right before bedtime).
Staunches blood flow and encourages the repair of damaged tissue:It may be used instead of comfrey in treating bruises and broken bones.
Drawn the poison:
Once, a friend of my daughter was bitten by a brown recluse spider. After several trips to the doctor and a referral to a surgeon, he put some macerated plantain (plantago majora) leaves on the bite. That night, a lot of black liquid came out. The plantain seemed to have drawn the poison.
The next morning the bite was much improved and he could actually walk. When he went back to the surgeon later that day, there was just a deep hole where the bite had been. There's something really gratifying about seeing the surprised look on a doctor's face when he doesn't understand what has happened.
Pliny the Elder once said that you could put plantain into a pot with pieces of flesh, and the pieces would join back together. This herb is well-known as a natural remedy for wounds and bites.
Uses of Plantain lotion:An ointment or lotion may be used to treat hemorrhoids, fistulae and ulcers.
Summary:Medicinal uses and health benefits of psyllium
Psyllium seed consists of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin). The seeds contain protein, triglycerides, starch and a fixed oil. Psyllium husk contains a high proportion of hemicellulose. Psyllium is astringent, antitoxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, demulcent, expectorant and diuretic. Psyllium contains mucilage which is used in common over-the-counter bulk laxative and fiber supplement products for constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, dietary fiber supplementation, and diverticular disease. Psyllium seed is high in dietary fiber, making it a good bulk laxative for treating chronic constipation. Psyllium has hypocholesterolemic effects. Psyllium is effective in lowering total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in some with hypercholesterolemia. In the intestines, psyllium may stick to cholesterol contained in foods, keeping it from being absorbed by the body and forcing it to be eliminated. Psyllium may also trap and eliminate bile acids. Psyllium may be recommended by a physician to help soften stool and reduce the pain associated with hemorrhoids. Psyllium speeds the passage of stool through the digestive tract by softening the stool and attracting water thereby producing more bulk. Mucilage in psyllium acts as a soothing lubricant to the intestinal walls and may benefit to people with medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome. Externally, a poultice of the leaves is useful for insect bites, poison ivy rashes, minor sores.
Active constituents:Polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), protein, triglycerides, starch and a fixed oil.
Health benefits:Effective in lowering total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in some with hypercholesterolemia.
Cosmetic Uses:Plantago Lanceolata Leaf Extract (Plantago) is derived from Plantago Leaves,it has anti-inflammatory and healing effects on damaged skin, astringent properties.
Pharmacological effects of Plantain Herb.
1.The impact of the urinary system: plantain have a diuretic effect, can make dogs, rabbits and human water discharge increased, and increased discharge urea, uric acid and sodium chloride. Plantain ethanol extracts inhibit the horse kidney Na + -K + -ATP enzyme activity, and dose-dependent, 50% inhibition of Na + -K + -ATP activity amount (IC50) was 16.0μg / ml. Plantain water extraction and alcohol precipitation solution to 0.5g crude drug / kg intravenously to dogs, causing a significant increase in urine output, and ureteral peristalsis frequency enhancement, ureteral intraluminal pressure. Pressure variations showed motility, short (15-70 seconds) and long tension (70 seconds or more) tension pressure. This synergistic aspects, which will help ureteral stones down, which may be one of the mechanisms plantain diuretic row of stone.
2.Cough,asthma,expectorant effect: decoction of plantain in high and low doses to cats orally, can make the cat cough induced by electrical stimulation of a significant increase in the threshold, and increase with dose, plotted strengthened. Mice fed 30g / kg Plantain decoction can significantly inhibit the ammonia-induced cough. A significant increase in the outflow of lung plantain decoction 2.0 × 10 (-2) g / L can Rabbits bronchopulmonary specimens. Plantain decoction can significantly histamine, acetylcholine-induced contraction of isolated guinea pig trachea, trachea smooth muscle relaxation, have asthma. Rabbits fed psyllium decoction, make rabbit tracheal secretion increased significantly, there is a certain expectorant effect. Plantain decoction fed to cats, cats can anesthetized tracheal secretions increased significantly expectorant effect, but the effect is not as bellflower. 3-6 hours after administration peak effect can be maintained for 6-7 hours. Glycosides In addition to the vehicle in front can promote the secretion of the trachea and bronchial mucus, but also can inhibit the respiratory center, deepens breathing slow, and there are some antitussive effect.
3.The original microbial resistance: plantain flooding agent in vitro for concentric Trichophyton, wool-like small spores rubrum, star slave card bacteria have different degrees of inhibition. Tablet burrow Prove Staphylococcus aureus plantain highly sensitive, moderately sensitive Song Shigella, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi mildly sensitive. Plantain alcohol extract 15mg / ml are killing leptospirosis role.
4.Stomach,intestinal effects:to stomach and stomach illness before Pavlov small dog drenched grass extract or vehicle infusion 0.5g / kg, for a two-way regulation of gastric secretion; to pilocarpine-induced gastric secretion and adrenaline caused by excessive secretion of gastric juice is too small, have antagonism. Plantain working condition of the stomach are inhibited, the quiet state of the stomach but no action. Plantain is also a temporary increase in intestinal fluid secretion, no significant effect on the bowel motion. Plantago major leaf water before extracted pectin can lower the car 95 percent of rats with gastric ulcer index, promote dog gastric secretion,reduce rabbit isolated intestinal contraction amplitude, and barium chloride and contraction against histamine.Plantain pectin brake on mouse gastric ulcer, gastric ulcer caused by aspirin, phenylbutazone-induced gastric ulcer model have a good preventive effect. Plantago leaves fruit powder can also extend the gastric emptying time in rats.
5.Anti-inflammatory effects: Rat oral vehicle pectin 0.5g / kg or 1g / kg, inflammatory edema caused by the formaldehyde or dextran, significantly inhibited.
6.Other effects: plantain extract on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and sarcoma S180 in mice have weaker inhibition. Before the car glycosides (plantaginin) small doses can make rabbits slow heartbeat, increased amplitude, high blood pressure, high doses can cause a heart attack, blood pressure is lowered. It also makes breathing becomes deep and slow increases, promote the secretion of bronchial and digestive tract and promote bowel, uterine movement. Aucubin whole plant contains a purgative effect on the mice, taking six hours after the start of diarrhea, its median effective dose of 0.39g / kg. Aucubin can also protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride and α- Amanita Tan virulence factors, it is Amanita lamb (Amanita phalloides) such poisonous mushrooms antidote. Obtained from the car in front Phenylethanoid glucoside compound (phenylethanoid glycosides) has antioxidant effects in rat liver microsomes with ADP and NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation in, IC50 plantain glycosides D is 0.36μmol/L.
- 1.Plantago asiatica,the Plantain Herb and Plantain Seed,a traditional herb for diuresis promoting and stranguria ,its introductions and applications.
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