Application and Uses of Gymnema sylvestre and Gymnemic acid.
- Botanical Basic Data of Gymnema Sylvestre.
- Parts used and Habitat of Gymnema sylvestre.
- Phytochemicals and Structure of Gymnema sylvestre.
- Application and Uses of Gymnema sylvestre and Gimnemic Acid.
- Gymnema:Diabetes.Lipid-lowering.Weight loss.
- Gymnema and its administration.
- Research Update:Gymnema.
Phytochemicals and Structure of Gymnema sylvestre.:
Gymnema leaves contain Gymnemic acid as an effective substance. Gymnemic acid has a structure with tri-terpenoid combined with glucuronic acid and several fatty acids. We have established analytical method of Gymnemic acid by HPLC method, and extract and refine Gymnema syrvestre extract with a clear guideline of effective substance.
The primary chemical constituents of Gymnema include Gymnemic acid, tartaric acid, gurmarin, calcium oxalate, glucose, stigmasterol,betaine, and choline. While studies have shown that a water-soluble acidic fraction provides the hypoglycemic actions, it is not yet clear what specific constituent in the leaves is responsible for this action. Some researchers have suggested gymnemic acid as one possible candidate, however further research is needed. Both gurmarin (another constituent of the leaves) and gymnemic acid have been shown to block sweet taste in humans.
The hypoglycemic (blood sugar-lowering) action of gymnema leaves was first documented in the late 1920s. This action is gradual in nature, differing from the rapid effect of many prescription hypoglycemic drugs. Gymnema leaves raise insulin levels, according to research in healthy volunteers. Based on animal studies, this may be due to regeneration of the cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin. Other animal research shows that gymnema can also improve uptake of glucose into cells and prevent adrenaline from stimulating the liver to produce glucose, thereby reducing blood sugar levels.
The presence of Gymnemic acid (GA),(+) quercitol, lupeol, Alpha-Amyrin, stigmasterol etc., have been reported. GA I, II, III and IV are anti sweet substance from the leaves of G. sylvestris. They all contain a glucuronic acid moiety, and the gymnemagenin aglycone esterified at position C-21 and C-28. A second series of Gymnemic acid V-VII has also been reported. GA VII is the 3-O-glucuronide of gymnemagenin and GA V is the O-3-glycuronyl- 22, 21-bis-O-tigloyl substitution pattern. GA VIII-IX are also esters of saponin, have an oxoglycoside moiety attached to the glucuronic acid residue. Gurmarin, another constituent of the leaves, and gymnemic acid have been shown to block sweet taste in humans.Some researchers have suggested gymnemic acid as one possible candidate responsible for antidiabetic activity.
Molecular Structure of Gymnemic acid:
- 1.Application and Uses of Gymnema sylvestre and Gymnemic acid.
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