Jujube Fruit.A Magic fruit berry for emotion controlling and more.
Research Update:Jujube Fruit.:
Synergistic effects of combining biocontrol agents with silicon against postharvest diseases of jujube fruit.:
The synergistic effects of biocontrol yeasts Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis combined with silicon (Si) against Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum molds were investigated in jujube fruit (Chinese date, Zizyphus jujuba) stored at 20 and 0 degrees C, respectively. Combinations of C. laurentii and R. glutinis at 5 x 10(7) cells/ml with 2% Si was most effective in controlling the diseases caused by A. alternata and P. expansum on jujube fruit stored at 20 degrees C. When fruits were stored at 0 degrees C, combining C. laurentii and R. glutinis with Si was as effective against P. expansum as was Si or the yeasts applied alone and was more effective in controlling A. alternata. Si may have a fungistatic effect by directly inhibiting pathogen growth, but it did not greatly influence the growth of the antagonists.
Anti-complementary activity of triterpenoides from fruits of Zizyphus jujuba.:
In order to determine on the anti-complement activity of triterpenes, following eleven triterpenoides were isolated from the fruits of the Zizyphus jujuba MILL: ceanothane-type triterpenes: colubrinic acid (1), zizyberenalic acid (11); lupane-type triterpenes: alphitolic acid (2), 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid (3), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl alphitolic acid (4), betulinic acid (7), betulonic acid (9); and oleanane-type triterpenes: 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (5), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (6), oleanolic acid (8), oleanonic acid (10). These compounds were examined for their anti-complement activity against the classical pathway of the complement system. Among them, compounds 5, 6, and 8 exhibited significant anti-complement activity with IC(50) values of 101.4, 143.9, and 163.4 microM, respectively, whereas the ceanothane-type and the lupane-type triterpenes were inactive. This suggests that the oleanane-structure plays an important role in inhibiting the hemolytic activity of human serum against erythrocytes.
Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the fruits of Zizyphus jujuba.:
The following eleven triterpenoic acids were isolated from the fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae): colubrinic acid, alphitolic acid, 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid (3), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroylalphitolic acid (4), 3-O-cis-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroylmaslinic acid, betulinic acid (7), oleanolic acid, betulonic acid (9), oleanonic acid and zizyberenalic acid. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the triterpenoic acids against K562, B16(F-10), SK-MEL-2, PC-3, LOX-IMVI, and A549 tumor cell lines were investigated by the sulforhodamin B (SRB) method. Among these compounds, the lupane-type triterpenes, such as compounds 3, 4, 7, and 9, showed high cytotoxic activities. In particular, the cytotoxic activities of 3-O-p-coumaroylalphitolic acids (compounds 3 and 4) were better than those of non-coumaroic triterpenenoids (compounds 7 and 9). These results suggest that the coumaroyl moiety at the C-3 position of the lupane-type triterpene may play an important role in enhancing cytotoxic activity.
Effects of oleamide on choline acetyltransferase and cognitive activities.:
We screened 50 traditional natural plants to measure the activation effect on choline acetyltransferase and attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia. The methanolic extracts from Zizyphus jujuba among the tested 50 plants, showed the highest activatory effect (34.1%) on choline acetyltransferase in vitro. By sequential fractionation of Zizyphus jujuba, the active component was finally identified as cis-9-octadecenoamide (oleamide). After isolation, oleamide showed a 65% activation effect. Administration of oleamide (0.32%) to mice significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced memory and/or cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test and Y-maze test. Injection of scopolamine to mice impaired performance on the passive avoidance test (31% decrease in step-through latency), and on the Y-maze test (16% decrease in alternation behavior). In contrast, mice treated with oleamide before scopolamine injection were protected from these changes (12-25% decrease in step-through latency; 1-10% decrease in alternation behavior). These results suggest that oleamide should be a useful chemo-preventive agent against Alzheimer's disease.
Protection of mammalian genome from the mutagenicity of styrene and aniline using the extract from unabi(Zizyphus mill) fruit and a composite preparation.:
The unabi (Zizyphus Mill) fruit extract as well as a composite preparation produced on its base in proportional mix with the extract of germinating wheat seed embryos were determined on antimutagenous activity in model experiments with laboratory animals. The specified gene-protected properties of the preparation were approved against the influence of work place environmental factors in chemical and textile industries.
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