Application and Uses of Gymnema sylvestre and Gymnemic acid.
- Botanical Basic Data of Gymnema Sylvestre.
- Parts used and Habitat of Gymnema sylvestre.
- Phytochemicals and Structure of Gymnema sylvestre.
- Application and Uses of Gymnema sylvestre and Gimnemic Acid.
- Gymnema:Diabetes.Lipid-lowering.Weight loss.
- Gymnema and its administration.
- Research Update:Gymnema.
Although gymnema sylvestre has been used to treat a number of conditions. It is best known for its apparent ability to lower blood sugar levels. Results from case reports and studies in humans and animals suggest that it may work in several ways to help control both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. First, the acids contained in gymnema sylvestre seem to decrease the amounts of sugar that are absorbed from foods. As a result, blood sugar levels may not increase as much as usual after meals. Secondly, gymnema sylvestre may promote the production of insulin by the body. It is possible that gymnema sylvestre may even prompt the pancreas to develop more beta cells ?the source of insulin. It may also make body cells more responsive to the insulin that is available. Finally, several studies have shown that chewing on the leaves of gymnema sylvestre dulls the sense of taste for sweet foods. Participants in studies tended to consume fewer sweet-tasting foods and drinks after using gymnema sylvestre.
Gymnema Sylvestre is a plant native to the tropical forests of India, and has been long used as a treatment for diabetes. Recent scientific investigations has found it effective in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Gymnema Sylvestre is probably the most practical herbal recommendation for improving blood sugar control in diabetics. Furthermore, there is some evidence that it may possibly regenerate or revitalize the insulin- producing beta cells of the pancreas. It is interesting to note that Gymnema extracts are without side effects and exert its blood sugar-lowering effects only in the cases of diabetes. Gymnema extract, when given to healthy volunteers, does not produce any blood sugar lowering or hypoglycemic effects.
Diabetes is a consequence of abnormalities in the blood levels of insulin, the hormone that converts blood sugar into energy. Adult-onset diabetes is caused by the body's inability to adequately process insulin. Today it is known as Type II diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and stable diabetes.
Type I diabetes, or juvenile diabetes, results from an insulin shortage. Type I diabetes is also called insulindependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).
Thousands of years ago, Type II diabetes was treated with gymnema. The plant's sugar-destroying property was released when a person chewed on one or two leaves. Gymnema was said to paralyze a person's tongue to the taste of sugar and bitter tastes. That taste-blocking reaction lasted for several hours. During that time, leaves supposedly provided a slight block to the taste for salty foods, while the taste for acidic foods was not affected.
By blocking the taste buds from tasting sugar, gymnema blocked sugar in the digestive system, resulting in a decrease in blood sugar, also known as a hypoglycemic effect. This medicinal action has been studied since the late 1930s.
Gymnema has also been used in folk medicine as a remedy for allergies, urinary tract inflections, anemia, hyperactivity, digestion, cholesterol, and weight control. Most of those treatments did not prove to be effective. Gymnema lowers cholesterol slightly, but not enough to be regarded as a significant remedy.
Diabetes;Diabetes, gestational;Diabetic retinopathy;Peripheral neuropathy;Diabetic retinopathy;Autonomic neuropathy
In vivo studies have indicated that extracts of G. sylvestre containing gymnemic acid suppress the elevation of blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose uptake in the intestine 9 and by increasing insulin release from the pancreas.The major mode of action was proposed to be through increased permeability of the beta-cell plasma membranes, leading to unregulated loss of insulin from the cells. The high saponin glycoside content of the extract is thought to be responsible for this action. In addition, a calcium 2+ -sensitive component is present; some degree of insulin release may occur through channel-independent calcium 2+ influx into the beta-cells, perhaps through the pores formed by plasma membrane disruption.
Few clinical studies exist; poor reporting of important design features such as blinding or randomization and very high dropout rates reduce the usefulness of their findings. Mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) decreased significantly from baseline (12.8% to 9.5%, P less than 0.001) at 6 months in a controlled trial of patients with type 1 diabetes. 16 Study patients received 200 mg gymnema twice daily, in addition to their usual doses of insulin. Insulin dosage and fasting blood glucose were significantly reduced from baseline after 26 to 30 months. Patients receiving placebo had no significant changes from baseline in any of the measured parameters. Significant decreases in HbA 1c (12% to 8%, P less than 0.001) and fasting blood glucose (174 to 124 mg/dL, P less than 0.001) also were observed in a study of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes.
Patients received 400 mg/day gymnema in addition to glibenclamide or tolbutamide; 5 patients were able to discontinue sulfonylurea treatment by the end of the study. No significant changes in HbA 1c , fasting blood glucose, or lipids were observed in placebo recipients. The use of a gymnema supplement (400 mg leaf extract standardized to 25%) twice daily reduced HbA 1c levels in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 in a third study.Mean daily preprandial plasma glucose concentrations were 11% lower (161 vs 144 mg/dL) after 90 days. The greatest glucose-lowering effects were observed in patients with the highest initial HbA 1c levels. Mean daily preprandial plasma glucose concentrations in this subset fell by 18% (216 vs 178 mg/dL). A systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements used for glycemic control in diabetes has been conducted. It concluded that the evidence for beneficial effects of G. sylvestre in diabetes is suggestive, although inconclusive given the limited data.
Animal data:A dose-dependent increase in fecal cholesterol and cholic acid-derived bile acid excretion has been demonstrated in rats. A 3-week study showed a decrease in apparent fat digestibility and an increase in excretion of neutral sterols and acidic steroids in rats receiving an extract of G. sylvestre leaves and either a normal or high-fat diet. Total serum cholesterol and triglycerides also were decreased significantly.After 10 weeks, plasma triglycerides were lower in gymnema-fed rats than in controls, but the difference in plasma total cholesterol levels was no longer significant.
Clinical data:Reduction in plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels was observed in 2 studies of diabetic patients who received supplements of gymnema in addition to their usual antidiabetic medication (eg, insulin, glibenclamide, or tolbutamide). In contrast, these levels increased gradually from baseline in the control group patients not taking gymnema. It should be noted that lipid lowering was a secondary endpoint in these studies, which were designed to demonstrate the antidiabetic effects of gymnema.
Animal data:An increase in body weight was significantly suppressed in a long-term study of the administration of G. sylvestre extract in rats fed a high-fat diet. However, in rats receiving a normal diet, no significant suppression of weight gain was observed.
Clinical data:Use of a dietary supplement containing G. sylvestre in combination with glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, and vitamin C was investigated in obese adults (body mass index 30 kg/m 2 or more).Compared with placebo recipients, the treatment group lost significantly more body weight (-2.3 vs 0 kg; P less than 0.01), and percentage of body fat and absolute fat mass were significantly reduced ( P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.001, respectively). Reduction in upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumferences also was demonstrated in patients receiving active treatment.
Gymnema:Suppression of sweet taste.
Gymnema extract interferes with the ability of the taste buds to taste sweet and bitter flavors (such as sugar or quinine), but the ability to taste sour, astringent, or pungent substances is maintained.
Animal data:In rats, taste response to sucrose, fructose, lactose, and maltose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin, a protein extracted from G. sylvestre ; response to saccharin sodium was weaker.Minimal response to sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and quinine hydrochloride was noted.Preference for sucrose recovered within 1 or 2 weeks after cessation of gymnema intake.
Clinical data:Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of gymnema for suppression of sweet taste.
Anti-inflammatory properties of gymnema have been demonstrated. Biochemical markers of inflammation, such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxides are enhanced, increasing protection against leukotrienes and free radicals and aiding rapid tissue repair and remodeling.
Animal data:Histamine release from mast cells was inhibited by extracts of G. sylvestre in vitro.Moderate inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was induced by an aqueous extract of the leaves of G. sylvestre ; naproxen produced superior inhibition of edema. However, efficacy of gymnema was similar to naproxen in a peritoneal ascites model in mice. Unlike naproxen, gymnema did not inhibit beneficial granuloma formation and the gastric mucosa was not irritated by high doses.
Clinical data:Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of gymnema for inflammation.
An alcoholic extract of dried leaves exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus pumilis , B. subtilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Staphylococcus aureus .Gymnemic acids A and B have demonstrated antiviral activity against the influenza virus. Other fractions lacked this activity.A possible application in the prevention of dental plaque formation has been investigated, but systematic studies are lacking to confirm this use.
- 1.Application and Uses of Gymnema sylvestre and Gymnemic acid.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
♣ last edit date: