Safflower.Carthamus tinctorius L.,Flos Carthami.Safflower Extract.
- Botanical Basic Data of Safflower:Carthamus tinctorius L.
- What it is Safflower?Property,Effects and constitution of Safflower.
- Functions and clinical use of safflower.
- Ethnobotany:Worlwide use of safflower.
- Safflower:Administration and Guide.
- What is Saffron:Stigma Croci,Crocus sativus L?
- Health benefit and application of Saffron.
- Cosmetic Use of Saffron:
- Safflower:Research Update.
What it is Safflower?Property,Effects and constitution of Safflower.:
Safflower,Carthamus tinctorius L., is a member of the family Compositae or Asteraceae, is a thistle-like plant with a strong central branch stem, a varying number of branches, and a tap-root system. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. The seed oil content ranges from 30 to 45 percent. Flower color is usually yellow or orange, although some varieties have red or white flowers. Plant height in North Dakota varies between 15 and 30 inches depending on environmental conditions.
The taproot of safflower can penetrate to depths of 8 to 10 feet if subsoil temperature and moisture permit. As a result, safflower is more tolerant to drought than small grains.
Traditionally, the crop was grown for its flowers, used for colouring and flavouring foods and making dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available, and in medicines.
The flower of Carthamus tinctorius L., an annual plant, of the family Compositae. Native to parts of Asia and Africa, from central India through the Middle East to the upper reaches of the Nile River and into Ethiopia.
The safflower plant grows from 0.3 to 1.2 m high. It is in leaf from May to October, in flower from August to October, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. The plant can grow in nutritionally poor soil and requires dry or moist soil. It cannot grow in the shade but can tolerate drought.
Safflower has flowers that may be red, orange, yellow, or white. The dried flowers may be used to obtain carthamin, a red textile dye that was commercially important at one time but has since been replaced by synthetic aniline dyes, except in local areas of southwestern Asia. Safflower has been used as an adulterant of the condiment saffron.
Oil obtained from the seed is the chief modern use of the plant. Safflower oil does not yellow with age, making it useful in preparing varnish and paint. Most of the oil, however, is consumed in the form of soft margarines, salad oil, and cooking oil. It is highly valued for dietary reasons because of its high proportion of polyunsaturated fats. The meal, or cake residue, is used as a protein supplement for livestock. Safflower, grown chiefly in India, has been introduced as an oil crop into the United States, Australia, Israel, Turkey, and Canada.
Safflower is cultivated in China as a blood herb. It is grown in most areas of China and mainly produced in the provinces Henan, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Sichuan, etc. Harvested when the flower turns from yellow into red in summer, the flower is dried in the air or sun for use when raw.
Property and Effects of Safflower:
Pungent in flavour,warm in property, acting on the heart and liver channels.Used as Laxative, Diaphoretic,
Diuretic, Sedative, Nervine, Emmenagogue, Purgative, Anti-rheumatic.
Invigorating circulation of blood, normalizing menstruation and eliminating blood stasis to relieve pain.
Properties: Pungent in flavor, warm in nature, it is related to the heart and liver channels.
Functions: Promotes blood circulation to regulate menstruation and removes blood stasis to alleviate pain.
Safflower is ranked third in a survey of 250 potential anti-fertility plants.
Phytochemicals and Constituents of Saffflower:
Beta-farnesene,Cadienals,Heptenols,Hexenols,Pentenals,Penenols,(Z)-3-hexenyl-benzoate,(Z)-3-hexenyl-butyrate,(Z,z)-1,8,11-hepta-decatriene, (Z,z)-3,11-tridecatriene-5,7,9-triyne, (Z,z,z)-1,8,11,14-heptade-catetraene, 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-methyl-benzene, 1-heptadecene, 1-hexadecene, 1-pentadecene , 1-tridecene, 2-hydroxyarctiin, 3-methylbutyric-acid, Alloaromadendrene, Alpha-cedrene, Alpha-copaene, Alpha-gurjunene, Alpha-muurolene, Alpha-phellandrene, Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-cyclocitral, Beta-ionone, Beta-selinene.
Carthamin, Carthamone,Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene-epoxide, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Gamma-tocopherol, Germacrene-d, Humulene, Iron, Isocarthamin, Kaempferol-glycoside, Limonene, Luteolin-7-beta-d-glucoside, M-xylene, Magnesium, Manganese, Matairesinoside, Methylcinnamate, Mucilage, Neocarthamin,Niacin, Nonanal, O-xylene, P-cymene, P-xylene, Pent-1-en- 3-ol, Pent-3-en-2-one, Pentanol, Phenol, Phenylacetaldehyde,Phosphorus, Safflower-yellow, Safynol, Sd, Selenium, Serotobenine,Silicon,Terpinen-4 -ol, Tetracheloside,Tetradecene, Ubiquinone-9, Verbenone,Zinc.
Main constituents:Safflor flowers contain carthamin, a dye of flavonoid type, but no essential oil.
The plant is widely cultivated for an edible oil, which is extracted from the seeds. It contains triglycerides of the doubly unsaturated linoleic acid (70%) and the triply unsaturated linolenic acid (10%); the latter is, together with the comparatively high content of vitamine E (310 ppm), responsible for the good reputation of safflower oil among nutrition scientists. Iodine index is rather high, ranging from 140 to 150.
The primary chemical constituents of Safflower include pigment (carthamone), lignans, polysaccharide, and essential oil (arachic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid). Safflower oil, which is rich in linoleic acid (an essential fatty acid), is commonly used in cooking to aid in lowering cholesterol. The oil also contains a high concentrate of polyunsaturates. Polyunsaturates provide the raw material for prostaglandins, the hormone-like substances that function in cell membranes and molecular regulation.
Other Phytochemicals: carthamin;neocarthamin;precarthamin;catechol;pyrocatechol; ethyl acetate;pent-1-en-3-ol;2-hexanol;3-hexanol;3-methyl butyic acid;2-methyl butyic acid; phenyl acetaldchyde; nonanal; terpinen-4-ol; verbenone; decanal; benzothiazole; methyl cinnamate; alpha-cedrene;caryophyllene;E-beta-farnesene;humulene;Beta-ionone;Beta-selinene;dihydroactinididide; caryophyllene epoxide; Gamma-cadinene; palmitic acid;myristic acid;lauric acid;linoleic acid;beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside; oleic acid;linoleic acid,Polysaccharide,etc.
Meal or seedcake is used as feed for livestock, that from unhulled seeds containing 18-24% protein, from hulled seed, 28-50% protein. Seeds contain 32-40% oil, 11-17% protein and 4-7% moisture. Per 100 g, the seeds are reported to contain 482 calories, 4.8 g H2O, 12.6 g protein, 27.8 g fat, 50.5 g total carbohydrate, 25.1 g fiber, 4.3 g ash, 126 mg Ca, 310 mg P, 9.7 mg Fe, 0 ug beta-carotene equivalent, 0.59 mg thiamine, 0.14 Mg riboflavin, 0.5 mg niacin,, and 0 mg ascorbic acid. The oil contains 1.5% myristic (with lauric and lower acids), 3% palmitic, 1% stearic, 0.5% arachidic (with trace of lignoceric), 33% oleic, and 61% linoleic acids. Decorticated seed for animal feed contain 8.7% moisture, 10.0% fat, 45.4% protein, 20.1% carbohydrates, 8.3 fiber, and 7.5% ash (C.S.I.R., 1948-1976). Safflower florets contain carthamin (C21H22O11 H2O) which is red and insoluble in water, and safflower yellow (C16H20O11) which is soluble in water.
- 1.Safflower.Carthamus tinctorius L.,Flos Carthami.Safflower Extract.
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