Hoodia.the Succulent Asclepiad Trichocaulon.Natural Arid Hoodia Plus Sense Thirst.How the Hoodia Appetite Suppressant Steroidal Glycoside work?

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Research Update:Hoodia Gordonii or Asclepiad Trichocaulon.

Hoodia Cactus Extract Hoodia Gordonii Asclepiad Trichocaulon Appetite Suppressant Hoodia gordonii Sweet P57 P57AS3 Powder Dry Hoodia Slim Blend photo picture image    Steroidal glycosides from Hoodia gordonii.:Steroids. 2007 Mar 27; Dall'acqua S, Innocenti G.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Padova, Via F. Marzolo 5, 35131 Padova, Italy.

 Ten new C(21)-steroidal derivatives, namely gordonosides A-L (1-10) were isolated from a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Hoodia gordonii, a plant widely used in the nutraceutical market as an ingredient of weight loss supplements. Compounds (2-10) are based on 3beta,14beta-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-17-betaone aglycone (1). Their structures were characterized on the basis of HR-MS spectrometry and both 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

   New oxypregnane glycosides from appetite suppressant herbal supplement Hoodia gordonii.:Steroids. 2007 Mar 18;Pawar RS, Shukla YJ, Khan SI, Avula B, Khan IA.National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

 Hoodigosides A-K (1-11), eleven new oxypregnane glycosides and a previously reported oxypregnane glycoside P57AS3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Hoodia gordonii. The structures of these 12-O-beta-tigloyl isoramanone glycosides were determined on the basis of chemical evidence and extensive spectroscopic methods that include one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR. Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of these compounds were tested in cell based assays where they were found to be inactive.

   Recent studies on selected botanical dietary supplement ingredients.:Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007 Mar 28;Rader JI, Delmonte P, Trucksess MW.Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD, 20740, USA, Jeanne.Rader@fda.hhs.gov.

 The market for botanical dietary supplements in the US has grown rapidly during the last 15 years. Use of newly introduced botanical ingredients has often outpaced an adequate scientific understanding of the ingredients themselves. This may lead to problems, including misidentification, mislabeling, adulteration, and toxicity related to the intended ingredient or one substituted for it. This article reviews recent work with several botanical ingredients (Citrus species, Hoodia gordonii, Teucrium, isoflavones) that illustrates the complexity of the current situation and approaches that contribute to ensuring the quality of botanical ingredients. Recent work with contamination of botanical products by mycotoxins is also reviewed. The need for tools for botanical authentication and methods for reproducible extraction of bioactive constituents is critical. Such tools, and improved analytical techniques for identifying potentially bioactive constituents in fresh plant material and in concentrated extracts and for detection of hazardous contaminants, are expected to improve the overall quality and safety of botanical dietary supplement ingredients.

   Increased ATP content/production in the hypothalamus may be a signal for energy-sensing of satiety: studies of the anorectic mechanism of a plant steroidal glycoside.:Brain Res. 2004 Sep 10;1020(1-2):1-11.MacLean DB, Luo LG.Division of Endocrinology, Hallett Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Brown Medical School, Coro Building Providence, RI 02903, USA. david_b_maclean@brown.edu

 A steroidal glycoside with anorectic activity in animals, termed P57AS3 (P57), was isolated from Hoodia gordonii and found to have homologies to the steroidal core of cardiac glycosides. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the purified P57AS3 demonstrated that the compound has a likely central (CNS) mechanism of action. There is no evidence of P57AS3 binding to or altering activity of known receptors or proteins, including Na/K-ATPase, the putative target of cardiac glycosides. The studies demonstrated that the compound increases the content of ATP by 50-150% in hypothalamic neurons. In addition, third ventricle (i.c.v.) administration of P57, which reduces subsequent 24-h food intake by 40-60%, also increases ATP content in hypothalamic slice punches removed at 24 h following the i.c.v. injections. In related studies, in pair fed rats fed a low calorie diet for 4 days, the content of ATP in the hypothalami of control i.c.v. injected animals fell by 30-50%, which was blocked by i.c.v. injections of P57AS3. With growing evidence of metabolic or nutrient-sensing by the hypothalamus, ATP may be a common currency of energy sensing, which in turn may trigger the appropriate neural, endocrine and appetitive responses as similar to other fundamental hypothalamic homeostatic centers for temperature and osmolarity.

   Suppression of glucose absorption by extracts from the leaves of Gymnema inodorum.:J Vet Med Sci. 1997 Sep;59(9):753-7.

 Gymnema sylvestre (GS) is one of the Asclepiad strains that grows in South-east Asia. Their therapeutic effects for treating diabetes mellitus, rheumatic arthritis and gout have been well known for a long time. However, the problem is that GS suppresses sweetness and tastes bitter. For this study, we chose Gymnema inodorum (GI) instead of GS, since it has an advantage that it does not suppress sweetness nor is it bitter in taste. In this paper, effects of glucose availability of some saponin fractions (F-I to F-IV) extracted from GI leaves, which were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography were studied on a high K(+)-induced contraction of guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle, O2 consumption on guinea-pig ileum, glucose-evoked transmural potential difference (delta PD) of guinea-pig everted intestine and blood glucose level in glucose tolerance tests on rats. The extracts of GI leaves suppressed the intestinal smooth muscle contraction, decreased the O2 consumption, inhibited the glucose evoked-transmural potential, and prevented the blood glucose level. Our studies suggest that the component of GI inhibits the increase in the blood glucose level by interfering with the intestinal glucose absorption process.
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   Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss.:Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004 May;6(3):171-80.Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Rao CV, Dey DK, Satyanarayana S.Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Georgetown, Washington, DC 20057, USA. preusshg@georgetown.edu

 AIM: The efficacy of optimal doses of highly bioavailable (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) alone and in combination with niacin-bound chromium (NBC) and a standardized Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) on weight loss in moderately obese subjects was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), appetite, lipid profiles, serum leptin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis and decrease body weight without stimulating the central nervous system. NBC has demonstrated its ability to maintain healthy insulin levels, while GSE has been shown to regulate weight loss and blood sugar levels. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human study was conducted in Elluru, India for 8 weeks in 60 moderately obese subjects (ages 21-50, BMI >26 kg/m(2)). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was administered HCA-SX 4667 mg, group B was administered a combination of HCA-SX 4667 mg, NBC 4 mg and GSE 400 mg, while group C was given placebo daily in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals. All subjects received a 2000 kcal diet/day and participated in supervised walking. RESULTS: At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5-6% in both groups A and B. Food intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced in both groups, while high-density lipoprotein levels and excretion of urinary fat metabolites increased in both groups. A marginal or non-significant effect was observed in all parameters in group C. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that optimal doses of HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX, NBC and GSE can serve as an effective and safe weight-loss formula that can facilitate a reduction in excess body weight and BMI, while promoting healthy blood lipid levels.

   Determination of the appetite suppressant P57 in Hoodia gordonii plant extracts and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MSD-TOF) and LC-UV methods.:

 Hoodia gordonii is traditionally used in South Africa for its appetite suppressant properties. P57AS3 (P57), an oxypregnane steroidal glycoside, is the only reported active constituent from this plant as an appetite suppressant. Effective quality control of these extracts or products requires rapid methods to determine P57 content. New methods of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC-UV for analysis of P57 from H. gordonii have been developed. The quantitative determination of P57 was achieved with a Phenomenex Gemini (Torrance, CA) reversed-phase column using gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% acetic acid. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Good results were obtained in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation <5.0%) and recovery (98.5-103.5%). The developed methods were applied to the determination of P57 for H. gordonii plant samples, one related genus (Opuntia ficus-indica), and dietary supplements that claim to contain H. gordonii.

   Increased ATP content/production in the hypothalamus may be a signal for energy-sensing of satiety: studies of the anorectic mechanism of a plant steroidal glycoside.:

 A steroidal glycoside with anorectic activity in animals, termed P57AS3 (P57), was isolated from Hoodia gordonii and found to have homologies to the steroidal core of cardiac glycosides. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the purified P57AS3 demonstrated that the compound has a likely central (CNS) mechanism of action. There is no evidence of P57AS3 binding to or altering activity of known receptors or proteins, including Na/K-ATPase, the putative target of cardiac glycosides. The studies demonstrated that the compound increases the content of ATP by 50-150% in hypothalamic neurons. In addition, third ventricle (i.c.v.) administration of P57, which reduces subsequent 24-h food intake by 40-60%, also increases ATP content in hypothalamic slice punches removed at 24 h following the i.c.v. injections. In related studies, in pair fed rats fed a low calorie diet for 4 days, the content of ATP in the hypothalami of control i.c.v. injected animals fell by 30-50%, which was blocked by i.c.v. injections of P57AS3. With growing evidence of metabolic or nutrient-sensing by the hypothalamus, ATP may be a common currency of energy sensing, which in turn may trigger the appropriate neural, endocrine and appetitive responses as similar to other fundamental hypothalamic homeostatic centers for temperature and osmolarity.

   Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in overweight of using the P57 extract from Hoodia gordonii.:

 In 2001 Phytopharm completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in overweight, but otherwise healthy volunteers using the P57AS3 (P57) extract from Hoodia gordonii. The participants were split into two groups, one group received the P57 and the other received a placebo. Both groups were told to continue their normal diet and exercise. The results were as follows:
 When comparing the P57AS3 (P57) group to the Placebo group:
 The P57AS3 (P57) group had a statistically significant reduction in body fat
 The P57AS3 (P57) group had a statistically significant reduction in caloric intake
 The P57AS3 (P57) had no adverse side effects
 On average the P57 group ate about 1,000 calories a day less than those in the control group. To put that in perspective, the average American man consumes about 2,600 calories a day; a woman about 1,900

   Clinical Studies of P57 and Hoodia Gordoniii:

 To date 24 obese (BMI>26) and 42 non-obese non-patient volunteers have received doses of P57P ranging from 3 to 4000 mg. Primary measures in these studies included clinical toleration, haematological and biochemical assessments of safety and pharmacokinetics. No treatment related serious adverse events have been reported.
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  • 1.Hoodia.the Succulent Asclepiad Trichocaulon.Natural Arid Hoodia Plus Sense Thirst.How the Hoodia Appetite Suppressant Steroidal Glycoside work?

♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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