Administration and Suggestions of Cassia Cinnamon.
- Botanical Description and Information of Cinnamomum Cassia Presl:'Spice of spices'?
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Cassia Twig Cinnamon.
- Etymology and Brief History of Cassia Cinnamon.
- Premodern Statements and Classics Notes about Cassia Twig and Cinnamon Bark.
- Cases Referential Advice of Cassia Twig and Cinnamon Bark.
- Functions and indications of Cassia Twig and Cinnamon Bark.
- More Common Indications of Cassia Twig and Cinnamon Bark.
- Cassia Twig and Cinnamon Bark:Modern Popular Uses,Pharmacology and Cosmetic Uses.
- Administration and Suggestions of Cassia Cinnamon.
- Difference between Cinnamon Twig(Gui Zhi) and Cinnamon Bark(Rou Gui).
- Research Update:Cassia Twig and Cinnamon Bark.
Administration and Suggestions of Cassia Cinnamon.
Indications and Dosage from CP for Cassia Twig(Gui Zhi):The CP(Chinese-Pharmacopia 2010) noted the herb Cassia Twig(Gui Zhi) taste hot sweet,nature warm,enter into heart,lung,gall bladder meridians.Functions expel the evils in muscles By means of diaphoresis,warm meridians and free vessels,support Yang and transform Qi.Indicated for anemofrigid cold( wind-cold type of common cold),cold pain in the stomach duct and abdomen,cold blood amenorrhea,joint pain and numbness,phlegm and retained fluid,edema,palpitation,renal mass.Suggested dosage 3~10 grams,cautions that pregnant should avoid,store at cool dry place.
Indications and Dosage from CP for Cinnamon Bark(Rou Gui):The CP(Chinese-Pharmacopia 2010) noted the herb Cinnamon Bark(Rou Gui) taste hot,sweet,nature great heat.Enter into kidney,spleen,heart,liver meridians.Main functions tonifying fire and helping yang,let the fire back to its origin,eliminating cold to stop pain(dissipate cold and relieve pain),activating blood to promote menstruation.Indicated for sexual impotence,uterine cold,cold pain in the lumbus and knees,kidney deficiency and asthma,dizziness due to yang deficiency,red eyes and sore throat,cold pain in the heart,cold vomiting and diarrhea,cold hernia,renal mass,amenorrhea,menalgia.Suggested dosage 1~4.5grams.Cautions should be paid:pregnant and haemorrhage cases should use with care,should not combine with red halloysite.Store at dry cool place,seal for storage.
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Cassia Twig(Gui Zhi):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) noted the herb Cassia Twig(Gui Zhi) taste hot sweet,nature warm.Enter into gallbladder,heart,lung meridians.Main functions dissipate cold and resolve the exterior,warm meridians and free the vessels,activating yang and transform Qi.Indicated for exterior syndrome due to wind-cold,damp cold and numbness pain,Peripheral coldness(cold limbs,reversal cold of the limbs),amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea,abdominal mass,thoracic obstruction(obstruction of qi in the chest),cardiopalmus(palpitation),phlegm and retained fluid(phlegm and fluid retention),difficulty in micturition(difficult urination,dysuria).Suggested dosage internal decoction 1.5~6grams,big dose 15~30grams,or into pellet,powder.Attention:should be avoided for cases fever,hyperactiity of fire due to yin deficiency,frenetic movement of hot blood.2
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Cinnamon Bark(Rou Gui):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) noted the herb Cinnamon Bark(Rou Gui) taste hot,sweet,nature heat.Enter into kidney,spleen,heart,liver meridians.Main functions tonifying fire and support Yang,lead fire back to its origin,dissipate cold and relieve pain,warm meridians and free vessels.Main indicated for kidney Yang deficiency,life-gate fire deficiency,fear cold and limbs cold,soreness and weakness of waist and knees(limp aching lumbus and knees),impotence and seminal emission,difficult urination dysuria or frequent micturition,dyspnea and shortness of breath,edema with less urine,decline of the fire from the gate of life,fire does not return to the source,floating yang(Dai Yang),rejecting yang(Ge Yang),and heat in the upper and cold in the lower,red face and cold feet,dizziness and tinnitus,mouth and tongue rotten,spleen and kidney deficient cold,cold pain in the stomach duct and abdomen,eat less poor appetite with loose stools,kidney deficiency with waist pain,damp cold pain numbness,cold hernia with pains,uterine cold with infertility,dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea,postpartum stasis abdominal pain,dorsal furuncle discharge,cold abscess of the pus does not break,or break without convergence.Suggested dosage internal as decoction 2~5grams,should not boil long period,or grained into powder 0.5~1.5grams,or into pellet.External proper amount grained into powder and apply as paste,with alcohol,embrocate.Cautions:it should be Avoided for pregnant,yin deficiency with excess fire,internal excess heat,frenetic movement of hot blood.Not combine with red halloysite.2
Indications and Dosage from APA Guide for Cinnamon(and Cassia):The APA Guide book give some guide of indications and dosage for the herb Cinnamon,it classified mutiple cinnamomum species under the title "Cinnamon(and Cassia)",which included "Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Cinnamomum cassia.Family:Lauraceae.",the Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is the botanical origin of the Caylon Cinnamon Bark,which produced mainly from Sri Lanka,and has similar fame as Chinese Cinnamon.The book noted "What it is used for:from the ancient Egyptians and Chinese healers down through the centuries,traditional healers around the world have revered cinnamon as a spice,taste enhancer,and incense.They have also coverted it as a healing aid for stomach upset and gas,chronic diarrhea,rheumatism,kidney ailments,and abdominal pain,among other ills.Cinnamon drops consisting of the essential oil of cinnamon and cassia are similarly famous for treating stomach upset,gas,painful menstruation,and bleeding.Contemporary herbalists continue to recommend cinnamon enthusiastically for many of these same ailments,from enhancing digestion to relieving nausea,diarrhea,appetite loss,bloating,and colicky indigestion.Some contend that cinnamon calms the uterus(interestingly,others claim the opposite) and boosts peripheral blood circulation.A number of herbal healing preparations contain cinnamon to spice up their flavor and enhance their aroma.",the guide book also give some commonly suggested dosage:"Dosage Commonly Reported:An infusion is made using 1 scant teaspoon of cinnamon per cup of water and is drunk two or three times per day during meals.Capsules of the dried herbs are taken in 2-gram does one or two times a day with food or beverage.Take other commercial preparations according to package directions."3
Indications and Dosage from PDR for Chinese Cinnamon(Cinnamomum aromaticum):The PDR 4th edition noted some proved indications from commission E such like "Loss of appetite,Dyspepetic complaints",and some folks uses and indications such like "Unproven Uses:folk medicine uses include symptomatic treatment of gastrointestinal disorders(mild,colicky upsets of the gastrointestinal tract,bloating,flatulence and diarrhea),as well as for loss of appetitte.Efficacy has been sufficiently proved for gastric complaints and it is plausible for diarrhea,but the evidence is not sufficient for the other indications.Chinese Medicine:Among uses in Chinese medicine are diarrhea,rheumatic conditions,amenorrhea,stomach ache,exhaustion,and to stabilize immunity.Indian Medicine:Digestive complaints,vomiting,and diarrhea are the most common uses in Indian medicine.",it sounds the uses of this herb at europe is still at a very primary initial stage,their theory for understanding the herb and related application seems not yet reach to a level know how to use or what to use the herb for more properly,the book give some general information on cautions and dosage etc,for dosages it suggested like "Mode of Administration:comminuted bark for infusions,essential oil,as well as other galenic preparations for internal use.Preparation:to prepare a tincture of Chinese Cinnamon,moisten 200 parts cinnamon bark evenly with ethanol and percolate to produce 1,000 parts tincture.Daily dosage:2 to 4 g drug;0.05 to 0.2 g essential oil.The average single dose is 1g.Storage:Chinese Cinnamon should be stored in a cool,dry environment in tightly sealed containers."4
Suggestive Dosage from other various reference:
In Chinese medicine,cinnamon is usually taken in combination with other herbs. Below are some typical dosages for cinnamon alone.
Tincture: Take up to 4 ml with water three times daily.
Tea: Take 1 cup 2 to 3 times daily at mealtimes.
Crushed: Take 1/2 tsp (2 to 4 g) daily.
Except the notes from CP and CHMM,other reference works give some informations on this,such like the PDR book noted "Contraindications:Use of medicinal preparations of Chinese Cinnamon is contraindicated during pregnancy."
Precautions and Cautions:
This ingredient is acrid and warm and it strengthens heat. Therefore, it easily damages yin and stirs the blood. This medicinal is contraindicated in warm heat diseases and yin vacuity-yang exuberance conditions, throat problems, or bleeding conditions or in those who habitually have fire internally with a dry mouth and tongue. It should be used cautiously in pregnant women and those with excessively profuse menstrual flow.
Cinnamon bark may cause an allergic reaction in some individuals.
Cinnamon bark is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women.
Do not take essential oil of cinnamon bark internally unless under professional supervision. Internal ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, and possible kidney damage.
Essential oil of cinnamon bark is one of the most hazardous essential oils and should not be used on the skin. External application of the oil may cause redness and burning of skin.
Cinnamon bark should not be given to children under two years of age.
Cinnamon bark is considered toxic if taken in excess.
Cinnamon bark should not be given to persons with inflammatory liver disease; in large quantities, it can irritate the liver.
Contraindications:febrile diseases,fire hyperactivity due to yin deficiency,bleeding,and pregnancy.
The PDR book noted:"Precautions and Adverse Reactions:General:No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages.The drug possesses a medium potential for sensitization,primarily due to the cinnamaldehyde.Pregnancy:the drug is not to be administered in time of pregnancy."4
Side effects:Mild side effects include stomach upset, sweating, and diarrhea. Large doses can cause changes in breathing, dilation of blood vessels, sleepiness, depression, or convulsions. Excessive use of cinnamon bark may cause red, tender gums; mouth ulcers; inflamed taste buds; and a severe burning sensation in the mouth.
Interactions:Some interactions with other medications have been reported. Cinnamon oil may cause skin irritation if applied to the skin together with acne medications that contain retinoic acid. Cinnamon bark has also been reported to intensify the effects of medications given to lower blood pressure. Persons taking cinnamon bark should discontinue its use two weeks before any surgery requiring general anesthesia because of the herb's tendency to lower blood pressure.
Indicated for from other references:Abdominal Pain,arthritis, asthma, backaches, bloating, bronchitis, candida, cholera, cold or flu with chilliness, aching, sweating but cold skin, constipation, coronary problems, diarrhea, digestive irritation, dysmenorrhea, excessive menstruation, fevers, flatulence, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, hypertension, indigestion, nausea, nephritis, parasites, passive gastric/pulmonary/intestinal/renal bleeding, psoriasis, stomach upset, vomiting, warts.
Safety and Toxicity:LD50 (mice/herb decoction/oral): 624.7mg/kg (administered during day), and 773.6mg/kg (administered at night).
Toxicity records from CHMM:China Scientists found that,"1.a small amount of cinnamic aldehyde cause inhibition of mouse movement,ptosis,is caused by a large number of strong spasticity,movement disorders,ear blood vessels to dilate,promoting forced breathing, loss of righting reflex, death. Outward appearances calm, but still sensitive to sound and tactile stimuli. Mice median lethal dose (mg / kg), intravenous injection of 132, 610 intraperitoneal injection, oral administration of 2225. 6-18g cinnamon oil can cause dog death, see death gastrointestinal mucosa inflammation and corrosion.
2.Toxicity:LD50 of cinnamaldehyde for mice,intravenous injection 132mg/kg,intraperitoneal injection 610mg/kg,oral administration 2225mg/kg.Cinnamon decoction to mice iv LD50 value is 18.48±1.80g (crude herb)/kg.Cinnamic aldehyde in mice iv,ip,ig LD50 value are 132mg/kg,610mg/kg,2,225mg/kg,small doses of cinnamic aldehyde lead to animal movement inhibition;a big dose of it lead to strong spasms,ataxia,urgent breathing,paralysis eventually died.Guizhi liquid saps or immersion mouse ip administration LD50 value is 624.7mg/kg(day dosing),LD50 value of midnight administered group was 773.6mg/kg."2
Safety in General:The APA Guide book give some notes of the herb safety,and it noted that "Will It Harm You?What the Studies Say:Cinnamon is generally safe to use in medicinal concentrations,although allergic skin and mucous membrane reactions are always a possibility and a particularly high risk with cinnamon-flower preparations.These are reports of people experiencing allergic reactions to cinnamon in chewing gums,and of asthma and dermatitis symptoms such as skin itching and irritation developing in spice factory workers and others who have frequent and heavy contact with cinnamon powder.If you take very large doses of cinnamon bark,you risk developing unpleasant symptoms such as a fast heartbeat and increased breathing,sweating,and intestinal function,ultimately followed by sedation and other signs of central nervous system slowdown.Moderate amounts of cinnamon oil may cause the same reaction.German health authorities warn that pregnant women and people with stomach or intestinal ulcers should avoid medicinal concentrations of cinnamon.People who are allergic to cinnamon or even balsam of Peru should probably avoid it altogethor.Avoid ingesting cinnamon oil,which is highly concentrated;it can cause nausea,vomiting,and even kidney damage in certain cases.Sometimes applying it to the skin causes redness and burining sensations."3
1: The Cinnamon Bark and Cassia Twig,two pure-Yang herbs from the Cinnamomum zeylanicum or Cinnamomum cassia,nature hot and taste warm sweet,their history and stories,spice and medicine uses since ancient epoch,and modern applications.
2: see CHMM(Zhong Hua Ben Cao,or Chinese Herbal Materia Medica)
3: see The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines,1st Ed,under title "CINNAMON(and CASSIA)",p174~177.
4: see PDR for Herbal Medicines 4th Ed.under title "Chinese Cinnamon",p191~192.
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