Plantago asiatica L.Uses Plantain seed and Plantain Seed Extract.

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Rearch Update:Plantain Seed.

Plantain Seed Extract INCI Name Plantago Ovata Seed Extract EINECS ELINCS No 290-178-8 CAS 90082-86-3   Laxative drug products for over-the-counter human use; psyllium ingredients in granular dosage forms. Final rule.:Fed Regist. 2007 Mar 29;72(60):14669-74.Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing that over-the-counter (OTC) laxative drug products in granular dosage form containing the bulk-forming psyllium ingredients (psyllium (hemicellulose), psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, psyllium seed, psyllium seed (blond), psyllium seed husks, plantago ovata husks, and plantago seed) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) and are misbranded. This final rule includes, but is not limited to, any granules that are swallowed dry prior to drinking liquid; dispersed, suspended, or partially dissolved in liquid prior to swallowing; chewed, partially chewed, or unchewed, and then washed down (or swallowed) with liquid; or sprinkled over food. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering reports of esophageal obstruction associated with the use of psyllium laxatives in granular dosage form. These cases continue to occur despite efforts to promote safe use through label warnings and directions. This final rule does not apply to psyllium laxatives in nongranular dosage forms, such as powders, tablets, or wafers. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  A Combination of Psyllium and Plant Sterols Alters Lipoprotein Metabolism in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects by Modifying the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Increasing LDL Uptake.:J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1165-70.Shrestha S, Freake HC, McGrane MM, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Departments of Nutritional Sciences and 4Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269.

 We previously demonstrated that a diet therapy involving consumption of 7.28 g psyllium (PSY) and 2 g of plant sterols (PS) per day reduced LDL cholesterol from 3.6 +/- 0.7 to 3.1 +/- 0.8 mmol/L (P < 0.01) and decreased the number of intermediate density lipoprotein particles and the smaller LDL and HDL subfractions in hypercholesterolemic individuals (n = 33). The study design was a randomized double blind crossover. Subjects consumed either 2 test cookies containing PSY+PS or 2 placebo cookies for 1 mo with a 3-wk wash out between treatments. To explore mechanisms of the lipid-lowering effects of combined PSY+PS, we present data related to intravascular and molecular regulation. Intake of PSY+PS decreased the cholesterol concentration in LDL-1 from 2.46 +/- 0.66 to 2.26 +/- 0.46 mmol/L and in LDL-2 from 0.63 +/- 0.24 to 0.54 +/- 0.27 mmol/L (P < 0.05) in the test compared with the placebo period. An increase in LDL peak size from 27.3 +/- 0.8 to 27.5 +/- 0.6 nm (P < 0.05) and a decrease in the prevalence of LDL pattern B from 27 to 18% (P < 0.05) also occurred during the PSY+PS period. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity was 11% lower (P < 0.05) during the test period. Notably, the abundance of the LDL receptor in circulating mononuclear cells as measured by real time PCR was 26% higher during the test compared with the placebo period (P < 0.03). These results indicate that the hypocholesterolemic action of PSY and PS can be explained in part by modifications in the intravascular processing of lipoproteins and by increases in LDL receptor-mediated uptake.

  Nutriceuticals in cardiovascular disease: psyllium.:Cardiol Rev. 2007 May-Jun;15(3):116-22.Petchetti L, Frishman WH, Petrillo R, Raju K.Department of Medicine, Mt. Vernon Hospital, Mt. Vernon, New York, USA.

 In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of dietary fiber in health maintenance and disease prevention. A deficiency of fiber in the Western diet may be contributing to the current epidemics of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease (CAD), and colonic cancer. The awareness of fiber as a dietary supplement may have contributed to the reported 30% decline in death rate from CAD observed over the past 15 years. Psyllium is a soluble gel-forming fiber that has been shown to bind to the bile acids in the gut and prevent their normal reabsorption, similar to the bile acid sequestrant drugs. Psyllium is useful as an adjunct to dietary therapy (step 1 or step 2 American Heart Association [AHA] diet) in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia. In combination with other cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as statins, psyllium provides an added benefit on cholesterol lowering, and is well tolerated and cost-effective.

  Psyllium as therapeutic and drug delivery agent.:Int J Pharm. 2007 Apr 4;334(1-2):1-14. Epub 2007 Jan 21.Singh B.Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005, India. baljitsinghhpu@yahoo.com

 There is no doubt that fibers, in particular viscous dietary fibers, have positive effects on human health, both in the prevention and in treatment of chronic diseases. Dietary fibers from psyllium have been used extensively both as pharmacological supplements, food ingredients, in processed food to aid weight control, to regulation of glucose control for diabetic patients and reducing serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemics. Keeping in view, the pharmacological importance of psyllium polysaccharide and its gel-forming nature, this article discusses the therapeutic value of psyllium for the treatment of constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease-ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia and exploitation of psyllium for developing drug delivery systems.

  Gradient-enhanced volume rendering: an image processing strategy to facilitate whole small bowel imaging with MRI.Eur Radiol. 2007 Apr;17(4):1081-8. Epub 2006 Oct 5.Wyss M, Froehlich JM, Patak MA, Juli CF, Scheidegger MB, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU.Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Cantonal Hospital, Winterthur, Switzerland. wyss@biomed.ee.ethz.ch

 MRI of the small bowel with positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent is a promising non-invasive imaging method. The aim of our study was to introduce small bowel MRI in a display format that clinicians are accustomed to and that maximizes the amount of information visualized on a single image. Twelve healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 18-49 years) participated in the study. A mixture of 20 ml Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), 0.8 g/kg body weight psyllium fibre (Metamucil) and 1.2 l water were sequentially administered over a period of 4 h. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T unit (Philips Gyroscan, Intera). Fat-saturated, 3D, gradient echo imaging was performed while the patient was in apnea (30 s). Bowel motion was reduced with 40 mg intravenously administered scopolamine (Buscopan). A 3D, gradient-enhanced, volume rendering technique was applied to the 3D data sets. Standard projections [left anterior oblique (LAO), right anterior oblique (RAO), supine and prone] resembling conventional enteroclysis were successfully generated within fewer than 10 min processing time. Reconstructions were reproducible and provided an entire overview of the small bowel. In addition thin-slab volume rendering allowed an overlap-free display of individual structures. Positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent, combined with a gradient enhanced volume rendering method, allows the reconstruction of the small bowel in a pattern resembling conventional double-contrast enteroclysis. Segmental display without overlay is possible.
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  Study on cultivating technology of high yield and quality of Plantago asiatica of Jiangxi geo-herbalism:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Oct;29(10):941-3.Liu XW, Zhang SW, Hu SF, Liu H, Huang HL, Yu ZG.Jiangxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330006, China. xianwangliu1@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To study the high-yield and high-quality cultivating technology of Plantago asiatica, adapt to the demands of GAP. METHOD: The main factors which influenced the yield and quality in the production process of P. asiatica was studied. RESULT: The standard system cultivating technology of high yield and quality of P. asiatica was established. CONCLUSION: The seeds of P. asiatica can reach the objective of high yield and high quality on the basis of this cultivating technology.

  Differential activation of heme oxygenase-1 by chalcones and rosolic acid in endothelial cells.:J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Feb;312(2):686-93. Epub 2004 Nov 10.Foresti R, Hoque M, Monti D, Green CJ, Motterlini R.Vascular Biology Unit, Department of Surgical Research, Northwick Park Institute for Medical Research, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ, United Kingdom.

 The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is widely recognized as an effective cellular strategy to counteract a variety of stressful events. We have shown that curcumin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, two naturally occurring phytochemicals that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities, induce HO-1 in many cell types. This suggests that stimulation of HO-1 could partly underlie the beneficial effects exerted by these plant-derived constituents. Here we examined the ability of additional plant constituents to up-regulate heme oxygenase activity and HO-1 in aortic endothelial cells. Incubation of endothelial cells with a series of polyphenolic chalcones (5-50 microM) resulted in increased heme oxygenase activity; interestingly, the chemical structure dictated the pattern of heme oxygenase induction, which was unique to each particular compound employed. We also found that rosolic acid, a constituent isolated from the rhizome of Plantago asiatica L. dramatically increased HO-1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Severe cytotoxicity was observed after prolonged exposure (24 or 48 h) of cells to curcumin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, whereas 2'-hydroxychalcone and rosolic acid did not affect cell viability. By using different mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, we determined that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase pathways play only a minor role in the induction of HO-1 by rosolic acid and 2'-hydroxychalcone. On the other hand, increased intra- and extracellular thiols markedly reduced the rise in heme oxygenase activity elicited by rosolic acid. Thus, this study identified novel plant constituents that highly induce HO-1 in endothelial cells and investigated some of the mechanisms involved in this effect.

  Antidepressant effect of three traditional Chinese medicines in the learned helplessness model.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2-3):345-9.Xu C, Luo L, Tan RX.Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, PR China.

 Plantago asiatica, Scrophularia ningpoensis and Ilex pubescens are among the traditional Chinese medicines which are more frequently prescribed for treating depression-like ailments in the past and present traditional Chinese medical practice. The present work was therefore conducted to evaluate the presumable antidepressant effects of the extracts derived from the three remedies in mice using the learned helplessness model being used for screening for antidepressant compounds in modern medicinal researches. As a result, the petroleum extracts of Plantago asiatica and Ilex pubescens as well as the EtOAc extract of Scrophularia ningpoensis and the petroleum-soluble fraction of the acidic hydrolysate of the water extract of Ilex pubescens (after petroleum extraction) decreased significantly the number of escape failures relative to the control. The finding rationalized the clinical prescription of the herbs for the treatment of depression, and shined a clue for the characterization of the antidepressant phytochemical(s).

  In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica.:Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(2):225-34.Chiang LC, Chiang W, Chang MY, Lin CC. Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan, ROC.

 Plantago major linn. and P. asiatica Linn. (Plantaginaceae) are commonly used as folk medicine in Taiwan for treating infectious diseases related to the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. In this study, we investigated the antiviral, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activities of hot water extracts of these two species in vitro on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8 and ADV-11), and on various human leukemia, lymphoma and carcinoma cells with XTT, BrdU and IFN-gamma kits. Results showed that hot water extract of P. asiatica possessed significant inhibitory activity on the proliferation of lymphoma (U937) and carcinoma (bladder, bone, cervix, kidney, lung and stomach) cells and on viral infection (HSV-2 and ADV-11). P. major and P. asiatica both exhibited dual effects of immunodulatory activity, enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma at low concentrations (< 50 microg/ml), but inhibiting this effect at high concentration (> 50 microg/ml). The present study concludes that hot water extracts of P. major and P. asiatica possess abroad-spectrum of antileukemia, anticarcinoma and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Further investigations to elucidate the active component(s) of P. asiatica and P. major and to evaluate their clinical application are warranted.

  Herbalogical study on Plantago asiatica L.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jan;25(1):46-8.Liu X, Wu X, Huang H, Zhong S, Lai X, Cao L. Jiangxi Traditional Medicine College, Nanchang 330006.

 According to textual study of herbal drugs and modern scientific research of chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of Plantago asiatica L., the record in the ancient literatures was found to be basically identical to that obtained by modern scientific research. Plantago asiatica from Plantaginaceae family is regarded as the orthodox medicinal herbs through the ages.
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  Principal axes analyses on population genetic differentiation of Plantago asiatica in Zhejiang:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2002 Oct;13(10):1283-6.Guo S, Zhang D, Cao T. College of Life and Environment Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004. guoshuiliang@163.com

 Eight populations of Plantago asiatica collected from Zhejiang were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Eighteen of the 60 random primers were selected. 186 bands were amplified by the 18 primers, and 68.70% of them were polymorphic. Jaccard coefficient was applied to compare the genetic of these eight populations based on the RAPD data. Three-dimensional ordination plot of the eight populations based on the Jaccard coefficient was constructed by using principal axes analysis (PAA). The results showed that the genetic differentiation of eight populations could be explained to a certain extent by their geographical location and altitude.

  In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.:Phytother Res. 2002 Aug;16(5):440-4.Lin LT, Liu LT, Chiang LC, Lin CC. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Canada.

 Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies.

  Screening of Chinese herbal drug extracts for inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production and identification of an active compound of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Oct;77(2-3):209-17.

 Sixty-eight water and methanol extracts from 34 Chinese herbal drugs, most of which are used for inflammatory diseases, were screened for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774.1 macrophages and in LPS/interferon (IFN)-gamma-stimulated mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages. Among the extracts, methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans, Plantago asiatica, Rubia cordifolia, and Zanthoxylum bungeanum showed significant inhibition in J774.1 macrophages, while in mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages, water extracts of Ru. cordifolia and Scutellaria baicalensis and methanol extracts of Angelica megaphylla, My. fragrans, and Z. bungeanum inhibited the NO production. Among them, inhibition of water extract of Sc. baicalensis was found to be mainly due to direct scavenging of NO radicals, through an examination of its scavenging activity on PAPA NONOate-generated NO radicals, while water extract of Ru. cordifolia and methanol extracts of An. megaphylla, My. fragrans, P. asiatica, and Z. bungeanum showed inhibition on iNOS mRNA expression. At last, an inhibitory compound on iNOS mRNA expression was isolated from a methanol extract of Z. bungeanum and identified as 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyldihydroferulic acid by NMR spectral analyses and chemical synthesis.

  Phenylethanoids in the herb of Plantago lanceolata and inhibitory effect on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.:Planta Med. 1995 Oct;61(5):479-80.

 The five phenylethanoids, acteoside (1), cistanoside F (2), lavandulifolioside (3), plantamajoside (4) and isoacteoside (5) were isolated from the herb of Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Compounds 1, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. lanceolata L., and 4, the major phenylethanoid in the herb of P. asiatica L., showed inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced mouse ear edema.

  A phenylethanoid glycoside from Plantago asiatica.:Phytochemistry. 1995 Feb;38(3):741-3.

 A new phenylethanoid glycoside, plantasioside, was isolated from the aerial parts of Plantago asiatica. The structure of plantasioside was deduced from chemical and spectral evidence to be 1',2'-[beta(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha,beta-dioxoethanol]-6'-O- caffeoyl- O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. In addition, the structure of orobanchoside from P. depressa and P. camtschatica was revised to be 1',2'-[beta(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)- alpha,beta-dioxoethanol]-4'-O-caffeoyl-O-alpha-L-rham- nopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O- beta-D-glucopyranoside from beta-hydroxy-[beta(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]-4'-O-caffeoyl-O-alp ha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.
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  Determination of aucubin in Plantago asiatica L., P. major L. and P. depressa Willd. by HPLC:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Dec;16(12):743-4, 763.Guo Y, Cha M, Chao A, Yuan C.Dalian Municipal Institute for Drug Control.

 A HPLC method for the determination of aucubin in P. asiatica, P. major and P. depressa was established. The mobile phase is MeOH-H2O (17:83). Good in producibility and high in rate of recovery, this method provides an effective way for the study of Plantago.

  Reticuloendothelial system-potentiating and alkaline phosphatase-inducing activities of Plantago-mucilage A, the main mucilage from the seed of Plantago asiatica, and its five modification products.:Chem Pharm Bull. 1991 Aug;39(8):2068-71.

 Five kinds of chemically modified products were prepared from Plantago-mucilage A, the representative mucous polysaccharide isolated from the seed of Plantago asiatica L., and their reticuloendothelial system-potentiating and alkaline phosphatase-inducing activities have been investigated. Both activities were markedly enhanced when the mucilage was de-O-acetylated. The products obtained by periodate oxidation, controlled Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis under the two conditions were not effective. Structural features of the partial hydrolyzates were elucidated, and it was shown that these products lost all O-acetyl groups, all xylose branches and many hexuronosyl arabinose side chains.

  Plantagoside, a novel alpha-mannosidase inhibitor isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, suppresses immune response.:Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Dec 29;165(3):1292-8.

 A hot-water extract from the seed of Plantago asiatica showed a potent inhibitory activity against jack bean alpha-mannosidase, and a flavanone glucoside, plantagoside, was isolated as the inhibitor. Plantagoside was a specific inhibitor for jack bean alpha-mannosidase (IC50 at 5 microM) and appeared to be a non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Whereas, negligible or weak inhibitory activities were observed for beta-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and sialidase tested. Plantagoside also inhibited alpha-mannosidase activities in mouse liver lysosomal and microsomal fractions, and the enzyme inhibitory activity in microsomal fraction was enhanced in the presence of glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine. Plantagoside suppressed antibody response to sheep red blood cells and concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation which was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation.

  HPLC quantitative analysis of plantaginin in Shazenso (Plantago asiatica L.) extracts and isolation of plantamajoside.:

 Quantitative analytical method by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the quality control of Shazenso (Plantago asiatica L.) extracts. Plantaginin (I) which is one of the known constituents of Shazenso, was selected as a standard compound of the analysis. A chemically labile component has been isolated from the methanol extract and identified to be plantamajoside (II). It was found that II was converted into III even in hot water.

  Two New Iridoid Glucosides of Plantago asiatica.:Planta Med. 1982 Apr;44(4):204-6.

 From the whole plant of PLANTAGO ASIATICA, two new iridoid glucosides were isolated and their structures were established as 3,4-dihydroaucubin and 6'-O-beta-glucosylaucubin, respectively.
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  A combination therapy including psyllium and plant sterols lowers LDL cholesterol by modifying lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolemic individuals.:J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2492-7.Shrestha S, Volek JS, Udani J, Wood RJ, Greene CM, Aggarwal D, Contois JH, Kavoussi B, Fernandez ML.Liposcience Inc., Raleigh, NC 27616.

 We conducted a randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study to determine the effects of a combination therapy including plant sterols (PS) and psyllium (PSY), provided via cookies, on plasma lipids and on the size and subfraction distribution of VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Thirty-three healthy free-living individuals (11 males and 22 females), aged 35-65 y, with a BMI between 25 and 35 kg/m(2) and initial plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations between 2.6 and 4.1 mmol/L (100 and 160 mg/dL), were randomly assigned to receive treatment cookies (7.68 g/d PSY and 2.6 g/d PS) or placebo cookies (0 g PSY+PS) for 4 wk. After a 3-wk washout period, subjects received the other cookies for an additional 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced for all subjects, from 5.65 +/- 0.72 mmol/L after the placebo period to 5.28 +/- 0.76 mmol/L after the PSY+PS cookie period (P < 0.01). These reductions were primarily in LDL-C, which decreased from 3.48 +/- 0.70 to 3.14 +/- 0.78 mmol/L after PSY+PS cookie consumption (P < 0.01). Intake of the PSY+PS cookie decreased the number of intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), LDL, and HDL particles (P < 0.05) and plasma apo B concentrations (P < 0.01). The decreases in LDL and HDL particles were in the small subfractions. Because smaller LDL particles are associated with an increased risk of heart disease and because smaller HDL particles are indicative of diminished reverse cholesterol transport, we conclude that the combination therapy resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile. In addition, the evaluation of lipoprotein subfractions resulting from the action of the fiber and plant sterols in the intestinal lumen provides an insight on the secondary mechanisms of plasma LDL-C lowering.

  The release dynamics of model drugs from the psyllium and N-hydroxymethylacrylamide based hydrogels.:Int J Pharm. 2006 Nov 15;325(1-2):15-25. Epub 2006 Jun 9.Singh B, Chauhan GS, Sharma DK, Kant A, Gupta I, Chauhan N.Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005, India. baljitsinghhpu@yahoo.com

 In order to utilize the psyllium husk, a medicinally important natural polysaccharide, for developing the novel hydrogels for the controlled drug delivery device, we have prepared psyllium and N-hydroxymethylacrylamide based polymeric networks by using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (N,N'-MBAAm) as crosslinker. The polymeric networks thus formed were characterized with scanning electron micrography (SEM), FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques to study various structural aspects of the networks and also with the swelling response of the polymeric networks as a function of time, temperature, pH and [NaCl]. Equilibrium swelling has been observed to depend on both structural aspects of the polymers and environmental factors. Maximum P(s) 748.3 was observed at 13.0 x 10(-3)mol/L of [N,N'-MBAAm] in 0.5M NaOH solution. The release dynamics of model drugs (salicylic acid and tetracycline hydrochloride) from hydrogels has also been discussed, for the evaluation of the release mechanism and diffusion coefficients. The effect of pH on the release pattern of tetracycline has been studied by varying the pH of the release medium. In release medium of pH 7.4 buffer the release pattern of tetracycline drastically changes to the extent that mechanism of drug diffusion shifted from non-Fickian diffusion to Fickian diffusion. It has been observed that diffusion exponent "n" have 0.71, 0.67 and 0.52 values and gel characteristic constant 'k' have 1.552 x 10(-2), 2.291 x 10(-2) and 5.309 x 10(-2) values in distilled water, pH 2.2 buffer and pH 7.4 buffer, respectively, for tetracycline release. In solution of pH 7.4 buffer, the rate of polymer chain relaxation was more as compare to the rate of drug diffusion from these hydrogels and it follows Fick's law of diffusion. The value of the initial diffusion coefficient for the release of tetracycline hydrochloride was higher than the value of late time diffusion coefficient in each release medium indicating that in the start, the diffusion of drug from the polymeric matrix was fast as compare to the latter stages.

  Current gut-directed therapies for irritable bowel syndrome.:Chang HY, Kelly EC, Lembo AJ.Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard University Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Dana 501, Boston, MA 02215, USA. alembo@bidmc.harvard.edu.

 Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that can present with a wide array of symptoms that make treatment difficult. Current therapies are directed at relieving symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Pharmacologic agents used to treat IBS-associated pain include myorelaxants, peppermint oil, and peripherally acting opiates. Dicyclomine and hyoscyamine, the two myorelaxants available in the United States, have not been proven effective in reducing abdominal pain in patients with IBS. The efficacy of peppermint oil is debated, but methodological problems with existing studies preclude definitive judgment. Loperamide is ineffective for relief of abdominal pain. For IBS patients with excessive abdominal bloating, a small number of studies suggest that bacterial eradication with gut-directed antibiotics and bacterial reconstitution with nonpathogenic probiotics may reduce flatulence. For constipation-predominant (C-IBS) symptoms, current treatment options include fiber supplementation, polyethylene glycol, and tegaserod. Soluble fibers (ispaghula, calcium polycarbophil, psyllium) are more effective than insoluble fibers (wheat bran, corn fiber) in alleviating global symptoms and relieving constipation, although fiber in general has marginal benefit in treatment of overall IBS symptoms. Polyethylene glycol increases bowel frequency in chronic constipation, but its overall efficacy against IBS is unclear. Tegaserod, a 5-HT(4) agonist, demonstrates superiority over placebo in improving bowel frequency and stool consistency and alleviating abdominal pain and bloating in women with C-IBS. Overall global symptoms are modestly improved with tegaserod when compared with placebo. Additional agents under investigation for C-IBS include the ClC(2) chloride channel opener lubiprostone, mu-opioid receptor antagonist alvimopan, and 5-HT(4) agonist renzapride. For diarrhea-predominant (D-IBS) symptoms, available therapies include loperamide, alosetron, and clonidine. Alosetron, a 5-HT(3) antagonist, is superior to placebo for reducing bowel frequency, improving stool consistency, and relieving abdominal pain in women with D-IBS. However, alosetron is available under a restricted license because of concerns for ischemic colitis and severe constipation necessitating colectomy. Clonidine may be helpful in alleviating global symptoms for D-IBS patients.

  Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases.:Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD002115.Coggrave M, Wiesel PH, Norton C.Stoke Mandeville Hospital, National Spinal Injuries Centre, Mandeville Road, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, UK, HP21 8AL. maureen.coggrave@buckshop.nhs.uk

 BACKGROUND: People with neurological disease have a much higher risk of both faecal incontinence and constipation than the general population. There is often a fine line between the two conditions, with any management intended to ameliorate one risking precipitating the other. Bowel problems are observed to be the cause of much anxiety and may reduce quality of life in these people. Current bowel management is largely empirical with a limited research base. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of management strategies for faecal incontinence and constipation in people with neurological diseases affecting the central nervous system. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 26 January 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 2, 2005), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2005), EMBASE (January 1998 to May 2005) and all reference lists of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating any types of conservative or surgical measure for the management of faecal incontinence and constipation in people with neurological diseases were selected. Specific therapies for the treatment of neurological diseases that indirectly affect bowel dysfunction were also considered. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers assessed the methodological quality of eligible trials and two reviewers independently extracted data from included trials using a range of pre-specified outcome measures. MAIN RESULTS: Ten trials were identified by the search strategy, most were small and of poor quality. Oral medications for constipation were the subject of four trials. Cisapride does not seem to have clinically useful effects in people with spinal cord injuries (three trials). Psyllium was associated with increased stool frequency in people with Parkinson's disease but did not alter colonic transit time (one trial). Prucalopride, an enterokinetic did not demonstrate obvious benefits in this patient group (one study). Some rectal preparations to initiate defaecation produced faster results than others (one trial). Different time schedules for administration of rectal medication may produce different bowel responses (one trial). Mechanical evacuation may be more effective than oral or rectal medication (one trial). There appears to be a benefit to patients in one-off educational interventions from nurses. The clinical significance of any of these results is difficult to interpret. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is still remarkably little research on this common and, to patients, very significant condition. It is not possible to draw any recommendation for bowel care in people with neurological diseases from the trials included in this review. Bowel management for these people must remain empirical until well-designed controlled trials with adequate numbers and clinically relevant outcome measures become available.

  Occupational asthma related to aescin inhalation.:Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006 Mar;96(3):494-6.Munoz X, Culebras M, Cruz MJ, Morell F.Departamento de Biologia Celular, Fisiologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. xmunoz@vhebron.net

 BACKGROUND: More than 400 agents are recognized as causes of occupational asthma, a work-related disease that can be induced by an immunologic or a nonimmunologic mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To describe a 57-year-old man employed in the pharmaceutical industry who developed bronchial asthma while working with products such as Plantago ovata and aescin, an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory and venotonic properties. METHODS: Various tests were performed, including radiography, total serum IgE titer measurements, skin tests against common pneumoallergens and Plantago species, pulmonary function studies, a methacholine test, and specific inhalation challenge with P. ovata and aescin. RESULTS: The results of these tests, including specific inhalation challenge, confirmed the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to aescin exposure, whereas the results of specific challenge with P. ovata, a known cause of occupational asthma, were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Aescin may represent a new causative agent of occupational asthma in personnel working in the pharmaceutical industry. The mechanism by which aescin can produce asthma is unknown, but analysis of the characteristics of our patient suggests a non-IgE immunologic mechanism, although an irritative mechanism secondary to long-term low-level exposure to aescin, a possible irritant, cannot be ruled out.
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  Dietary fibers affect viscosity of solutions and simulated human gastric and small intestinal digesta.:J Nutr. 2006 Apr;136(4):913-9.Dikeman CL, Murphy MR, Fahey GC Jr. Division of Nutritional Sciences, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

 Two experiments were conducted to determine the viscosities of both soluble and insoluble dietary fibers. In Expt. 1, corn bran, defatted rice bran, guar gum, gum xanthan, oat bran, psyllium, soy hulls, stabilized rice bran, wheat bran, wood cellulose, and 2 methylcellulose controls (Ticacel 42, Ticacel 43) were hydrated in water overnight at 0.5, 1, 1.5, or 2% concentrations. In Expt. 2, guar gum, oat bran, psyllium, rice bran, wheat bran, and wood cellulose were subjected to a 2-stage in vitro gastric and small intestinal digestion simulation model. Viscosity was measured every 2 and 3 h during gastric and small intestinal simulation, respectively. Viscosities in both experiments were measured at multiple shear rates. Viscosities of all fiber solutions were concentration- and shear rate-dependent. Rice brans, soy hulls, and wood cellulose had the lowest viscosities, whereas guar gum, psyllium, and xanthan gum had the highest viscosities, regardless of concentration. During gastric simulation, viscosity was higher (P < 0.05) at 4 h than at 0 h for guar gum, psyllium, rice bran, and wheat bran. During small intestinal simulation, viscosities were higher (P < 0.05) between 3 and 9 h compared with 18 h for guar gum, oat bran, and rice bran. Guar gum, psyllium, and oat bran exhibited viscous characteristics throughout small intestinal simulation, indicating potential for these fibers to elicit blood glucose and lipid attenuation. Wheat and rice brans and wood cellulose did not exhibit viscous characteristics throughout small intestinal digestion; thus, they may be beneficial for laxation.

  Effects of flax fiber on laxation and glycemic response in healthy volunteers:J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):508-11.Dahl WJ, Lockert EA, Cammer AL, Whiting SJ.College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. wjd@usak.ca

 We investigated whether a flax supplement taken orally or baked in a bakery product would effect the physiological responses characteristic of soluble and insoluble fiber, i.e., laxation and glycemic response, respectively. In Study 1, 26 healthy young adults consumed up to 15 g of fiber from a proprietary flax fiber supplement or as a psyllium supplement for 2 weeks once usual fecal weights were established. Changes in dietary fiber intake and acceptability of both products were evaluated. An increase in fecal weight was found with both fiber treatments. Supplemental fiber at intakes of 9.0 g/day (flax) and 10.4 g/day (psyllium) gave fecal bulking capacity of about 2.9 and 4.8 g of fecal weight/g of fiber, respectively. In Study 2, the effect of flax bread versus control white bread on glycemic response was studied. Eleven fasting subjects completed four test periods (duplicate trials of each bread) under standardized glycemic testing conditions. Paired t tests were used to analyze test compared with control peak blood glucose values (6.6 +/- 0.9 mmol/L compared with 6.9 +/- 0.7 mmol/L, P < .05, respectively) and area under the curve (AUC) (669 +/- 53 compared with 693 +/- 57, P = .015, respectively). Peak blood glucose values and AUC were improved by ingestion of flax fiber in healthy subjects. In conclusion, a flax fiber supplement provides the benefits of soluble and insoluble fiber.

  Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov 14;102(2):202-7. Epub 2005 Sep 8.Ziai SA, Larijani B, Akhoondzadeh S, Fakhrzadeh H, Dastpak A, Bandarian F, Rezai A, Badi HN, Emami T.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR, No. 97 Bozorgmehr Street, Qods Street, Enghelab Avenue, P.O. Box 13145-1446 Tehran, Iran. saziai@gmail.com

 Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.

  Plantago ovata (Laxomucil) after hemorrhoidectomy:Acta Chir Iugosl. 2004;51(3):121-3.Kecmanovic D, Pavlov M, Ceranic M, Sepetkovski A, Kovacevic P, Stamenkovic A, Masirevic V, Rankovic V.Institut za bolesti digestivnog sistema KCS, Beograd.

 The aim of this prospective randomized study is to describe the effects of laxative plantago ovata after open hemorrhoidectomy (Milligan-Morgan). Sixty patients divided into 2 equal groups were included in this study. The first group was treated postoperatively with 2 sachets of bulk agent Laxomucil (3.26 g plantago ovata), twice daily, for a period of twenty days, while the control group was treated with glycerin oil. The p.ovata group patients had a statistically significant shorter postoperative length of hospital stay (2.9 v.s. 4.1 days). Pain after stool was statistically significant more tolerable in the p.ovata group. In conclusion, the application of bulk agent plantago ovata after hemorrhoidectomy shortens the mean postoperative hospital stay, expedites digestive function recovery and lessens the pain after stool.

  Effect of combining psyllium fiber with simvastatin in lowering cholesterol.:Arch Intern Med. 2005 May 23;165(10):1161-6.Moreyra AE, Wilson AC, Koraym A. Division of Cardiology Lipid Disorder Center, Department of Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, USA. abel.moreyra@rwjuh.edu

 BACKGROUND: Soluble fiber supplements are recommended to reduce levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We evaluated the LDL-C-lowering effect of psyllium husk added to low-dose simvastatin therapy. METHODS: In a 12-week blinded placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized to receive 20 mg of simvastatin plus placebo, 10 mg of simvastatin plus placebo, or 10 mg of simvastatin plus 15 g of psyllium (Metamucil) daily. Levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B were determined after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The study group comprised 68 patients. All treatments were well tolerated, and after 8 weeks the mean LDL-C levels in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin plus placebo fell by 55 mg/dL (1.42 mmol/L) from baseline, compared with 63 mg/dL (1.63 mmol/L) in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin plus psyllium (P = .03). The mean lowering of LDL-C in the group receiving 20 mg of simvastatin plus placebo was the same as that in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin plus psyllium. Similar results were seen for apolipoprotein B and total cholesterol. No significant changes from baseline triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary psyllium supplementation in patients taking 10 mg of simvastatin is as effective in lowering cholesterol as 20 mg of simvastatin alone. Psyllium soluble fiber should be considered as a safe and well-tolerated dietary supplement option to enhance LDL-C and apolipoprotein B lowering.
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  Probiotics and prebiotics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease:

 Although the causes of inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence implicates intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Therefore, modulation of microflora with probiotics or prebiotics may offer a plausible therapeutic approach. While recent data support a potential therapeutic efficacy, such treatments need to be further assessed by large scale studies. A better understanding of the intestinal microflora and the mechanisms of their action may help us to develop more effective treatment for inflammatory bowel disease.

  Effects of psyllium on plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA with high cholesterol levels.:Ann Nutr Metab. 2004 Nov-Dec;48(6):374-80. Epub 2004 Nov 22.Liu YC, Liu SY, Lin MH.College of Liberal Education, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung County, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC.

 This study was conducted to determine whether psyllium is known to alter cholesterol metabolism modulate the hypercholesterolemic effect of a high cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) diet in hamsters. Concentrations of plasma, hepatic total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in male hamsters fed an n-3 PUFA plus psyllium (8%, wt/wt) diet combined with variable levels of cholesterol (0, 0.05, 0.1%, wt/wt) or a cholesterol-enriched (0.2%, wt/wt) n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA diet that contained either 8% methyl cellulose or psyllium for 4 weeks. In the n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters, we have found that psyllium was able to reduce plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol significantly when 0.1% cholesterol was added to the diet. In contrast, the effects of psyllium were not seen in the n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters without dietary cholesterol or with 0.05% dietary cholesterol. However, no matter in the presence of psyllium or not, the increase of plasma total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels was depend on the content of dietary cholesterol. Although the cholesterol diet increased the liver total cholesterol level, 80 g psyllium/kg diet resulted in a significantly lower concentration of liver total cholesterol in the cholesterol-fed hamsters. In the second experiment, we have also found that psyllium feeding lowered significantly plasma total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA but not in those fed n-6 PUFA. However, the levels of plasma total cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of the (n-6) PUFA-fed hamsters were significantly lower than those in the (n-3) PUFA-fed hamsters in the absence or presence of dietary psyllium. Our data also showed that hamsters fed both high-cholesterol n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA diets had a significant decrease in hepatic cholesterol with intake of psyllium. Liver total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters compared with the n-6 PUFA-fed groups. Therefore, these data may contribute to understanding the interactive effect of psyllium and cholesterol or the type of fat on plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters.

  Pectin and psyllium decrease the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in guinea pigs.:J Nutr Biochem. 1999 Feb;10(2):118-24.Vergara-Jimenez M, Furr H, Fernandez ML. Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

 These studies were undertaken to determine whether pectin (PE) and psyllium (PSY) intake affect the circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation. For that purpose, male Hartley guinea pigs were fed 19 g/100 g of a fat mix with a 2:1:1 ratio of saturated:polyunsaturated:monounsaturated fatty acids and 35 g/100 g total carbohydrate with 80% of the carbohydrate energy contributed by sucrose. Diets were identical in composition except for the fiber source: cellulose (control diet), PE, or PSY. Guinea pigs fed PE or PSY had 36% and 67% lower plasma cholesterol concentrations, respectively, compared with controls (P < 0.001). This plasma cholesterol lowering was associated with both very low density lipoproteins and LDL cholesterol fractions. Intake of PE or PSY resulted in 54% lower plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared with the control group (P < 0.001). LDL from PE and PSY fed guinea pigs contained fewer molecules of cholesteryl ester, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in this particle were 49% and 66% higher, respectively, compared with controls. In addition, LDL from guinea pigs fed soluble fiber exhibited less susceptibility to oxidation than those from the control group, as determined by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Hepatic free and esterified cholesterol were 32% lower and hepatic TAG was 25% lower in guinea pigs fed PE and PSY compared with controls. The data from these studies confirm that PE and PSY reverse the hyperlipidemia associated with high fat-sucrose diets and demonstrate a potential antioxidant effect of soluble fiber on circulating LDL.

  Inhibitory actions of a high fibre diet on intestinal gas transit in healthy volunteers.:Gut. 2004 Nov;53(11):1577-82.Gonlachanvit S, Coleski R, Owyang C, Hasler W.Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

 BACKGROUND: Fibre treatment often produces gaseous symptoms which have been attributed to fermentation by colonic bacteria with increased gas production. Effects of fibre ingestion on intestinal gas flow are unexplored. AIMS: We aimed to test the hypothesis that consumption of a high fibre diet retards gas transit. SUBJECTS: Ten healthy volunteers participated. METHODS: To investigate the effects of fibre on gas dynamics, physiological gas mixtures were jejunally perfused at 12 ml/min x 2 hours after a standard diet for seven days with and without psyllium 30 g/day in a crossover fashion. Gas was collected from an intrarectal catheter to bypass the anus and evacuation was quantified in real time using a barostat. RESULTS: On initiating gas perfusion under control conditions, an initial lag phase with no gas expulsion was observed (1129 (274) seconds). Thereafter, gas evacuation from the rectum proceeded with cumulative volumes of 1429 (108) ml by the end of the second hour. Evacuation was pulsatile with passage of 20.9 (2.5) boluses, with mean volumes of 68.2 (5.0) ml. Fibre prolonged the lag time (2265 (304) seconds; p<0.05) and reduced cumulative gas evacuation volumes (1022 (80) ml; p<0.05). Decreased gas evacuation resulted from reductions in the numbers of bolus passages (14.2 (1.1); p<0.05) but not bolus volumes (70.7 (3.4) ml; p = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of a high fibre diet retards intestinal gas transit by decreasing bolus propulsion to the rectum. Thus, in addition to increasing gas production by colonic flora, fibre ingestion may elicit gaseous symptoms by promoting gas retention.

  Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects.:Nutr J. 2004 Sep 28;3:17.Van Rosendaal GM, Shaffer EA, Edwards AL, Brant R.Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 4N1. gvrosend@ucalgary.ca

 BACKGROUND: Reports of the use of psyllium, largely in hypercholesterolemic men, have suggested that it lowers serum cholesterol as a result of the binding of bile acids in the intestinal lumen. Widespread advertisements have claimed an association between the use of soluble fibre from psyllium seed husk and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Given the purported mechanism of cholesterol-lowering by psyllium, we hypothesized that there would be a greater effect when psyllium is taken with breakfast than when taken at bedtime. Secondarily, we expected to confirm a cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium in subjects with "average" cholesterol levels. METHODS: Sixteen men and 47 women ranging in age from 18 to 77 years [mean 53 +/- 13] with LDL cholesterol levels that were normal or slightly elevated but acceptable for subjects at low risk of coronary artery disease were recruited from general gastroenterology and low risk lipid clinics. Following a one month dietary stabilization period, they received an average daily dose of 12.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, in randomized order, for 8 weeks in the morning and 8 weeks in the evening. Change from baseline was determined for serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. RESULTS: Total cholesterol for the "AM first" group at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks was 5.76, 5.77 and 5.80 mmol/L and for the "PM first" group the corresponding values were 5.47, 5.61 and 5.57 mmol/L. No effect on any lipid parameter was demonstrated for the group as a whole or in any sub-group analysis. CONCLUSION: The timing of psyllium administration had no effect on cholesterol-lowering and, in fact, no cholesterol-lowering was observed. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of psyllium for the prevention of heart disease in the population at large may be premature.
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  Inhibitory effects of psyllium on rat mineral absorption were abolished by reduction of viscosity with partial hydrolysis.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004 Aug;68(8):1737-42.

 Psyllium husk, a highly viscous fiber, has beneficial effects for health, but has been reported to inhibit absorption of calcium. The present study found the effects of fiber viscosity on calcium, magnesium, and zinc absorption with partially degraded psyllium preparations to be one fifth viscosity (LD-HP) and one seventieth viscosity (HD-HP) using normal and ovariectomized rats. Magnesium absorption was reduced with ingestion of intact psyllium (50 g/kg diet) for 4 weeks but this reduced absorption was increased with lower viscous psyllium preparations. Moreover, the absorption in the HD-HP group was higher than in the control group (100 g cellulose/kg diet) in ovariectomized rats. Changes in calcium and zinc absorption were similar to those in magnesium absorption. Cecal pH was reduced only in rats fed HD-HP in both normal and ovariectomized rats. These results indicate that reduction of psyllium viscosity tends to counter inhibitory effects on mineral absorption.

  Hypolipidemic effects of modified psyllium preparations.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Aug 11;52(16):4998-5003.Allen KG, Bristow SJ, Yu L.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1571, USA. allen@cahs.colostate.edu

 The hypolipidemic effects of two solid-state enzymatically modified psyllium preparations were compared to that of the original psyllium husks in hamsters. Hamsters were ad libitum fed 0.2 wt % cholesterol diets formulated to contain 12% cellulose or 5% cellulose plus 7% raw or enzymatically modified psyllium preparations. Psyllium additions to the diet did not significantly alter food consumption or the weekly mean hamster weight over the 5 weeks of feeding. However, the total weight gained over 35 days of feeding of modified psyllium Y-26-4, one of the modified psyllium preparations, was significantly lower, 48, 47, and 32% than that for the cellulose, raw psyllium, and modified psyllium Y-24-3 groups, respectively. At 35 days, psyllium feeding significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 50-100% in comparison to cellulose feeding, with no significant differences between the psyllium preparations. Fecal dry weight was unaffected by dietary treatment. At days 29-31, fecal bile acid excretion was significantly increased by 30-70% with all three psyllium diets, with no significant differences between psyllium preparations. These results suggest that improving the functional properties of psyllium by solid-state enzymatic procedures, such that its incorporation into food products is feasible, does not alter psyllium-mediated hypolipidemic effects.

  The gel-forming polysaccharide of psyllium husk (Plantago ovata Forsk).:Carbohydr Res. 2004 Aug 2;339(11):2009-17.Fischer MH, Yu N, Gray GR, Ralph J, Anderson L, Marlett JA.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

 The physiologically active, gel-forming fraction of the alkali-extractable polysaccharides of Plantago ovata Forsk seed husk (psyllium seed) and some derived partial hydrolysis products were studied by compositional and methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Resolving the conflicting claims of previous investigators, the material was found to be a neutral arabinoxylan (arabinose 22.6%, xylose 74.6%, molar basis; only traces of other sugars). With about 35% of nonreducing terminal residues, the polysaccharide is highly branched. The data are compatible with a structure consisting of a densely substituted main chain of beta-(1-->4)-linked D-xylopyranosyl residues, some carrying single xylopyranosyl side chains at position 2, others bearing, at position 3, trisaccharide branches having the sequence L-Araf-alpha-(1-->3)-D-Xylp-beta-(1-->3)-l-Araf. The presence of this sequence is supported by methylation and NMR data, and by the isolation of the disaccharide 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-L-arabinose as a product of partial acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharide.

  Effect of an oral bulking agent and a rectal laxative administered alone or in combination for the treatment of constipation.:Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2004 May;28(5):438-43.Bouchoucha M, Faye A, Savarieau B, Arsac M.Hopital Broussais, Laboratoire de physiologie digestive, 96, rue Didot 75014 Paris. michel.bouchoucha@brs.ap-hop-paris.fr

 OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to search for a synergetic action between psyllium and a defecation-inducing drug, Eductyl, for symptom relief in patients suffering from chronic constipation. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers and 20 patients complaining of chronic constipation were included in a randomized crossover study. The study was divided into four 2-weeks periods: pre-inclusion and three periods of treatment with psyllium, Eductyl, and Eductyl + psyllium respectively. Colonic transit time was determined at the end of each period of treatment. During each of the four periods, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of constipation. RESULTS: For constipated patients, treatment with Eductyl and Eductyl-psyllium improved clinical symptoms of constipation: increased stool frequency, resulted in fewer hard stools and less sensation of incomplete evacuation and less straining to defecate. The improvement was associated with a decrease in total and segmental colonic transit time. The Eductyl-psyllium combination did not exhibit any synergetic effect. CONCLUSION: Treatment with Eductyl alone is more efficient than with psyllium alone in providing symptom relief. Combination with psyllium is not synergetic.

  Psyllium and fat in diets differentially affect the activities and expressions of colonic sphingomyelinases and caspase in mice.:Br J Nutr. 2004 May;91(5):715-23.Cheng Y, Ohlsson L, Duan RD.Gastroenterology and Nutrition Laboratory, Biomedical Centre, B11, Lund University, S-22184 Lund, Sweden.

 Dietary fibre and fat affect colonic tumourigenesis and inflammation. Sphingomyelin metabolism may have implications for the pathogenesis of colonic tumours and ulcerative colitis. The present study examined the effects of psyllium and fat on the enzymes responsible for sphingomyelin metabolism and apoptosis in the colon. Mice were fed control, psyllium-containing (100 g/kg), high-fat (313 g/kg, 53 % energy as fat) or high-fat plus psyllium diets for 4 weeks. The activities of acid, neutral and alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase), neutral ceramidase, and caspase 3, 8 and 9 in colonic mucosa were determined. The expressions of alkaline SMase and caspase 3 were examined. The psyllium-containing diet was found to increase significantly the activities of alkaline SMase and caspase 3 and decreased those of acid SMase and neutral ceramidase. The high-fat diet had opposite effects on these enzymes and attenuated the effects of psyllium. Western blotting showed that psyllium increased and high-fat decreased the levels of alkaline SMase and caspase 3 in colonic mucosa. The change in caspase 3 activity was positively correlated with that of alkaline SMase and negatively with acid SMase. No similar changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the colon or acid and neutral SMase activity in the liver were identified. In conclusion, colonic sphingomyelin metabolism and apoptosis were affected by psyllium and fat in an opposite manner. The results may have implications for colorectal tumourigenesis and inflammation.
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  Effect of four-day psyllium supplementation on bowel preparation for colonoscopy:A prospective double blind randomized trial [ISRCTN76623768].:BMC Gastroenterol. 2004 Feb 2;4:2.Salwen WA, Basson MD.Wayne State University, Detroit MI, John D, Dingell VAMC, Detroit, MI, USA. walter.salwen@med.va.gov

 BACKGROUND: Patients with new onset constipation or presumed hemorrhoid bleeding frequently require the use of both fiber supplements and diagnostic colonoscopy. We sought to determine whether preliminary fiber supplementation would alter the tolerability or efficacy of a standard bowel preparation for colonoscopy METHODS: A prospective, double blind, randomized trial was designed to compare a short course of a psyllium-based supplement versus placebo prior to a colon lavage. Patients were given an unlabeled canister of powder, and instructed to take 1 tablespoon with 8 oz of water bid for 4 days before colonoscopy. A 4-liter polyethylene based glycol lavage was self-administered over 4 hours on the day prior to colonoscopy. A questionnaire on pre-study bowel habits and side effects was completed. Efficacy of the preparation was visually evaluated on a pre-determined scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, race, age, pre-study stool frequency or consistency. Tolerability was equivalent but efficacy of the bowel preparation was worse in the psyllium group compared to placebo (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In non-constipated patients psyllium based fiber supplementation should not be initiated in the few days prior to endoscopy using a polyethylene glycol preparation.

  Psyllium fibre and the metabolic control of obese children and adolescents.:J Physiol Biochem. 2003 Sep;59(3):235-42.Moreno LA, Tresaco B, Bueno G, Fleta J, Rodriguez G, Garagorri JM, Bueno M.Departamento de Pediatria, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/ Domingo Miral S/N, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. lmoreno@unizar.es

 In children and adolescents from developed countries, obesity prevalence has strongly increased in the last decades and insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are frequently observed. Some dietary components such as low glycemic index foods and dietary fibre could be used in order to improve glucose homeostasis in these children. Psyllium or ispaghula husk (the husk of the seeds of Plantago ovata) is a mixture of neutral and acid polysaccharides containing galacturonic acid with a ratio of soluble/insoluble fibre of 70/30. Some foods could potentially be enriched with psyllium, like breads, breakfast cereals, pasta and snack foods. The aim of this review was to assess the usefulness of psyllium in the management of obese children and adolescents with abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. After psyllium supplementation, the percentage change in postprandial glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, ranged from -12.2 to -20.2%. In hypercholesterolemic children, the effect of psyllium in LDL-cholesterol serum concentrations ranged from 2.78 to -22.8%; the effect in HDL-cholesterol from -4.16 to 3.05%; and the effect on triglycerides from 8.49 to -19.54%. The reviewed evidence seems to show that psyllium improves glucose homeostasis and the lipid and lipoprotein profile; however, more well controlled trials and further studies are needed to clarify it's effects and the mechanisms involved.

  Psyllium-associated anaphylaxis and death: a case report and review of the literature.:Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Dec;91(6):579-84.Khalili B, Bardana EJ Jr, Yunginger JW. Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. khalilib@ohsu.edu

 BACKGROUND: Psyllium use has increased significantly in the United States in part due to its lipid-lowering property. The increased prevalence of consumption has led to its recognition as an emerging food allergen. OBJECTIVES: To report the case of a 42-year-old woman who experienced fatal anaphylaxis after ingesting a psyllium-based product and to review the literature. METHODS: The MEDLINE database was searched for articles from 1966 to 2002 using the keywords psyllium or ispaghula and each of the following: allergy, hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and asthma. Both English and non-English articles were included. RESULTS: Psyllium hypersensitivity has been well described in health care workers and pharmaceutical plant employees. Clinical manifestations of allergy range from upper respiratory tract symptoms on inhalation to anaphylaxis on ingestion. The prevalence of sensitization varies between these 2 groups. The allergenic epitope is not known. CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of psyllium hypersensitivity that resulted in death. There is a clear association between atopy and psyllium allergy. The case underscores the fact that even nonprescription "natural" products can be harmful to people with allergies.

  Psyllium extracts decreased neoplastic phenotypes induced by the Ha-Ras oncogene transfected into a rat liver oval cell line.:Cancer Lett. 2004 Jan 8;203(1):13-24.Nakamura Y, Trosko JE, Chang CC, Upham BL. Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, National Food Safety and Toxicology Bldg Center, Michigan State University, 243 Food Safety and Toxicology, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

 Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) by tumor promoters and oncogenes has been implicated in the removal of initiated cells from the suppression of growth by neighboring cells in the tumor promoting step of carcinogenesis. The GJIC of WB-Ha-ras cell line is GJIC-deficient and they are capable of anchorage independent growth (AIG). The ethanol extract of psyllium increased GJIC 1.65-times and decreased AIG in both number and size of colonies in WB-Ha-ras cells. Histochemical staining of the gap junction protein, connexin43, showed that psyllium restored gap junction plaques on the plasma membrane of the WB-Ha-ras cells. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of psyllium reversed two tumor cell phenotypes, namely reduced GJIC and AIG, induced by the Ha-ras oncogene.

  Efficacy of a novel chitosan formulation on fecal fat excretion: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.:J Med. 2002;33(1-4):209-25.Barroso Aranda J, Contreras F, Bagchi D, Preuss HG.Oasis of Hope Hospital, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

 The ability of a novel chitosan formulation to influence gastrointestinal fat absorption in vivo was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study by determining the content of total fat in feces in two groups of subjects. Twenty-nine normal healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Twenty-four participants completed the test period with the chitosan formulation, and 21 completed the placebo phase of study. During the placebo and the test periods, the subjects were administered six capsules three times daily 10 minutes before meals for three days and for the two days of the stool collection. A daily serving of six tablets of the test compound contained 2100 mg chitosan and 300 mg psyllium husk seeds. In respect to the baseline period, the test compound increased fat excretion significantly whether the test period preceded or proceeded the placebo period (p<0.02 and p<0.05 respectively). In contrast, essentially no changes were seen during the placebo loading periods. Compared to the difference between placebo period and its baseline period, a statistically significant increase in fecal fat excretion was observed over baseline following oral supplementation of a novel formulation of chitosan and psyllium husk seeds [+3.63 gm/day +/- 0.83 (SEM) vs. -0.15 gm/day +/- 0.94 (SEM) (p=0.004)]. The average daily increase in fecal fat of 3-4 grams over control could account for a decrease in calorie consumption of 30-40 kcal per day. A total of 19 subjects completed both parts of the study. Examining the data from these 19 subjects by ANOVA, it was found that the period when the test compounds were given was statistically significantly different from the placebo baseline, placebo experimental, and test baseline periods. Using multiple comparisons, it was ascertained that the novel formulation containing chitosan plus psyllium husk seeds increases fecal fat excretion.
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  The active fraction of psyllium seed husk.:Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Feb;62(1):207-9.Marlett JA, Fischer MH.Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. jmarlett@nutrisci.wisc.edu

 A series of experiments and evaluations of fractions isolated from psyllium seed husk (PSH) were used to test the overall hypothesis that a gel-forming component of PSH is not fermented and that it is this component that is responsible for the laxative and cholesterol-lowering properties of PSH. A gel is isolated from human stools collected during a controlled diet study when PSH is consumed but not when the control diet only is consumed. Evaluations of three fractions isolated from PSH suggest that gel-forming fraction B, which is about 55% of PSH, is poorly fermented and is the component that increases stool moisture and faecal bile acid excretion, the latter leading to lower blood cholesterol levels. Fraction C, representing < 15% of PSH, is viscous, but is rapidly fermented. Fraction A is alkali-insoluble material that is not fermented. In concentrations comparable with their presence in PSH, fractions A and C do not alter moisture and bile acid output. The active fraction of PSH is a highly-branched arabinoxylan consisting of a xylose backbone and arabinose- and xylose-containing side chains. In contrast to arabinoxylans in cereal grains that are extensively fermented, PSH possesses a structural feature, as yet unidentified, that hinders its fermentation by typical colonic microflora.

  Helical CT of the small bowel with an alternative oral contrast material in patients with Crohn disease.:Abdom Imaging. 2003 May-Jun;28(3):313-8.Doerfler OC, Ruppert-Kohlmayr AJ, Reittner P, Hinterleitner T, Petritsch W, Szolar DH.Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz, Austria.

 BACKGROUND: We assessed the usefulness of helical computed tomography (CT) with a negative oral contrast material for detecting Crohn disease. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with proven Crohn disease were examined. We administered a large volume of a new negative oral contrast material (Mucofalk suspended in water) and then proceeded with helical CT scanning. This technique is an alternative to CT and conventional enteroclyses that use a nasojejunal tube. Two radiologists interpreted the scans, and patients were interviewed about their tolerance of the procedure. We created multiplanar reformatted images in all cases. Potential of small bowel distention by Mucofalk was evaluated by two observers on a three-point scale, and interobserver agreement was calculated with kappa statistics. RESULTS: All patients who underwent enteroclysis stated that CT was the more comfortable method, the taste of the peroral contrast medium was considered good by 52.6% and acceptable by 47.4%. Small bowel distention was excellent in 55% of cases, moderate in 26%, and poor in 19%, with an interoberserver agreement of 78%. CT findings correlated with enteroclysis in 27 patients who underwent both methods. Analysis of CT versus enteroclysis showed a sensitivity of 89% for CT versus 78% for small bowel enteroclysis. CONCLUSION: Mucofalk CT is a simple, rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method of evaluating extramucosal manifestations of Crohn disease. The tubeless procedure improved patients' comfort and decreased time, cost, and radiation exposure.

  Effects of xylanase treatments on gelling and water-uptaking properties of psyllium.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 15;51(2):492-5.Yu LL, Perret J.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, 230 Gifford Building, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1571, USA. yu@cahs.colostate.edu

 The effects of a commercial food-grade xylanase on the physicochemical properties of psyllium were evaluated. The enzymatic reactions were conducted in solid state at ambient temperature. The enzyme-treated psyllium preparations were analyzed and compared with the starting psyllium for their water-uptake properties, gelling capacities, soluble and insoluble fiber contents, and surface structures. The solid-state xylanase treatment significantly reduced both water-uptake and gelling capacities of psyllium (p < 0.01), with a slight decrease of soluble fiber content, whereas no effect on insoluble fiber content was observed. The xylanase treatment also resulted in a smoother surface structure of psyllium particles. In addition, no special equipment and operation were required to conduct the enzymatic reaction, which generated no waste. These data indicated a potential to improve the physicochemical properties of psyllium by use of the solid-state xylanase reactions to promote the utilization of psyllium fiber in functional foods for promoting human health.

  Sex and hormonal status modulate the effects of psyllium on plasma lipids and monocyte gene expression in humans.:J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):67-70.Vega-Lopez S, Freake HC,ernandez ML.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, USA.

 Psyllium (PSY) intake decreases plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in men and pre- and post-menopausal women while PSY effects on plasma triglycerides (TG) are sex related. A significant decrease in plasma TG was observed in men while postmenopausal women experienced an increase in plasma TG concentrations following PSY supplementation. To further explore the mechanisms by which sex and hormonal status influence the effects of PSY on plasma lipids, HMG-CoA reductase, LDL receptor and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA abundance were measured in mononuclear cells isolated from these subjects. The intervention followed a randomized crossover design in which participants were allocated to either 15 or 0 g (control) of PSY/d for 30 d. Compared to the control period, PSY intake induced a 20% increase in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA abundance (P < 0.05) while no significant changes in LDL receptor mRNA abundance were observed. In contrast, LPL mRNA abundance was 24% higher in men and 23% lower in postmenopausal women (P < 0.05) when comparing PSY with the control period. These results suggest that the LDL-C lowering induced by PSY was related to changes in HMG-CoA reductase gene expression in monocytes while the expression of LPL in this system was affected by sex and hormonal status.

  Effects of guar gum, ispaghula and microcrystalline cellulose on abdominal symptoms, gastric emptying, orocaecal transit time and gas production in healthy volunteers.:Dig Liver Dis. 2002 Sep;34 Suppl 2:S129-33.Bianchi M, Capurso L.Department of Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine, A.C.O. San Filippo Neri, Rome, Italy. m.bianchi@sanfilipponeri.roma.it

 BACKGROUND: Dietary fibres are carbohydrates that resist hydrolysis by human intestinal enzymes but are fermented by colonic microflora. Soluble dietary fibres are fermented by anaerobic bacteria with production of gases, short chain fatty acids and other metabolic products believed to cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal distension, flatulence. Insoluble fibres are only partially fermented, serving almost exclusively as bulking agents that result in shorter transit time and increased faecal mass. AIMS: To evaluate effect of a supplementation of a single 5 g dose of dietary fibre to a solid meal on gastric emptying, orocaecal transit time, gas production and symptom genesis, in healthy volunteers. Three different dietary fibres were tested, two soluble (guar gum and ispaghula] and one insoluble (microcrystalline cellulose). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After a 24-hour low fibre diet, 10 healthy subjects had a standard meal consisting of white bread and one 70 g egg the yolk of which was mixed with 100 mg of 13C octanoic acid and fried. Breath samples were collected for 13CO2 measurements with a mass spectrophotometer and excretion curve (Tlag, T1/2) evaluation. Further breath samples were collected and analysed with a gas chromatograph for the evaluation of H2 and CH4 production and orocaecal transit time. Each evaluation was repeated adding to standard meal, diluted in 300 ml tap water, respectively: a single 5 g dose of microcrystalline cellulose, guar gum or ispaghula. Subjects were asked to report all symptoms experienced from time of meal ingestion over 24 hours, evaluating the intensity. RESULTS: Dietary fibres did not significantly change gastric emptying (Tlag, T1/2) and orocaecal transit time of standard meal. Subjects experienced more symptoms when meals were supplemented with guar gum (p=0.009 vs standard meal) and ispaghula (p=0.048 vs standard meal). There was a poor, but significant, correlation between gas production and symptoms (r=0. 38, p=0. 01). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of different dietary fibres to a solid meal did not influence gastric emptying and orocaecal transit time. Microcrystalline cellulose caused fewer symptoms than guar gum and ispaghula probably due to the insoluble nature and the dimensions of the particles of this micronised cellulose.
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  Physical exercise, use of Plantago ovata and aspirin, and reduced risk of colon cancer.:Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Oct;11(5):465-72.Juarranz M, Calle-Puron ME, Gonzalez-Navarro A, Regidor-Poyatos E, Soriano T, Martinez-Hernandez D, Rojas VD, Guinee VF.Community Health Center of Area 4, Madrid, Spain.

 To evaluate certain risk and protective factors for colon cancer in our population, we conducted a paired case-control study where cases were all people diagnosed with colon cancer who were registered at the Cancer Data Exchange Systems of the Community of Madrid between January 1995 and December 1996, and controls were randomly taken from electoral lists. The study population consisted of 424 persons. Using SPSS for Windows, variables were adjusted by multiple logistic regression. The results indicate that lack of physical exercise is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.21) as compared with moderate activity 1-2 days a week. The risk decreases linearly with increasing physical exercise, and this association remains after stratifying the analysis for the existence of constipation. The consumption of is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer in constipated patients, with an OR of 0.094 (0.014-0.639), as is aspirin use, with an OR of 0.980 (0.898-0.999). These results were obtained after adjusting all the ORs for diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history and socio-demographic factors such as marital status and educational level.

  A poorly fermented gel from psyllium seed husk increases excreta moisture and bile acid excretion in rats.:J Nutr. 2002 Sep;132(9):2638-43.Marlett JA, Fischer MH.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. jmarlett@nutrisci.wisc.edu

 Psyllium seed husk (PSH) increases stool output and lowers blood cholesterol levels in humans. PSH and three fractions isolated from it were meal-fed to colectomized rats and fermented in vitro to test the hypothesis that viscous, gel-forming fraction B was responsible for these physiological actions. Control rats were fed 50 g/kg cellulose. The concentration of each PSH fraction in the test meals was equivalent to its concentration in PSH. Yields of the fractions were: A, 171; B, 575; and C, 129 g/kg of PSH. The wet weight and moisture content of ileal excreta (IE) from rats fed test meals containing PSH or fraction B were greater than those measured in excreta from rats fed meals containing cellulose or the other two PSH fractions. Total bile acids in IE did not differ between rats fed PSH or fraction B and were greater in these groups than in the other groups. Fraction A was not fermented during 3 d of incubation; fraction B was poorly fermented, with approximately 30% of the constituent sugars disappearing; and fraction C was rapidly and nearly completely fermented. These results indicate that the gel-forming fraction we isolated from PSH is the physiologically active component of the husks.

  Therapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patients:Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;56(9):830-42.Sierra M, Garcia JJ, Fernandez N, Diez MJ, Calle AP.Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Nursing, University of Leon, Leon, Spain. dftmsv@unileon.es

 OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patients. DESIGN: The study included three phases: phase 1 (1 week), phase 2 (treatment, 14 g fibre/day, 6 weeks) and phase 3 (4 weeks). At the end of each phase a clinical evaluation was performed after the ingestion of a test breakfast of 1824.2 kJ (436 kcal). Measurements included concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, fructosamine, GHbA(1c), C-peptide and 24 h urinary glucose excretion. In addition, uric acid, cholesterol and several mineral and vitamin concentrations were also evaluated. SETTING: The study was performed at the Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Nursing at the University of Leon (Spain). SUBJECTS: Twenty type 2 diabetic patients (12 men and 8 women) participated in the study with a mean age of 67.4 y for men and 66 y for women. The mean body mass index of men was 28.2 kg/m(2) and that of women 25.9 kg/m(2). RESULTS: Glucose absorption decreased significantly in the presence of psyllium (12.2%); this reduction is not associated with an important change in insulin levels (5%). GHbA(1c), C-peptide and 24 h urinary glucose excretion decreased (3.8, 14.9 and 22.5%, respectively) during the treatment with fibre (no significant differences) as well as fructosamine (10.9%, significant differences). Psyllium also reduced total and LDL cholesterol (7.7 and 9.2%, respectively, significant differences), and uric acid (10%, significant difference). Minerals and vitamins did not show important changes, except sodium that increased significantly after psyllium administration. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained indicate a beneficial therapeutic effect of psyllium (Plantaben) in the metabolic control of type 2 diabetics as well as in lowering the risk of coronary heart disease. We also conclude that consumption of this fibre does not adversely affect either mineral or vitamin A and E concentrations. Finally, for a greater effectiveness, psyllium treatment should be individually evaluated.

  Therapy-related cafe coronary deaths: two case reports of rare asphyxial deaths in patients under supervised care.:Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2002 Jun;23(2):149-54.Hunsaker DM, Hunsaker JC 3rd.Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, and Department of Pathology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky 40204, USA. StinknLex@aol.com

 Cafe coronary deaths, as initially characterized, denote fatal occlusion of the upper airway by food substances. Such fatalities typically occur in individuals who either are clinically inebriated or have clinically significant neuromuscular dysfunction. Both conditions impair mastication and deglutition. The authors review the accidental deaths of two neurologically compromised patients under supervised care. Both subjects underwent complete medicolegal autopsy. In one case, ingestion of a prescribed emollient laxative precipitated death; in the other, death was attributable to aspiration of a contrast medium during a diagnostic radiographic procedure. These therapy-related deaths, which are regarded as a variation of the traditionally described cafe coronary fatalities summarized in the discussion, represent adverse events occurring during medical care. The adverse outcomes reviewed here are potentially avoidable and require special attentiveness by the clinicians directed to the particular condition of each patient. Such true aspiration-related deaths are confirmed on autopsy examination and are to be differentiated from the findings of agonal aspiration of gastric contents commonly encountered by the autopsy pathologist investigating deaths due to a great variety of natural and traumatic causes.

  Intact pectin and its polygalacturonic acid regions have similar hypocholesterolemic properties in hybrid F1B hamsters.:Nahrung. 2002 Apr;46(2):83-6.Terpstra AH, Lapre JA, de Vries HT, Beynen AC.Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80 166, Utrecht, The Netherlands. a.h.m.terpstra@las.vet.uu.nl

 We fed cholesterol-enriched (0.1% w/w) semipurified diets containing 3% of lemon pectin or 3% of the polygalacturonic acid regions fraction (smooth regions fraction) of the lemon pectin to hybrid F1B hamsters for a period of 8 weeks. A control group was fed cellulose and a positive control group was fed psyllium. The feeding of the semipurified diets resulted in an increase of plasma cholesterol levels in all the dietary groups when compared with initial values. The hamsters fed the psyllium, pectin, or the polygalacturonic acid regions fraction had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma cholesterol levels than the cellulose fed group throughout the experimental period. Plasma cholesterol levels in the hamsters fed the psyllium, pectin, or polygalacturonic acid regions fraction were not significantly different. Liver cholesterol concentrations were also lower in the hamsters fed the psyllium, pectin, or the polygalacturonic acid regions fraction than in the hamsters fed the cellulose, but this effect reached statistical significance only in the hamsters fed the polygalacturonic acid regions fraction. The results of these studies suggest that the polygalacturonic acid regions of the pectin molecule is responsible for the cholesterol-lowering properties of the pectin.
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  Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial.:Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 May;75(5):834-9.Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Vidgen E, Parker T, Faulkner D, Mehling CC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Cunnane SC, Ryan MA, Corey PN.Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael'sHospital, Toronto, Canada.cyril.kendall@utoronto.edu

 BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved health claims for 2 dietary fibers, beta-glucan (0.75 g/serving) and psyllium (1.78 g/serving), on the assumption that 4 servings/d would reduce cardiovascular disease risk. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the efficacy of this dose of fibers in reducing serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Sixty-eight hyperlipidemic adults consumed a test (high-fiber) and a control low-fat (25% of energy), low-cholesterol (<150 mg/d) diet for 1 mo each in a randomized crossover study. The high-fiber diet included 4 servings/d of foods containing beta-glucan or psyllium that delivered 8 g/d more soluble fiber than did similar, unsupplemented foods in the control diet. Fasting blood samples and blood pressure readings were obtained at baseline and weeks 2 and 4, and the subjects' weight was monitored weekly. RESULTS: Compared with the control diet, the high-fiber diet reduced total cholesterol (2.1 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.003), total:HDL cholesterol (2.9 +/- 0.8%; P = 0.001), LDL:HDL cholesterol (2.4 +/- 1.0%; P = 0.015), and apolipoprotein B:A-I (1.4 +/- 0.8%; P = 0.076). Applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation to the data confirmed a reduction in risk of 4.2 +/- 1.4% (P = 0.003). Small reductions in blood pressure were found after both diets. The subjects reported no significant differences in palatability or gastrointestinal symptoms between the diets. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease supports the FDA's approval of a health claim for a dietary fiber intake of 4 servings/d. Although relatively small in terms of patient treatment, the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk is likely to be significant on a population basis.

  Should pediatric patients with hyperlipidemia receive drug therapy?:Paediatr Drugs. 2002;4(4):223-30.Bhatnagar D.The Royal Oldham Hospital, Oldham, and Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom. D.Bhatnagar@man.ac.uk

 Hyperlipidemia is now established as a major risk factor for causation of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adults; however, there is much debate on the level of coronary risk at which lipid-lowering drugs should be used. These issues of possible harm or lack of benefit from long-term use of lipid-lowering therapy, and cost effectiveness, are also pertinent in the pediatric setting. Evidence from several countries indicates that children have an increasing prevalence of obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Children who have high serum lipids 'track' these increased levels into adulthood. In some countries there is a trend to screen children for hypercholesterolemia. Family history itself is a poor discriminator in determining which children need to be screened and treated. Estimation of apolipoprotein B and/or apolipoprotein E genotype can improve prediction. Measuring high density lipoprotein cholesterol also helps, but obesity appears to be the best marker for screening children at high risk. These considerations should not cloud the need for case finding and treatment of children with genetic disorders. Low fat diets have been shown to be well tolerated and effective in children; however, there are no major long-term studies demonstrating harm or benefit in those on lipid-lowering drugs. Nevertheless, concerns regarding the psychological effect and the theoretical metabolic effects of long-term lipid lowering remain. Lipid-lowering drugs should be generally restricted to children with genetic disorders of lipid metabolism. Children with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or nonlipid-related inherited disorders leading to premature CHD in adults should be treated with diet, and with lipid-lowering drugs when they reach adulthood. Children with secondary hyperlipidemia should be assessed individually. A number of drugs and nutriceuticals are available for use in children, but only a few drugs are licensed for use in children.

  Mucopolysaccharides from psyllium involved in wound healing.:Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001;27(5-6):165-75.Westerhof W, Das PK, Middelkoop E, Verschoor J, Storey L, Regnier C.Department of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1005AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. w.westerhof@amc.uva.nl

 Mucopolysaccharides derived from the husk of psyllium (Plantago ovata) have properties beneficial for wound cleansing and wound healing. Recent studies indicate that these mucopolysaccharides also limit scar formation. Our in vitro and in vivo studies aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved, e.g., fluid absorption, bacterial adherence and in vitro stimulatory effects on macrophages, which are pivotal in wound healing. The mucopolysaccharides contained in a sachet (Askina Cavity) or in a hydrocolloid mixture (Askina Hydro) were found to have a gradual and sustained absorbency over a period of 7 days, amounting to 4-6 times their weight in water. The swelling index was 9 mm after 312 h. Adherence of wound bacteria to the mucopolysaccharides started after 2 h and was more pronounced after 3 h. Semiquantitative measurements of bacterial adherence used centrifugation and subsequent optical density determinations of supernatant. These confirmed the strong adherence potential of psyllium particles. Lactic acid dehydrogenase staining of pretreated cultured human skin explants did not reveal toxicity of the mucopolysaccharides derived from psyllium husk. Langerhans' cell migration from the epidermis was negligible and interleukin-1 beta expression in the explants was not significant, supporting the very low allergenic potential of psyllium. The characteristics of mucopolysaccharide granulate derived from psyllium husk in Askina Cavity and Askina Hydro related to fluid absorption, bacterial adherence, biocompatibility, stimulation of macrophages, irritancy response and allergenicity showed an optimal profile, supporting the good clinical performance of wound healing products containing psyllium husk.

  Hypercholesterolemia: a look at low-cost treatment and treatment adherence.: J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2000 Nov;12(11):462-6.Flannery J, Raulerson A.Florida State University School of Nursing, USA. jflanner@mailer.fsu.edu

 PURPOSE: To determine whether a positive cholesterol-lowering effect could be achieved with a psyllium dose of 6 grams per day instead of the usual 10 grams per day as advocated by other researchers. DATA SOURCES: Randomized trial of 46 males and females with hypercholesterolemia; multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on 1 factor done on 28 subjects (18 in treatment group, 10 in control group) remaining after 16 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein analysis at 2, 8, and 16 weeks indicated that a daily dose of 6 grams of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid did not significantly affect serum total cholesterol nor low-density lipoproteins in either men or women with hypercholesterolemia. The effects of psyllium on hypercholesterolemia appear to be dose dependent. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Although it is a low cost option, the addition of psyllium to the diet has unpleasant side-effects, including abdominal distention, flatulence, and discomfort. Because these side effects are troublesome, the lowest effective dose of psyllium may be an important factor in improving treatment adherence.

  Sex and hormonal status influence the effects of psyllium on lipoprotein remodeling and composition.:Metabolism. 2002 Apr;51(4):500-7.Vega-Lopez S, Conde-Knape K, Vidal-Quintanar RL, Shachter NS, Fernandez ML.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

 We evaluated the influence of sex and hormonal status on the effect of psyllium (PSY) supplementation on parameters of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Twenty-four men, 23 premenopausal women, and 21 postmenopausal women (PMW) were randomly assigned to a fiber supplement (15 g PSY/d) or a control, provided via cookies, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids, insulin, apoprotein (apo) B, apo CI, apo CIII, and apo E concentrations and the composition and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles were measured at the end of each 30-day treatment period. Compared with control, PSY intake decreased plasma LDL cholesterol by an average of 8% (P <.0001) in men and pre- and PMW. There was a fiber-sex/hormonal status interaction on plasma triglycerides (TG) in the response to the intervention. Men had a 17% decrease in TG, while PMW had a 16% increase with PSY (P <.01). Plasma levels of apo C III, apo E, and insulin followed the same pattern as plasma TG with PSY consumption and decreased by an average of 12% in men (P <.05), but increased by 10% in PMW (P <.05). These reductions in apoproteins suggest an increased peripheral removal of TG in men, perhaps due to decreased insulin resistance, while in PMW, the increases in apoproteins may be related to an enhanced VLDL production. The lack of effect of PSY on VLDL metabolism in premenopausal women could be associated with the protective effect of estrogen. No prominent changes in VLDL and LDL composition were observed with PSY intake other than an increase in LDL phospholipid (P <.05). In addition, compared with men and PMW, the amount of TG per VLDL particle was less, and VLDL diameter was smaller in premenopausal women (P <.05). These results indicate an important role of sex and hormonal status in determining the effects of PSY on lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
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  Testing control of radiation-induced diarrhea with a psyllium bulking agent: a pilot study.:Can Oncol Nurs J. 2000 Summer;10(3):96-100.Murphy J, Stacey D, Crook J, Thompson B, Panetta D.Ottawa Hospital-General Campus, Ottawa, Ontario.

 Sixty cancer patients who were undergoing radiation therapy to the pelvis of at least 4,000 cGy in 20 fractions over four weeks were randomized to take or not take Metamucil. Results were analyzed for the presence of radiation-induced diarrhea in two groups: patients taking Metamucil (n = 30) or not taking Metamucil (n = 30). The Murphy Diarrhea Scale was developed to assist in the synthesis of data collected in daily patient-reported diaries. Results were analyzed using ANOVA F-tests. Metamucil significantly decreased the incidence (p = 0.049) and severity (p = 0.030) of diarrhea and showed a strong trend in reducing the use of anti-diarrhea medication (p = 0.062). According to this pilot study, Metamucil was an effective method of controlling radiation-induced diarrhea. Results of this pilot study have implications for clinical practice and nursing research.

  The presence of antiamoebic constituents in psyllium husk.:Phytother Res. 2002 Feb;16(1):78-9.Zaman V, Manzoor SM, Zaki M, Aziz N, Gilani AU.Department of Microbiology, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi 74800, Pakistan.

 The crude extract of psyllium husk (ispaghula) and its active constituent (petroleum fraction) caused varying degrees of growth inhibition in three different species of Entamoeba, i.e. Entamoeba histolytica, E. invadens and E. dispar. The inhibitory effect of the crude extract was in the dose range of 1-10 mg/mL, whereas a similar inhibitory effect was obtained with the petroleum fraction at a much lower dose (0.1-1.0 mg/mL), indicating that the active chemical(s) is/are concentrated in the petroleum fraction. These data support the traditional use of psyllium husk in amoebic dysentery.

  Sex and hormonal status influence plasma lipid responses to psyllium.:Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Oct;74(4):435-41.Vega-Lopez S, Vidal-Quintanar RL, Fernandez ML.Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, USA. sov98001@uconnvm.uconn.edu

 BACKGROUND: The primary mechanisms by which soluble fiber lowers plasma cholesterol are well known. However, specific effects of fiber on lipoprotein metabolism and how sex and hormonal status influence these effects are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: The effects of a psyllium supplement in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were examined to determine the mechanisms by which psyllium lowers plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and affects lipoprotein remodeling in the intravascular compartment. DESIGN: We designed a crossover trial in which 24 men, 23 premenopausal women, and 21 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned for 30 d to a fiber supplement (15 g psyllium/d) or a control. Plasma lipids and cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase) activities were measured after each treatment. RESULTS: When compared with the control, psyllium intake lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations by 7-9% (P < 0.0001) without affecting plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations. An interactive effect between fiber and sex and hormonal status was observed for plasma triacylglycerol. Psyllium supplementation significantly lowered plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in men by 17% and raised triacylglycerol concentrations in postmenopausal women by 16% (P < 0.01). The dietary treatment did not significantly affect plasma triacylglycerol in premenopausal women. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase was unaffected by psyllium intake whereas cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity was 18% lower after psyllium supplementation than after the control treatment (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This trial showed that the psyllium-induced responses to plasma lipids were associated with sex and hormonal status and that psyllium, through its action in the intestinal lumen, indirectly affected the intravascular processing of lipoproteins.

  Supplementation with dietary fiber improves fecal incontinence.:Nurs Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;50(4):203-13.Bliss DZ, Jung HJ, Savik K, Lowry A, LeMoine M, Jensen L, Werner C, Schaffer K.School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA. bliss@tc.umn.edu

 BACKGROUND: Human studies have shown that dietary fiber affects stool composition and consistency. Because fecal incontinence has been shown to be exacerbated by liquid stools or diarrhea, management strategies that make stool consistency less loose or liquid may be useful. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a fiber supplement containing psyllium, gum arabic, or a placebo in community-living adults who were incontinent of loose or liquid stools. Mechanisms underlying these effects (e.g., fermentation of the fibers and water-holding capacity of stools) were examined. METHODS: Thirty-nine persons with fecal incontinence of loose or liquid stools prospectively recorded diet intake and stool characteristics and collected their stools for 8 days prior to and at the end of a 31-day fiber supplementation period. During the fiber supplementation period, they ingested psyllium, gum arabic, or a placebo by random assignment. RESULTS: In the baseline period, the groups were comparable on all variables measured. In the fiber supplementation period, (a) the proportion of incontinent stools of the groups ingesting the fiber supplements was less than half that of the group ingesting the placebo, (b) the placebo group had the greatest percentage of stools that were loose/unformed or liquid, and (c) the psyllium group had the highest water-holding capacity of water-insoluble solids and total water-holding capacity. The supplements of dietary fiber appeared to be completely fermented by the subjects as indicated by nonsignificant differences in total fiber, short chain fatty acids and pH in stools among the groups in the baseline or fiber supplementation periods. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with dietary fiber from psyllium or gum arabic was associated with a decrease in the percentage of incontinent stools and an improvement of stool consistency. Improvements in fecal incontinence or stool consistency did not appear to be related to unfermented dietary fiber.

  Gastrointestinal side effects of orlistat may be prevented by concomitant prescription of natural fibers (psyllium mucilloid).:Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Jul;25(7):1095-9.Cavaliere H, Floriano I, Medeiros-Neto G.Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

 OBJECTIVES: This placebo-controlled open study was designed to test the hypothesis that most of the gastrointestinal (GI) side events induced by treatment of obese patients with orlistat (a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor) could be prevented or ameliorated by concomitant use of natural fibers (psyllium mucilloid). DESIGN: Two groups of obese women (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were treated with orlistat 120 mg three times a day. One group (A, n=30) was randomized to receive orlistat and, approximately 6.0 g of orange-flavored psyllium mucilloid dissolved in water and the other group (B, n=30) received orlistat and orange-flavored placebo. At the end of 30 days and 2 weeks of washout, group A switched to placebo and group B received psyllium while continuing orlistat three times a day. SUBJECTS: Sixty professional women, more than 21-y-old with a body mass index (BMI) between 27.3 and 48.0 kg/m(2), who were not receiving any other medication. MEASUREMENTS: Assessments included weekly visits to attending physician, filling a form in which GI events were recorded, monthly measurements of body weight, blood pressure and serum lipids. The frequency and severity of GI events were evaluated by a score system, based on information provided by the patients. RESULTS: Both groups A and B significantly lost (P<0.01) weight after 60 days of orlistat (A=96.8 to 94.9 kg and B=98.7 to 96.5 kg). Similarly, BMI values declined significantly in both groups. While in the psyllium plus orlistat group (group A) the mean +/-s.e.m. of the scores reflecting GI events was 13.0+/-1.8, the placebo plus orlistat group (B) had a value of 35.9+/-2.7 (P<0.01). When the reverse situation was instituted the placebo and orlistat group presented a mean score of 36.1+/-3.6 and the psyllium plus orlistat a mean score of 8.9+/-1.5 (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid concomitantly prescribed to obese patients receiving 120 mg of orlistat three times a day is an effective and safe adjunct therapy that is helpful in controlling the GI side effects of this pancreatic lipase inhibitor.
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  Evaluation of morphological and molecular variation in Plantago asiatica var. densiuscula, with special reference to the systematic treatment of Plantago asiatica var. yakusimensis: J Plant Res. 2006 Jul;119(4):385-95. Epub 2006 Jun 14.

 Morphological and molecular variations in Plantago asiatica L. var. densiuscula Pilg. were analyzed to evaluate the genetic basis for recognizing the dwarf variety P. asiatica var. yakusimensis (Masam.) Ohwi. Considerable variation in the leaf size of P. asiatica var. densiuscula was observed, and no morphological discontinuities were found between the dwarf types of P. asiatica var. densiuscula and P. asiatica var. yakusimensis. Morphological analysis of plants grown under standardized conditions revealed that both environmental plasticity and genetic differentiation contributed to the dwarfisms. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the SUC1 locus encoding a sucrose transporter revealed that P. asiatica var. yakusimensis was genetically unique although the differentiation level was low. From the above results, we concluded that P. asiatica var. yakusimensis should be reduced to a form of P. asiatica var. densiuscula. Furthermore, the geographic distribution of the SUC1 genotype suggested multiple origins of dwarves, and possible hypotheses for the origins of dwarves are discussed.

  A single amino acid in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus contributes to systemic necrosis.:Arch Virol. 2006 Oct;151(10):2067-75. Epub 2006 Apr 24.

 From a lily isolate of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV-Li), two sub-isolates (Li1 and Li6) were obtained. Although the nucleotide sequences of Li1 and Li6 were highly conserved, they showed different pathogenicity in Nicotiana benthamiana. Li1 caused necrosis, whereas Li6 infected the plant asymptomatically. Inoculation tests with chimeric and point-mutated viruses revealed that amino acid 1154 of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) contributes to the necrotic symptoms. The accumulation of the mutant viruses, in which amino acid 1154 of the RdRp was exchanged to the wild-type codon in Li1 and Li6, was almost equal.

  Nitrogen partitioning in the photosynthetic apparatus of Plantago asiatica leaves grown under different temperature and light conditions: similarities and differences between temperature and light acclimation.:Plant Cell Physiol. 2005 Aug;46(8):1283-90. Epub 2005 Jun 4

 Effects of growth temperature and irradiance on nitrogen partitioning among photosynthetic components were studied. Plantago asiatica was grown under different temperature and light conditions. Growth conditions were regulated such that the Chl a/b ratio in leaves grown at a low temperature with a low irradiance was similar to that in leaves grown at a high temperature with a high irradiance, suggesting that the balance between acquisition and utilization of light energy in the photosynthetic apparatus was similar between the two growth conditions. When plotted against the leaf nitrogen content, the RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylase content did not significantly differ depending on growth conditions. Both high irradiance and low temperature decreased nitrogen partitioning to Chl-protein complexes. Low temperature increased nitrogen allocation to stroma FBPase (fructose-1,6-phosphatase) irrespective of growth irradiance. Gas exchange measurement indicated that the ratio of the electron transport (J(max)) to the maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) was not affected by growth irradiance but by growth temperature. It is concluded that nitrogen partitioning between acquisition and utilization of light energy responds to both growth temperature and irradiance, while nitrogen partitioning between carboxylation and regeneration of RuBP responds only to growth temperature.

  Induction of apoptosis by Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil on AGS gastric cancer cells.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Oct;27(10):1604-10.Ko SG, Koh SH, Jun CY, Nam CG, Bae HS, Shin MK.Department of Tumor Biology, Cancer Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Korea. sgko9209@snu.ac.kr

 We performed this study to understand the molecular basis underlying the antitumor effects of Saussurea lappa, Pharbitis nil, Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum, which have been used for herbal medicinal treatments against cancers in East Asia. We analyzed the effects of these medicinal herbs on proliferation and on expression of cell growth/apoptosis related molecules, with using an AGS gastric cancer cell line. The treatments of Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil dramatically reduced cell viabilities in a dose and time-dependent manner, but Plantago asiatica and Taraxacum mongolicum didn't. FACS analysis and Annexin V staining assay also showed that both Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil induce apoptotic cell death of AGS. Expression analyses via RT-PCR and Western blots revealed that Saussurea lappa, but not Pharbitis nil, increased expression of the p53 and its downstream effector p21Waf1, and that the both increased expression of apoptosis related Bax and cleavage of active caspase-3 protein. We also confirmed the translocation of Bax to mitochondria. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Saussurea lappa and Pharbitis nil induce growth inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells, and these effects are correlated with down- and up-regulation of growth-regulating apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes, respectively.

  The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation:Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002 Jun;122(6):363-79.

 The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively.
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  Nutritional care of the patient with constipation.:

 Chronic constipation is defined as a symptom-based disorder based on the presence for at least 3 months in the last year of unsatisfactory defecation characterized by infrequent stools, difficult stool passage, or both. On the other hand, the presence of clinically important abdominal discomfort or pain associated with constipation defines irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. Intake of dietary fibre and bulking agents (psyllium) may be effective in alleviating chronic constipation in patients without slow colonic transit or disordered constipation. On the other hand, fibre may improve stool consistency in patients with IBS with constipation, but it is considered to be not effective in improving abdominal pain, distension or bloating. Probiotics may be effective in relieving constipation; however, the effect of lactic acid bacteria ingestion may be dependent on the bacterial strain used and the population being studied. Lactulose, which is a substrate for lactic acid bacteria (prebiotic), is effective to treat patients with chronic constipation.

  In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica.:

 Plantago major linn. and P. asiatica Linn. (Plantaginaceae) are commonly used as folk medicine in Taiwan for treating infectious diseases related to the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. In this study, we investigated the antiviral, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activities of hot water extracts of these two species in vitro on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8 and ADV-11), and on various human leukemia, lymphoma and carcinoma cells with XTT, BrdU and IFN-gamma kits. Results showed that hot water extract of P. asiatica possessed significant inhibitory activity on the proliferation of lymphoma (U937) and carcinoma (bladder, bone, cervix, kidney, lung and stomach) cells and on viral infection (HSV-2 and ADV-11). P. major and P. asiatica both exhibited dual effects of immunodulatory activity, enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma at low concentrations (< 50 microg/ml), but inhibiting this effect at high concentration (> 50 microg/ml). The present study concludes that hot water extracts of P. major and P. asiatica possess abroad-spectrum of antileukemia, anticarcinoma and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Further investigations to elucidate the active component(s) of P. asiatica and P. major and to evaluate their clinical application are warranted.

  Antidepressant effect of three traditional Chinese medicines in the learned helplessness model.:

 Plantago asiatica, Scrophularia ningpoensis and Ilex pubescens are among the traditional Chinese medicines which are more frequently prescribed for treating depression-like ailments in the past and present traditional Chinese medical practice. The present work was therefore conducted to evaluate the presumable antidepressant effects of the extracts derived from the three remedies in mice using the learned helplessness model being used for screening for antidepressant compounds in modern medicinal researches. As a result, the petroleum extracts of Plantago asiatica and Ilex pubescens as well as the EtOAc extract of Scrophularia ningpoensis and the petroleum-soluble fraction of the acidic hydrolysate of the water extract of Ilex pubescens (after petroleum extraction) decreased significantly the number of escape failures relative to the control. The finding rationalized the clinical prescription of the herbs for the treatment of depression, and shined a clue for the characterization of the antidepressant phytochemical(s).
 Plantain Seed Extract.Plantain extract.10:1.CAS.NO.084929-43-1.Semen Plantaginis.Plantaginin.M.F.C21H20O11;Aucubin,.CAS.RN.NO:479-98-1.M.F.C15H22O9.Plantago major.ext photo picture image img

  HPLC quantitative analysis of plantaginin in Shazenso (Plantago asiatica L.) extracts and isolation of plantamajoside.:

 Quantitative analytical method by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the quality control of Shazenso (Plantago asiatica L.) extracts. Plantaginin (I) which is one of the known constituents of Shazenso, was selected as a standard compound of the analysis. A chemically labile component has been isolated from the methanol extract and identified to be plantamajoside (II). It was found that II was converted into III even in hot water.
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  Pharmaceutical composition containing psyllium fiber and a lipase inhibitor:US Patent 6251421

 The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions containing an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of psyllium husk, its derivatives and salts thereof.

 Psyllium husk, has a long history of use in traditional and herbal medicine and has been in use in the United States over 60 years ago. Psyllium husk is derived from the seed or leaves of the Plantago ovata plant. Besides Plantago ovata, psyllium is also known as Ispaghula and Ispagol. Plantago ovata is an annual herb native to Asia, the Mediterranean region, and North Africa. Psyllium grows in sand and silty soils. Currently, psyllium is extensively cultivated in India and Pakistan. India provides about 85% of the psyllium available in the world market. The US is the world's largest importer of psyllium husk. Psyllium has a long history of use through the world and has been used in traditional medicine in the United States, Europe, India, and China. Some of the uses of psyllium in traditional medicine are as laxative, emollient, demulcent, and diuretic.

 Currently in the United States, psyllium husk is most often used as a bulk fiber laxative, in foods or in various fiber supplements. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized the use in a health claim in the labeling of foods and dietary supplements containing psyllium husk. The health claim may state that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 7 grams of soluble fiber per day from psyllium may reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood.

 Psyllium is a bulk forming fiber. Other fibers that belong to the class of bulk forming fibers are cellulose, methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, karaya, malt soup extract, polycarbophil, and wheat bran. Bulk forming fibers are laxatives because of their water holding properties. They exert their action primarily through mechanical effects by bulking the colonic contents and shortening transit time.

 Anal leakage of oil (oily spotting) is an adverse effect which is occasionally observed in patients treated with lipase inhibitors. It results from physical separation of some liquid unabsorbed dietary fat from the bulk of the fecal mass in the lower large intestine.

  Mechanism of the Invention

 It has now been found that by combining a lipase inhibitor with effective amounts of psyllium, psyllium husk or the seeds or leaves thereof, the phenomenon of anal leakage of oil can be strongly reduced. The present invention is directed to pharmaceutical compositions containing an effective amount of an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, and an effective amount of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of psyllium fiber or husk, its derivatives and salts thereof. The compositions of the present invention also optionally include auxiliary excipients.

 The present invention is also concerned with the use of psyllium, psyllium husk or the seeds or leaves thereof for the combined simultaneous, separate or chronologically spaced use with an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, such as orlistat or Pluronic L101, in the treatment of obesity and hyperlipaemia and their comorbidities, such as type II diabetes mellitus.

 Artificial non-absorbed fats, mostly sucrose polyester, are used in the food industry for the production of low fat foods, such as low fat potato chips, low fat cookies, low fat salad dressings and low fat ice cream. The ingestion of higher amounts of such foodstuffs containing non-absorbable fats can induce oily leakage.

 The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention reduce fat absorption through inhibition of gastrointestinal lipase. The invention is further concerned with the use of psyllium, psyllium husk or the seeds or leaves thereof for treating or preventing the syndrome of anal leakage of oil occurring after the administration of an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, such as orlistat or Pluronic L101, or after ingestion of food containing poorly absorbable or non-absorbable fats or oils or of undigestible oily fat substitutes.

 Methods are provided for treating or preventing the syndrome of anal leakage of oil in a patient to whom a composition containing an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase is orally administered in unit dosage form.

  Details and Description of the Invention:

 Examples of lipase inhibitors which can be used in the compositions of the present invention are orlistat or Pluronic L101, lipstatin, panclicins, hesperidin, ebelactones, esterastin and their derivatives, and valilactone or such natural compounds as Cassia Nomame. The most preferred lipase inhibitor is orlistat or Pluronic L101.

 Orlistat reduces the absorption of dietary fat. Its use for the control or prevention of obesity and hyperlipaemia, is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,598,089. Orlistat is an N-formyl-L-leucine ester with (3S,4S)-3-hexyl-4-[(2S)-2-hydroxytridecyl]-2-oxetanone. Its chemical structure is as follows: ##STR1##

 Another example of gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor is Pluronic L101 which is a hydrophobic surface-active agent, and potent in-vitro inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase. When administered as a 1 percent or 3 percent dietary admix to meal-fed rats, pluronic L-101 produced a significant and dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain while not affecting food consumption. Excretion of dietary fat in the feces was enhanced significantly in a dose-dependent manner during Pluronic L-101 treatment.

 Pluronic is a poloxamer, a nononionic surfactant, and a block copolymer of propyleneoxide and ethylene oxide. The propylene oxide block is sandwiched between two ethylene oxide blocks, as follows:

 (HO--(CH2 CH2 O)x (CH2 CH3 CHO)y (CH2 CH2 O)z --H
 where x,z=2-128 y=16-67
 In Pluronic L101, x, z=7; y=54

 Any conventional auxiliary excipients can be used in formulating the dosage forms of the present invention. Examples of auxiliary excipients which can be used in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are binders, dilutens and lubricants, such as AVICEL, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (povidone), talc and sodium stearyl fumarate; sweeteners, such as sorbitol, glucose, saccharose, saccharine-sodium salt and sodium cyclamate; flavor agents, such as passion fruit, citron and limette; flavor enhancers, such as citric acid, monosodium citrate, sodium chloride and chinine sulfate; effervescing agents, such as sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid, disintegrants, antimicrobial agents, such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl or propyl ester; detergents and coloring agents, such as beta-carotene.

 The experiment for loss of free fecal oil is based on the observation that mice, due to steadily grooming their furs, distribute any excreted free fecal oil all over their bodies. This results in an easily visible brownish coloring of the fur (oily fur greasing). In mice weighing 20-25 g, excretion of free oil is provoked by administering an excessive dose of orlistat or Pluronic L101 (300 μmol/kg/day) together with a diet containing 7% fat, resulting in a daily fat intake of 1 g/day. The diet consists of mashed Hamburger, butter, French fries and string beans. When the diet contained psyllium, the extent of oily fur greasing is reduced, when compared to controls.

 The compositions of the present invention reduce fat absorption in a patient through the use of a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor to inhibit gastrointestinal lipase. The compositions also treat and prevent the syndrome of anal leakage of oil that can occur in a patient upon administration of the gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor. The compositions of the invention contain from 10 to 50, preferably from 20 to 40, parts by weight of psyllium, psyllium husk, seeds or leaves from 10 to 200, preferably from 20 to 80, parts by weight of auxiliary excipients for 1 part by weight of an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, such as orlistat or Pluronic L101. The inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase in the compositions of the invention is present in an amount at least sufficient to reduce the absorption of fat in the meal consumed by a patient.

 The composition of the invention can also be in the form of a commercial pack containing an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase and psyllium, psyllium husk or the seeds or leaves thereof, with instructions for its use for the simultaneous, separate or chronologically spaced use in the treatment of obesity or hyperlipaemia.

 For the treatment or prevention of obesity or hyperlipaemia, a composition of the invention containing from 10 mg to 1 g of an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, such as orlistat, and from 15 g to 20 g, preferably from 2 g to 10 g, of psyllium, psyllium husk or the seeds or leaves thereof, can be administered orally once, twice or three times per day.

 The compositions of the invention can be administered to patients in oral dosage forms. For example, the compositions can be administered as drinkable formulations, such as solutions or suspensions prepared from powder, granules, pellets, tablets to be reconstituted or effervescent tablets; or in form of chewable formulations, such as tablets, capsules or lozenges. They can also be incorporated into food preparations, such as wafers, crackers or bread, or can be in form of swallowable formulations, such as tablets or capsules.

 A preferred composition of the invention is a tablet for the treatment of obesity, consisting essentially of orlistat or Pluronic L101 as the active ingredient and psyllium husk, wherein the dosage is from 10 to 120 mg of orlistat or Pluronic L101 and from 0.5 to 5 g of psyllium husk. Most preferably, the tablet consists essentially of about 60 mg of orlistat or Pluronic L101 and about 2.5 g of psyllium husk. Preferably, the tablet is chewable.

 A further preferred composition of the invention is a wafer for the treatment of obesity, consisting essentially of orlistat or Pluronic L101 as the active ingredient and psyllium husk, wherein the dosage is from 10 to 200 mg of orlistat or Pluronic L101 and from 1 to 10 g of psyllium husk. Most preferably, the wafer consists essentially of about 120 mg of orlistat or Pluronic L-101 and about 5 g of psyllium husk.

 In accordance with the present invention, methods are provided for treating or preventing the syndrome of anal leakage of oil in a patient to whom a composition containing an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase is being orally administered in unit dosage form. Treating or preventing the syndrome of anal leakage of oil in a patient is accomplished by orally administering to a patient per meal consumed by the patient a composition in unit dosage form containing an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase, and at least one compound selected from the group of psyllium husk, its derivatives, and salts thereof. The gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor is present in this composition in an amount at least sufficient to reduce the absorption of fat in the meal consumed by a patient. In general, this amount is preferably from about 10 mg to about 500 mg. The psyllium husk compound is preferably present in the unit dosage form in an amount of from about 500 mg to about 20 g.

 A preferred method of treating or preventing the syndrome of anal leakage of oil occasionally occurring after the oral administration of a lipase inhibitor, comprises orally administering a lipase inhibitor, preferably orlistat or Pluronic L101, and psyllium husk in a dosage amount from 10 to 200 mg of lipase inhibitor and from 0.5 to 10 g of psyllium husk per fat containing meal. Most conveniently, this method comprises orally administering to a patient a composition in unit dosage form containing orlistat or Pluronic L101 and psyllium husk. The dosage amount of the composition is from 10 to 120 mg of orlistat or Pluronic L101 and from 2 to 6 g of psyllium husk, particularly about 60 mg of orlistat or Pluronic L101 and about 2.5 g of psyllium husk per fat containing meal consumed by the patient. Preferably, the composition is orally administered to the patient at breakfast, lunch and dinner.

  Chemical composition for aiding the absorption, binding and elimination of cholesterol and weight:

 Details Pls check United States Patent [6447812]:Brief Description:
 A composition and method for reducing cholesterol, facilitating weight loss and aiding in the maintenance of a stable weight in humans, wherein the composition includes at least one preferred embodiment comprising a mixture of oat bran generally in an amount of about 83% to 85% by weight, glucosamine HCL generally in an amount about 6% to 8% by weight, glucomannan generally in an amount of 5% to 6% by weight, an amount of apple pectin or other fruit or vegetable pectin generally in an amount of about 2% by weight. Stearic acid may also be included in the composition in an amount of generally about 1% to 2% by weight of the composition.

 Nutritional supplement for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for lipodystrophy:

 Details Pls check United States Patent [6365176]:Brief Description:
 Described herein is a nutritional supplement to be incorporated into the diet of a type 2 diabetic or an individual having lipodystrophy. The supplement provides active food-grade ingredients to improve the management of blood glucose and blood lipid levels. The supplement additionally aids in the improvement of the effects of platelet aggregation. The supplement should be taken daily during or at the end of the two largest meals, where most of the fat and cholesterol are likely to be ingested.
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Reference:
  • 1.Plantago asiatica L.Uses Plantain seed and Plantain Seed Extract.

♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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Available Product
  • Name:Plantain Seed Extract
  • Serie No:R020.
  • Specifications:10:1 TLC.
  • INCI Name:PLANTAGO OVATA SEED EXTRACT
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:290-178-8
  • CAS:90082-86-3
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Plantago Ovata Seed Extract is an extract of the seeds of the plantain,Plantago ovata,Plantaginaceae
  • Other Names:Semen Plantaginis Extract.Plantago Asiatice,Plantago depressa willd,Ribwort,Snakeweed,Broadleaf-,Thickleaf-,broad-,round-leaved plantain,Semen plantaginis,psyllium seed,Plantago Ovata Seed,Plantain herb,Che Qian Zi,Che Qian Cao,Arnoglossa,Bazir Dam Bil,Broadleaf Plantain,Buyuk Sinirliot,Daum Sejumbok,Ekur Anjin,Gechi Qulaghi,Grote Weegbree,Lisan Al Hamal,Llanten Mayor,Meloh Kiloh,Oba-Ko,Otot Ototan,Sangka Buwah,Sangkubah,Sangkuwah,Sei Ohr Re,Sembung Otot,Suri Pandak,Tarkuz,Wegerlich.

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Plantain Seed Extract INCI Name Plantago Ovata Seed Extract EINECS ELINCS No 290-178-8 CAS 90082-86-3

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