Fleeceflower Root Fo-Ti root Benefits.
- Botanical Info of Fo-ti.
- Description of Fo-ti.
- Active Compounds and Phytochemicals.
- Historical Uses and Application.
- Common Uses,Actions and Properties.
- Dosage and Administration.
- Available forms,safety of Fo-ti root.
- Legend of Foti or Ho-Shou-Wu.
- Processing of Fo-ti.
- Fo-Ti:substitutes and Alternatives,And Potential Mistakes in Identity.
- Research Update of Foti:Polygonum multiflorum.
Research Update of Foti:Polygonum multiflorum.:
Inhibitory effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside on experimental inflammation and cyclooxygenase 2 activity.:J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007 Jun;9(4):355-63.Zhang YZ, Shen JF, Xu JY, Xiao JH, Wang JL.Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Wuhan. China.
The inhibitory effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG), extracted from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, on inflammatory activity in animal models and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells were investigated. The carrageenin (CGN)-induced rat paw oedema model and dimethylbenzene-induced mouse ear oedema model were prepared; MTT assay, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA were adopted. THSG 2.3, 4.6 and 9.2 mg kg(- 1) by oral administration inhibited mouse ear oedema and the percentage of inhibition of THSG 9.2 mg kg(- 1) is 87%. THSG 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 mg kg(- 1) by oral administration dose-dependently inhibited rat paw oedema and the percentage of inhibition of THSG 12.8 mg kg(- 1) is 56% at 6 h. Indomethacin 13 and 9 mg kg(- 1) showed 90% and 57% inhibition in the same animal models, respectively. LPS 1 mug ml(- 1) significantly up-regulated prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production (inducing COX-2 activity) by 35% (exogenous arachidonic acid, AA), which was dose-dependently decreased by THSG 1, 10, and 100 mumol L(- 1) and the percentage of inhibition of THSG 10 mumol L(- 1) was 40%. NS-398 10 mumol L(- 1) decreased PGE(2) production by 42%. THSG 1, 10, 100 mumol L(- 1) was shown to markedly inhibit the LPS-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells (P < 0.05) but had no effect on COX-1 protein and mRNA (P>0.05). In summary, the data showed that THSG possessed an anti-inflammatory effect, which was perhaps related to the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity and expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
Anthraquinones, Cdc25B phosphatase inhibitors, isolated from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.:Nat Prod Res. 2007 May 20;21(6):487-93.Choi SG, Kim J, Sung ND, Son KH, Cheon HG, Kim KR, Kwon BM.Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology in Korea, Yoosung-Gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
Three anthraquinones, Cdc25B phosphatase inhibitors, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (Polygonaceae). Anthraquinones, physcion (1), emodin (2), and questin (3), inhibited the enzymatic activity of Cdc25B phosphatase with IC(50) values of 62.5, 30, and 34 microg mL(-1), respectively. Emodin (2) and questin (3) strongly inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells, SW620 with GI(50) values of 6.1 and 0.9 microg mL(-1), respectively. Commercially available anthraquinones, chrysophanol (4), and rhein (5) also inhibited Cdc25B phosphatase with IC(50) values of 10.7 and 22.1 microg mL(-1), respectively.
Blood lipid-regulation of stilbene glycoside from polygonum multiflorum.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;32(4):323-6.Gao X, Hu YJ, Fu LC.Tropical Medicine Institute, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China
OBJECTIVE: To study lipid-regulating action of 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (TSG) from Polygonum multiflorum on experimental model hyperlipidemic rats. METHOD: TSG 90 and 180 mg x kg(-10 x d(-1), atorvastatin mg kg(-1) x d(-1) and saline 2 mL x d(-1) were administered to hyperlipidemic rats. Groups of rats were determined and compared with those of saline group. The LDLR and HMGR mRNA expression were also detected. RESULT: TSG significantly reduced serum TC and LDL-C level and atherosclerosis index, increased the expression of LDLR in the liver cells. CONCLUSION: TSG, which shows effects and mechanism in part like atorcastatin, is a major constituent with blood-lipid regulating effect of P. multiflorum and can be explored as a potent medication for hyperlipidemia. Effects on LDL-C and AI, as well as on gene expression of TSG were first reported.
Studies on biotransformation of arbutin by 4-hydroxy phenol in hairy root of Polygonum multiflorum.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Feb;32(3):192-5.Yan CY, Zhang Z, Yu RM, Kong LY.College of Traditional Chinese Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the biotransformation of arbutin by 4-hydroxy phenol in hairy root of Polygonum multiflorum. METHOD: 4-hydroxy phenol was used as substrate, the standard curve was made by HPLC, and the influences of the co-culture time, the concentration of substrate added and the volume of culture flasks on biotransformation of arbutin were measured by the index of the production yield and transform rate of arbutin. RESULT: Arbutin could be detected from both of the cultures and medium. The correlation curve of arbutin: Y = 440740X - 1.473 (r = 0.9997). The production yield (2.22 g x L(-1)) and conversion ratio (81.45%) of arbutin reached the maximum amount as co-culture time at 72 h, substrate added in medium for 1100 mg x L(-1). Furthermore a large-scale culture of 3 L was also successful in our experiment. CONCLUSION: It was firstly to biosynthesis arbutin in hairy root of P. multiflorum. The production yield and trasfer rate of arbutin were increased largely. And large-scale production (3 L culture flask) of arbutin was achieved in the experiment and it would be valuable for the industrial production of arbutin by biotechnological method in the future.
Identification and determination of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum thunb by HPLC coupled with PAD and ESI/MS.:Phytochem Anal. 2007 May-Jun;18(3):181-7.Yi T, Leung KS, Lu GH, Zhang H, Chan K.Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.
An HPLC-PAD-MS method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major chemical constituents in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Chromatographic separation was conducted on an Alltima C18 column using water:acetonitrile:acetic acid as the mobile phase. Altogether nine compounds of various classes, including stilbene glucosides, anthraquinone glucosides and anthraquinone derivates, were identified by online ESI/MS. Their identities were ascertained by comparison with data derived from the literature and/or standard compounds. Five components were quantified by HPLC-PAD and the method was fully validated. All the linear regressions were acquired with R2 > 0.99 and the quantification limits (with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) ranged from 0.63 and 1.57 ng. Repeatability was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays and RSD value was within 2.47%. Recovery studies for the quantified compounds were found to be within the range 96.32-102.53% with RSD less than 2.35%. The overall procedure is rapid and reproducible and is considered suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a large number of samples.
Effect of preparation on the major chemical constituents of Polygonum multiflorum.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Oct;29(10):1017-9.Zhang ZG, Lü TS, Yao QQ.Department of Pharmacy, The 88th Hospital of PLA, Tai' an 271000, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamic changes of Emodin, Physcion, Emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, Physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydtoxysilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Polygonum multiflorum during preparation and analyze their changing laws. METHODS: Five major constituents before and after preparation were determined by RP-HPLC methods. RESULTS: The five ingredients decreased significantly after preparation. CONCLUSION: The major chemical constituents of Polygonum multiflorum decrease significantly, suggesting the necessarity of prepared Polygonum multiflorum in clinical application worth studying.
A new stilbene glucoside from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.:Arch Pharm Res. 2006 Nov;29(11):946-51.Xu ML, Zheng MS, Lee YK, Moon DC, Lee CS, Woo MH, Jeong BS, Lee ES, Jahng Y, Chang HW, Lee SH, Son JK.College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749, Korea.
One new stilbene glucoside (6), along with five known compounds (1-5), were isolated from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thumb., and their chemical structures established based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data. Of the compounds, compound 3 showed DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitory activities.
Effect of prepared Polygonum multiflorum on striatum extracellular acetylcholine and choline in rats of intracerebral perfusion with sodium azide.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 May;31(9):751-3.Wang W, Cao CY, Wang DQ, Zhao DZ.Geriatrics Institute, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Bejing.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protection mechanism of prepared Polygonum multiflorum (PPMT) in rat brain with sodium azide (NaN3) perfusion. METHOD: Rats were divided into six groups: control, model, PPMT, Duxil and PPMT + Duxil groups. The intracerebral microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography-post column Immobilized enzyme reactor-electrochemical detection were used to continuously measure extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) levels in striatum of freely moving awake rats. RESULT: The extracellular Ach, Ch levels of striatum stayed stable in the control group during the whole observing period, but the ACh levels in the model group were lower significant than that in the control group. The Ach levels of three drug groups were respectively higher significant than that of model group at some time points. While the extracellular Ch level in striatum of the model group increased singnificantly compared with the control group. The Ch levels of the three drug groups were lower significant than that of the model group respectively at certain time points. The effects of PPMT were similar with that of Duxil. CONCLUSION: The prepared P. multiflorum can improve the impaired cholinergic nerve function to exert the effects of brain protection by elevating extracellular Ach level and improving uptake of extracellular Ch. It may provide the experimental evidence to support the idea that P. multiflorum could be brain protective drug to treat retrogressive disease such as dementia.
An extract of Polygonum multiflorum protects against free radical damage induced by ultraviolet B irradiation of the skin.:Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006 Sep;39(9):1181-8.Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim DW, Jeong SJ, Won CK, Moon WK, Kim YS, Kwon DY, Won MH, Kim DW.Central Research Center, Natural F & P Co., Ltd., Chunchon, South Korea.
Over the last decades, the incidence of ultraviolet B (UVB)-related skin problems has been increasing. Damages induced by UVB radiation are related to mutations that occur as a result of direct DNA damage and/or the production of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the anti-oxidant effects of a Polygonum multiflorum thumb extract against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were divided into three groups: control (N = 7), distilled water- (N = 10), and P. multiflorum extract-treated (PM, N = 10) groups. The PM (10 g) was extracted with 100 mL distilled water, cryo-dried and 9.8 g was obtained. The animals received a topical application of 500 microL distilled water or PM extract (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16%, w/v, dissolved in distilled water) for 30 min after UVB irradiation (wavelength 280-320 nm, 300 mJ/cm(2); 3 min) of the dorsal kin for 14 days, and skin immunohistochemistry and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) activity were determined. SOD1 immunoreactivity, its protein levels and activities in the skin were significantly reduced by 70% in the distilled water-treated group after UVB irradiation compared to control. However, in the PM extract-treated groups, SOD1 immunoreactivity and its protein and activity levels increased in a dose-dependent manner (1-16%, w/v, PM extract) compared to the distilled water-treated group. SOD1 protein levels and activities in the groups treated with 8 and 16%, w/v, PM extract recovered to 80-90% of the control group levels after UVB. These results suggest that PM extract strongly inhibits the destruction of SOD1 by UV radiation and probably contains anti-skin photoaging agents.
Acute hepatitis due to shen-min: a herbal product derived from Polygonum multiflorum.:J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Aug;40(7):629-32.Cárdenas A, Restrepo JC, Sierra F, Correa G. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe and Gastro-Hepatology Group, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Shen-Min is a herbal product sold as a supplement for women to enhance hair growth. It is widely available across Asia, Europe, and the United States and sold without prescription as a hair nutritional supplement. We describe a case of acute liver injury in a 28-year-old white woman who developed symptomatic hepatitis 8 weeks after starting Shen-Min. All other potential causes of acute hepatitis including viral, hypoxic/ischemic, metabolic, and autoimmune etiologies were excluded. The liver injury slowly resolved over 3 weeks after discontinuing the herbal product. Although the mechanism of Shen-Min hepatotoxicity is unknown, we suspect an idiosyncratic reaction because the patient developed a fine maculopapular rash, mild eosinophilia, and did not overdose. Shen-Min is a Chinese herbal product with a mixture of several plants and vitamins including Polygonum multiflorum, a root that has been previously associated with hepatotoxicity. Nonetheless to our knowledge this is the first reported case of herbal-induced hepatotoxicity in a patient taking Shen-Min per se. Clinicians taking care of patients with acute hepatitis of unclear etiology should be aware that the consumption of Shen-Min, a hair supplement widely available in the United States and Western countries might cause acute hepatitis.
Traditional Chinese medicine causing hepatotoxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: a 1-year prospective study.:Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Oct 15;24(8):1179-86.Yuen MF, Tam S, Fung J, Wong DK, Wong BC, Lai CL.Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong.RPC..email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Safety of traditional Chinese medicine in patients with chronic hepatitis B is unknown. AIM: To study the clinical outcome of traditional Chinese medicine-induced hepatotoxicity in chronic hepatitis B patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All chronic hepatitis B patients in 2004 with liver dysfunction requiring hospitalization were screened prospectively for traditional Chinese medicine intake. The hepatotoxicity of individual traditional Chinese medicine elements was determined by extensive search of both English and Chinese publications. RESULTS: Of 45 chronic hepatitis B patients, the liver dysfunction in seven (15.6%) was attributable to traditional Chinese medicine. All had liver dysfunction pattern resembling those of acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Three patients had adverse outcomes (two deaths, one liver transplantation). One patient had accelerated course of cirrhosis now awaiting liver transplantation. The identified hepatotoxic components were Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Cassia obtusifolia L, Melia toosendan Sieb., Rheum palmatum L., Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L, Alisma orientale Juzepe, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. and Mentha haplocalyx Briq. One traditional Chinese medicine formula was adulterated with a highly hepatotoxic agent, N-nitrosofenfluramine. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional Chinese medicine-related hepatotoxicity resulted in high mortality in chronic hepatitis B patients. Prospective randomized-controlled trials with the same stringent criteria as western medicine clinical trials are required for Chinese medicines, to document their efficacies and safety before they can be advocated for the treatment of patients.
Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.:Phytother Res. 2006 Nov;20(11):1017-9.Kang SC, Lee CM, Choi H, Lee JH, Oh JS, Kwak JH, Zee OP.College of Pharmacy, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, South Korea.
Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines.
Effects of exogenous phytohormones on hairy root growth and biosynthesis of anthraquinones in the hairy root culture of Polygonum multiflorum.:Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2006 Jul;22(4):619-23.Yu RM, Ma N, Yan CY, Zhao Y.College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
The effects of exogenous phytohormones on hairy root growth and biosynthesis of anthraquinones in the hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. were studied. The results showed that the 2,4-D, NAA and 6-BA all have obvious effects on the growth of hairy root cultures and the biosynthesis of anthraquinones. The growth of hairy root and biosynthesis of anthraquinones were strongly restrained by 2,4-D. However, NAA and 6-BA of appropriate concentration were favourable to hairy root growth and anthraquinones production.
Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction.:Antiviral Res. 2007 May;74(2):92-101. Epub 2006 May 15.Ho TY, Wu SL, Chen JC, Li CC, Hsiang CY.Molecular Biology Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, a type I membrane-bound protein, is essential for the viral attachment to the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). By screening 312 controlled Chinese medicinal herbs supervised by Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy at Taiwan, we identified that three widely used Chinese medicinal herbs of the family Polygonaceae inhibited the interaction of SARS-CoV S protein and ACE2. The IC(50) values for Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (the root tubers of Rheum officinale Baill.), Radix Polygoni multiflori (the root tubers of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.), and Caulis Polygoni multiflori (the vines of P. multiflorum Thunb.) ranged from 1 to 10 microg/ml. Emodin, an anthraquinone compound derived from genus Rheum and Polygonum, significantly blocked the S protein and ACE2 interaction in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the infectivity of S protein-pseudotyped retrovirus to Vero E6 cells. These findings suggested that emodin may be considered as a potential lead therapeutic agent in the treatment of SARS.
Postconditioning's protection of THSG on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and mechanism.:J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2006;26(1):13-6.Ye S, Tang L, Xu J, Liu Q, Wang J.Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.
2,3,5,4'-tetra-hydroxystilbene-2-O-glucoside (THSG), the water-soluble active components extracted from dried tuber root of Polygonum multiflorum (Polygonaceae), can promote the release of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelial cells and has strong antioxidation. The postconditioning's protection of THSG on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and the mechanism were investigated. After reperfusion for 3 h following occlusion of rat left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min, SalphaT recovery speed, arrhythmia and cardiac infarct size were observed. The ischemic size and infarct size was identified by using Evans blue and TTC staining methods respectively. The results showed that the infarct size in THSG 7. 5 mg/kg postconditioning group was significantly decreased from 43.6% +/- 9.1% in mode group to 16.5% +/- 6.5% (P < 0.01). SalphaT recovery was quicker and the incidence of arrhythmia (55.6% vs 100%, P < 0.05) was significantly lower than in control group. The infarct size in THSG+glybenclamide group was greater than in THSG group, but equivalent to that in control group (46.8% +/- 9.8% vs 43.6% +/- 9.1%, P > 0.05), SalphaT recovery speed slower and the incidence of arrhythmia also lower (33.3% vs 100%, P < 0.01), suggesting that glybenclamide could abolish the effects of THSG postconditioning reducing the cardiac infart size. It was concluded that THSG administration before reperfusion could effectively alleviate the cardiac reperfusion injury and possessed the postconditioning effects of reducing cardiac infarct size, which might be related with the K(ATP) channel opening.
Effect of polygonum multiflorum thunb on BDNF expression in rat hippocampus induced by amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) 1-40.:Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Apr;31(2):194-9.Qiu G, Wu XQ, Luo XG.Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of polygonum multiflorum thunb (PMT) on the expression of brain-drived neurtrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus CA1 in rats induced by Abeta1-40. METHODS: The rat model was established by injecting Abeta1-40 into the right dorsal hippocampus in rats, and their behavior was observed by Y-maze. The morphological changes of rat hippocampus were examined by the Nissl staining. The expression of BDNF in hippocampus CA1 neurons was also examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. RESULTS: After the administration of Abeta1-40, the times of rats learning how to elude electric stimulation were significantly increased, and the expression of BDNF in hippocampus CA1 were obviously reduced. The aggregation of Abeta1-40 in hippocampus and the morphological changes of CA1 hippocampus were found. After the treatment with PMT for 30 days, the times learning how to elude electric stimulation were obviously reduced, while the expression of BDNF in hippocampus CA1 was also increased. CONCLUSION: PMT can reverse the down-regulation of BDNF expression in hippocampus CA1 induced by Abeta1-40.
Preparative isolation and purification of chemical constituents from the root of Polygonum multiflorum by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2006 May 19;1115(1-2):64-71. Epub 2006 Mar 27.Yao S, Li Y, Kong L.Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.
High-speed counter-current chromatography methods, combined with solvent partition, were applied to the systematic separation and purification of chemical components from Chinese medicinal herb Polygonum multiflorum extract. The aim of this paper is summing up the rules of solvent system selection for diverse fractions of herbal extract, and establishing the systematic pattern to screen the bioactive constituents rapidly. Nine compounds including emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, 6-OH-emodin, emodin-8-beta-D-glucoside, polygonimitin B, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-beta-D-glucoside, gallic acid and an unknown glycoside, which differed in quantity and polarity remarkably, were obtained. The purities of them were all above 97% as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their structures were identified by 1H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results demonstrated that HSCCC is a speedy and efficient technique for systematic isolation of bioactive components from traditional medicinal herbs.
Progress of study on brain protective effect and mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005 Oct;25(10):955-9.Wang W, Wang DQ.Institute of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100091. email@example.com
This paper reviews the brain protective effect and mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum (PM), its extracts and active component, tetrahydroxystilbene-glucoside (2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside) published in recent decade. They have major effects as calcium channel antagonists, antioxidant, cholinomimetic drugs and cholinesterase inhibitors, as well as actions in regulating cell apoptosis and prolonging the ageing. The brain protective mechanism of PM is multi-target, multi-link and multi-way. Therefore, PM has great applicative value in prevention and treatment of senile neuropathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and vascular dementia, etc.
Reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and decrease of expressions of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in foam cells by a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum.:J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Nov;99(3):294-300. Epub 2005 Nov 8.Yang PY, Almofti MR, Lu L, Kang H, Zhang J, Li TJ, Rui YC, Sun LN, Chen WS.School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside (PMS) is a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., one of the most famous tonic traditional Chinese medicines, that has protective effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the effects of PMS on macrophage-derived foam cell functions and the reduction of severity of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. NZW rabbits were fed for 12 weeks with a normal diet, a high cholesterol diet, or a high cholesterol diet associated with irrigation with different doses of PMS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg). Treatment of NZW rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet with 100 mg/kg PMS attenuated the increase in plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride. Treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg PMS caused 43% and 60% decrease in atherosclerotic lesioned area ratio to total surface area, respectively. In U937 foam cells, PMS could decrease the high expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in the medium induced by oxidized lipoprotein when analyzed by flow cytometry. The results proved that PMS is a powerful agent against atherosclerosis and that PMS action could possibly be through the inhibition of the expression of ICAM-1 and VEGF in foam cells.
Protective effect of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb on amyloid beta-peptide 25-35 induced cognitive deficits in mice.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):144-8. Epub 2005 Oct 10.Um MY, Choi WH, Aan JY, Kim SR, Ha TY.Food Function Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746, Republic of Korea.
Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) may be neurotoxic during the progression of Alzheimer's disease by eliciting oxidative stress. This study was designed to determine the effect of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb water extract (PWE) on Abeta25-35-induced cognitive deficits and oxidative stress in mice. Mice were fed experimental diets comprising either 0.5 or 1% PWE for 4 weeks, and then received a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Abeta25-35 (10 microg/mouse). Behavioral changes in the mice were evaluated using passive avoidance and water-maze tests. The consumption of PWE significantly ameliorated the cognitive deficits caused by i.c.v. injection of Abeta25-35. The Abeta25-35 treatment accelerated the lipid peroxidation, and PWE attenuated the Abeta-induced increase in brain levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. There was an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity in PWE-treated groups. The acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and serum was lower in PWE supplemented groups than in the only Abeta-injected group. These findings suggest that PWE exerts a preventive effect against cognitive deficits induced by Abeta25-35 accumulation in Alzheimer's disease, and that this effect is mediated by the antioxidant properties of PWE.
Neuroprotective effects of Polygonum multiflorum on nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration induced by paraquat and maneb in mice.:Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Oct;82(2):345-52. Epub 2005 Oct 7.
The neuroprotective effects of Polygonum multiflorum extract (PME) and its two fractions, ethanol-soluble PME (PME-I) and -insoluble PME (PME-II), on the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by a combination of paraquat and maneb (PQMB) were investigated in male C57BL/6 mice. The mice were treated twice a week for 6 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of PQMB. This combination caused a reduction of spontaneous locomotor activity, motor incoordination, and declines of dopamine level in the striatum and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. Administration of PME and PME-I once daily for 47 days during 6 weeks of PQMB treatment and last 8 days after PQMB significantly attenuated the impairment of behavioral performance and the decrease in striatal dopamine level and substantia nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the PQMB-treated animals, whereas the administration of PME-II had no effect on these behavioral, neurochemical and histological indices. The present findings suggest that PME has a beneficial influence on parkinsonism induced by PQMB and that the effects of PME are attributable to some substance(s) included in the ethanol-soluble fraction of PME (PME-I).
Study on optimizing extraction process of root of Polygonum multiflorum.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):219-21.Bai HB, Wang JF, Long J.Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou 310053, China.
OBJECTIVE: To optimize the extraction process of root of Polygoni multflori and validate the interrelation between antioxdative capacity and the content of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside in root of P. multiflori. METHOD: The optimum extraction was abserved with the orthogonal design; 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside was determined by HPLC and the antioxidative capacity by using photochemiluminescence detection method with the Photochem supplied by Analytik Jena AG; the concentration of ethanol, amount of ethanol, extraction time and extraction times were the four factors in the extraction. RESULT: The concentration of ethanol and extraction times had significant effect on the content of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside and the antioxidative capacity of the crude extract. CONCLUSION: The best extraction process is to extract three times by using 10 fold EtOH(60%), refluxing at 85 degrees C and to extract one and half hours each time.
In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 26;98(3):295-300.Zhang CZ, Wang SX, Zhang Y, Chen JP, Liang XM.Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road No. 161, Dalian 116011, PR China.
The estrogenic activity of 70% EtOH extracts of 32 traditional Chinese medicinal plants, selected according to their reported efficacy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, was assessed using a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Among them, 11 (34%) species proved to be active. Polygonum cuspidatum had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP) (3.28 x 10(-3)), followed by Rheumpalmatum (3.85 x 10(-4)), Cassia obtusifolia (3.49 x 10(-4)), Polygonum multiflorum (2.87 x 10(-4)), Epimedium brevicornum (2.30 x 10(-4)), Psoralea corylifolia (1.90 x 10(-4)), Cynomorium songaricum (1.78 x 10(-4)), Belamcanda chinensis (1.26 x 10(-4)), Scutellaria baicalensis (8.77 x 10(-5)), Astragalus membranaceus (8.47 x 10(-5)) and Pueraria lobata (6.17 x 10(-5)). The EC(50) value of 17beta-estradiol used as the positive control was 0.205+/-0.025 ng/ml (RP=100). This study gave support to the reported efficacy of Chinese medicines used for hormone replacement therapy.
Astragalus mongholicus and Polygonum multiflorum's protective function against cyclophosphamide inhibitory effect on thymus.:Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(5):669-80.Wei X, Zhang J, Li J, Chen S.Department of Anatomy, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.
The protective effects of two Chinese herbs, astragalus mongholicus, polygonum multiflorum and astragalus mongholicus-polygonum multiflorum in combination against thymus injury induced by cyclophosphamide were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, image analysis, DNA gel electrophoresis as well as flow cytometry. Results showed that mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide had degenerated thymus with less normal thymocytes; when those mice were treated with the herbs, thymus morphology improved. The apoptosis analysis showed the thymus treated with the herbs had fewer apoptotic thymocytes than the thymus pretreated with cyclophosphamide only. In conclusion, astragalus mongholicus and polygonum multiflorum have protective effects on the thymus against cyclophosphamide-induced injury. Their protective effects partly attribute to reduced apoptosis. Astragalus mongholicus-polygonum multiflorum in combination has better effects than either of the two herbs.
Simultaneous determination of the inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on the activity of six major cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated online extraction.:Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18(19):2273-81.Unger M, Frank A.Institute of Pharmacy and Food Chemistry, Julius Maximilians-University Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Here we describe a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method with automated online extraction (LC/LC/MS) to simultaneously determine the in vitro inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on six major human drug-metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes. Substrates were incubated with a commercially available mixture of CYP1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6 and 3A4 from baculovirus-infected insect cells and the resulting metabolites were quantified with LC/LC/MS using electrospray ionisation in the selected ion monitoring mode. Consistent inhibitory activities were obtained for known inhibitors and plant extracts using the enzyme/substrate cocktail and the individual enzymes/substrates. Popular herbal remedies including devil's claw root (Harpagophytum procumbens), feverfew herb (Tanacetum parthenium), fo-ti root (Polygonum multiflorum), kava-kava root (Piper methysticum), peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), red clover blossom (Trifolium pratense) and grapefruit juice (GJ; Citrus paradisi) could be identified as inhibitors of the applied CYP enzymes with IC(50) values between 20 and 1000 microg/mL.
Antimutagenic property of an herbal medicine, Polygonum multiftorum Thunb. detected by the Tradescantia micronucleus assay.:J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1999;18(2):127-30.Zhang H, Jeong BS, Ma TH.Laboratory of Environmental Mutagensis, Department of Biological Scicences, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455, USA.
The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., have been used for centuries as an internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions. In this study, we evaluated the antimutagenic property of this drug with the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 0.35 Gy soft X-rays (80 kV, 5 mA, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 0.50 Gy/min), followed by drug treatments at 1, 3, and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total recovery period of 24 hours. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution), and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) in preparation for slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads +/- SE) of the positive control (irradiated) was 26.68 +/- 2.49; the negative control was 2.93 +/- 0.50; the PM solution control was 2.06 +/- 0.39, and the 0.35 Gy X-ray plus 6% PM drug treated was 18.76 +/- 1.69. A 45% reduction in chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively decreased at lower concentrations of PM. This antimutagenic effect could be attributed to the antioxidant action of PM, enhancement of DNA repair, or the radical elimination from the irradiated plant cells.
Protective effect of Polygonum multiflorum thunb on the cerebral cholinergic neurofibers in rats.:Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003 Aug;28(4):361-4.Li M, Du XP, Ye H.Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the number and morphological changes of cholinergic neurofibers in rats under the destruction of kainic acid, and to investigate the protective effect and the mechanism of polygonum multiflorum thunb (PMT) on acetyl-chorine esterase (AChE) neurofibers. METHODS: Excitative neurotoxin kainic acid was injected into the basal forebrain, Meynert neucleus, medial septal neucleus and the Broca neucleus to establish the destruction model. Then the destructive experimental group was fed with PMT, and the histochemical method was used to display the changes of AChE fibers, the protection and activation of PMT. RESULTS: The number of projecting AChE fibers to the cortex and the hippocampus in PMT group was larger than that in the control group, and no morphological destruction was seen in the experimental group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: PMT has a protective effect on AchE projecting fibers in rats.
Micropropagation of Polygonum multiflorum THUNB and quantitative analysis of the anthraquinones emodin and physcion formed in in vitro propagated shoots and plants.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Oct;26(10):1467-71.Lin LC, Nalawade SM, Mulabagal V, Yeh MS, Tsay HS.Department of Agronomy, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
An efficient and rapid protocol for in vitro induction and complete plant regeneration of Polygonum multiflorum THUNB has been developed. Nodal explants were grown in vitro on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing different concentrations of alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). The nodal explants (97%) produced multiple shoots (4.7 shoots per explant) on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l BA after 6 weeks of culture. Eighty-eight percent to 100% of the shoots (1.0 cm in length) elongated (about 3.02-4.28 cm) and rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with NAA or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). All the rooted shoots were transferred to pots containing autoclaved soil, vermiculite, and peat moss (1 : 1 : 1). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with high humidity before transferring to the field. The anthraquinone contents were determined using HPLC. Analysis revealed that the contents of the major medicinal compounds-emodin and physcion in the 6 weeks old in vitro grown shoots and three month old in vitro propagated plants grown in greenhouse were higher than those of the marketed crude drug (processed underground or stem parts of P. multiflorum).
Polygonum multiflorum extracts improve cognitive performance in senescence accelerated mice.:Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(2):171-9.Chan YC, Wang MF, Chang HC.Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan. email@example.com
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Polygonum multflorum (PM) Thunb. on the learning and memory ability in one and seven-month-old male senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8). The mice were fed with two different diets for 18 weeks; they were casein dietary group (control group) and casein diet supplemented with PM extracts. Active shuttle avoidance test was performed to determine the learning and memory ability of the mice while the spongy degeneration and the lipofuscin, malondialdehyde, and total thiol levels of the brain were measured to evaluate the extent of the brain degeneration and oxidative status. Results of active shuttle avoidance test showed the mice fed with the PM extracts had significantly better learning and memory ability than the control group. The spongy degeneration and the lipofuscin and malondialdehyde concentrations of the mice in the PM groups were significantly lower than the control in both age groups, whereas the total thiol levels were higher but not significantly different. It was concluded that the supplement of the PM extracts could improve the learning and memory ability and reduce the brain pathological changes in mice. This might be due to the antioxidant phytochemicals of the PM extracts.
Direct use of ion-exchange papers in hemagglutination-inhibition tests for drug abuse.:Clin Chem. 1976 Jul;22(7):1105-6.Alexander GJ.
I modified a procedure for screening urine specimens for evidence of drug abuse, to permit direct use of commercially available ion-exchange papers in hemagglutination-inhibition assay for drug detection. Small circles punched out of the papers, which previously had been impregnated with drug-containing urine, were used in the detection step, leaving the remainder of the specimens on paper available for confirmatory analyses. The procedure is useful in screening for the presence of opiates, methadone, and (or) barbiturates.
Study on the determination of manganese in the Polygonum multiflorum by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2002 Jun;22(3):483-4.Song YR, Wang SZ, Xu JP, Wang DF, Shi Y.Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.
This paper presents a method for the determination of manganese in the organism of the Chinese herbal medicine of the Polygonum multiflorum. Manganese was complexes, extracted and determined by FAAS. The opimum condition of experiment was studied. The accuracy and the detection limit were 7.6 and 8.4 ng.mL-1 respectively. The Mn was determined in range of 0.00-2.00 micrograms.mL-1. The relative standard deviation was 1.77%.
Long-term administration of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. reduces cerebral ischemia-induced infarct volume in gerbils.:Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(1):71-7.Chan YC, Wang MF, Chen YC, Yang DY, Lee MS, Cheng FC.Department of Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung, 433 Taiwan, ROC.
Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 3 and 24 hours in gerbils. Infarct volumes were determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) transcardiac perfusion 24 hours after cerebral ischemia. Significant and consistent infarct sizes were produced in gerbils subjected to 24-hour occlusion of the middle cerebral arterey when compared to the 1 and 3-hour occlusion group. Longterm pretreatment of the 50% ethanol extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. for 2 weeks significantly reduced the infarct volume by 50% as compared to that of the 24-hour occlusion group. The results revealed that long term pretreatment of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. may protect the brain against focal cerebral ischemia.
The connotation investigation of "female-male" in Chinese traditional medicine nomenclature.:Zhong Yao Cai. 1998 Aug;21(8):423-5.Chen S, Chen J, Tong Y, An Z, Chen L.Shiyan Taihe Hospital, Hubei Province, Shiyan 442000.
The connotation investigation of "female-male" in nomenclature of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, suggests that the female-male" in Chinese medicine nomenclature is generalized concept. It has three connotation, including correlation, relativity identity. It's concrete use of materialist dialectics in Chinese medicine.
Capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous determination of emodin, chrysophanol, and their 8-beta-D-glucosides.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2003 Apr;51(4):418-20.
The simultaneous separation and determination of the major anthraquinones, emodin, chrysophanol, and their glucosides, of Rumex japonicus HOUTT., and emodin and emodin glucoside, of Cassia tora L., Rhamnus purshiana DC., Polygonum multiflorum THUNB., and P. cuspidatum SIEB. et ZUCC., were achieved by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis. The running electrolyte used in this method was 0.005 M alpha-cyclodextrin in 0.03 M borate buffer (pH 10.5) containing 10% acetonitrile, with an applied voltage of 20 kV.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants.: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Mar;85(1):61-7.Li RW, David Lin G, Myers SP, Leach DN.Australian Centre for Complementary Medicine Education and Research, A Joint Venture of the University of Queensland and Southern Cross University, P.O. Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts from nine vine plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory conditions were evaluated against a panel of key enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes included cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO). The vine plants studied were: the stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, the stem of Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem., the root from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., the stem of Sinomenium acutum Rehder and Wilson, the stem of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, the stem of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., the root and stem from Tinospora sagittata Gagnep., the root of Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill, and the stem of Clematis chinensis Osbeck. All of the plant extracts showed inhibitory activities against at least one of the enzymes in various percentages depending upon the concentrations. The extract from S. suberectus was found to be active against all enzymes except COX-2. Its IC(50) values were 158, 54, 31 and 35 microg/ml in COX-1, PLA(2), 5-LO and 12-LO assays, respectively. T. jasminoides showed potent inhibitory activities against both COX-1 (IC(50) 35 microg/ml) and PLA(2) (IC(50) 33 microg/ml). The most potent COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LO inhibition was observed in the extract of T. wilfordii with the IC(50) values of 27, 125 and 22 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may partly explain the use of these vine plants in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
In vivo antioxidant action of a lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra fruit and an anthraquinone-containing extract of Polygonum root in comparison with schisandrin B and emodin.:Planta Med. 2002 Nov;68(11):951-6.Chiu PY, Mak DH, Poon MK, Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.
The in vivo antioxidant action of a lignan-enriched extract of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (FS) and an anthraquinone-containing extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum (PME) was compared with their respective active constituents schisandrin B (Sch B) and emodin by examining their effect on hepatic mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status in control and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-intoxicated mice. FS and PME pretreatments produced a dose-dependent protection against CCl 4 hepatotoxicity, with the effect of FS being more potent. Pretreatment with Sch B, emodin or alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) also protected against CCl 4 hepatotoxicity, with the effect of Sch B being more potent. The extent of hepatoprotection afforded by FS/Sch B and PME/emodin pretreatment against CCl 4 toxicity was found to correlate well with the degree of enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status, as evidenced by increases in reduced glutathione level and activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase as well as glutathione S-transferases, in both control and CCl 4 -intoxicated mice. alpha-Toc, which did not enhance mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status, seemed to be less potent in protecting against CCl 4 hepatotoxicity. The ensemble of results indicates that FS/PME produced a more potent in vivo antioxidant action than alpha-Toc by virtue of their ability to enhance hepatic mitochondrial glutathione antioxidant status and that the differential potency of FS and PME can be attributed to the difference in in vivo antioxidant potential between Sch B and emodin. Abbreviations. ALT:alanine aminotransferases CCl 4 :carbon tetrachloride FS:lignan-enriched extract of Schisandra fruit GRD:glutathione reductase GSH:reduced glutathione GSH-Px: Se-glutathione peroxidase GST:glutathione S-transferases mt:mitochondrial MDA:malondialdehyde PME:anthraquinone-containing fraction of Polygonum root Sch B:schisandrin B SDH:sorbitol dehydrogenase alpha-Toc:alpha-tocopherol
The radical scavenging effects of stilbene glucosides from Polygonum multiflorum.:Arch Pharm Res. 2002 Oct;25(5):636-9.Ryu G, Ju JH, Park YJ, Ryu SY, Choi BW, Lee BH.Regional Research Center and Department of Chemical Technology, Hanbat National University, Yusung-ku, Daejon, Korea.
The extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum exhibited a significant antioxidant activity assessed by the DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract yielded a stilbene glucoside, (E)-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1) as an active constituent responsible for the antioxidant property. Compound 1 demonstrated a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50, 40 microM), while the corresponding deglucosylated stilbene 2 exhibited a much higher activity (IC50, 0.38 microM).
Acute hepatitis induced by Shou-Wu-Pian, a herbal product derived from Polygonum multiflorum.:J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001 Jan;16(1):115-7.Park GJ, Mann SP, Ngu MC.Department of Gastroenterology, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. email@example.com
Herbal preparations are widely available and generally regarded by the public as harmless remedies for a variety of medical ailments. We report the first case in Australia of acute hepatitis associated with the Chinese herbal medicine Shou-Wu-Pian, prepared from Polygonum multiflorum. Cholestatic hepatitis developed in a Chinese woman taking this preparation for the greying of her hair, and liver biopsy was consistent with a toxic reaction. Clinical and biochemical resolution occurred following cessation of the drug.
The ameliorating effects of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.:Phytother Res. 2000 Aug;14(5):375-7.Hsieh MT, Peng WH, Wu CR, Wang WH.Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Medical College, Taiwan, R.O.C. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ameliorating effects were investigated of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs administered orally for 1 week-Panax ginseng (PG), Panax notoginseng (PNG), Dioscorea opposita (DO), Gastrodia elata (GE), Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Acorus gramineus (AG), Coptis chinensis (CC), Polygonum multiflorum (PM), Cyperus rotundus (CR) and Psoralea corylifolia (PC)-on the scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesia by using a passive avoidance task in rats. Of ten Chinese herbs, only PG, PNG, GE and CC prolonged the SCOP-shortened STL. These results revealed that PG, PNG GE and CC administered orally for 1 week improved the SCOP-induced learning and memory deficit in rats.
Myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented 'Dang-Gui decoction for enriching blood', a compound formulation, ex vivo.:Phytother Res. 2000 May;14(3):195-9.Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF, Mak DH, Liang SM, Ko KM.Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.
'Dang-Gui Decoction for Enriching the Blood' (BE), a traditional Chinese formulation comprising Angelica sinensis and Astragalus membranaceus, is used for stimulating red blood cell production as well as enhancing cardiovascular function. In the present study, we have demonstrated the myocardial protection afforded by BE pretreatment against ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in isolated-perfused rat hearts. A more complete and potent myocardial protection against IR injury was also shown by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented BE preparation (BEA). The results suggest that the more potent cardioprotective action of BEA may be related to its ability to sustain the myocardial glutathione antioxidant status under conditions of IR-induced oxidative stress, which may possibly in turn result from the synergistic interaction between the BE and Polygonum extract.
2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging active components from Polygonum multiflorum thunb.:J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Jun;47(6):2226-8.Chen Y, Wang M, Rosen RT, Ho CT.Department of Food Science, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick 08901-8520, USA.
An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify the antioxidative components of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM). Dried root of PM was extracted with 95% ethanol and then separated into water, ethyl acetate, and hexane fractions. Among these only the ethyl acetate phase showed strong antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test when compared with water and hexane phases. The ethyl acetate fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Three compounds showing strong antioxidant activity were identified by spectral methods ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and MS) and by comparison with authentic samples to be gallic acid, catechin, and 2,3,5, 4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.
Myocardial protective effect of an anthraquinone-containing extract of Polygonum multiflorum ex vivo.:Planta Med. 1998 Oct;64(7):607-11.Yim TK, Wu WK, Mak DH, Ko KM. Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, China.
An ethyl acetate extract of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PME) was fractionated into an anthraquinone-containing (PME-I) and a non-anthraquinone-containing (PME-II) fraction. The effects of PME and its related extracts pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in isolated perfused rat hearts were examined. Pretreatment with PME extract or its anthraquinone-containing fraction produced a dose-dependent protection against myocardial IR injury, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the extent of LDH leakage as well as an improvement in contractile force recovery. The myocardial protection was found to be associated with an enhancement in myocardial glutathione antioxidant status, as indicated by significant reductions in both the extent of IR-induced reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion and inhibition of Se-glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GRD) activities. Both alpha-tocopherol acetate (VE) and emodin (EMD) pretreatments protected against IR-induced myocardial injury as assessed by the decrease in the extent of LDH leakage. But the contractile force recovery of the ischemic-reperfused hearts prepared from VE or EMD pretreated animals was not improved. The more complete myocardial protection afforded by the anthraquinone-containing fraction of PME extract may be related to its ability to sustain the glutathione antioxidant status under the condition of IR-induced oxidative stress.
Hepatitis related to the Chinese medicine Shou-wu-pian manufactured from Polygonum multiflorum.:Vet Hum Toxicol. 1996 Aug;38(4):280-2.But PP, Tomlinson B, Lee KL.Chinese Medicinal Material Research Centre, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
Hepatitis developed in a 31-y-old pregnant Chinese woman after consumption of Shou-Wu-Pian, a proprietary Chinese medicine prepared from Polygonum multiflorum. Tests for viral hepatitis were negative and there was no evidence of other systemic disease. The herbal preparation is commonly available in the Orient and China towns in western countries. Cases of herb-induced hepatitis reported in China are reviewed.
Effect of guzhen recipe on glucocorticoid receptor in senile rate thymocyte.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Feb;15(2):92-4.Zhao WK, Jin GQ.Dept. of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of TCM.
The effects of Guzhen Recipe (GZ) which composed of Polygonum multiflorum, Cistanche deserticole, Rubus chiagii etc, on the number of thymocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) sites, the GCR nuclear translocation rate, and the activity of serum thymic factors etc in senile rats were observed. The results showed: The number of thymocyte GCR sites, the contents of cytoplasmic protein, nuclear RNA and DNA, the thymus weight/body weight ratio and the serum thymic factors in senile rats were significantly decreased, while thymocyte GCR nuclear translocation rate increased obviously than that of young control rats. GZ, however, was capable of improving the above-mentioned changes of thymus in senile rats markedly, suggesting that GZ might weaken the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoid on the thymus by means of suppressing the translocation activity of GCR from cytoplasm to nucleus in senile rats, thus enhance thymus-dependent immune function in senile rats.
Novel Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors from the dried root tubers of Polygonum Multiflorum.:J Nat Prod. 1994 Dec;57(12):1682-7.Grech JN, Li Q, Roufogalis BD, Duck CC.Department of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The MeOH extract of the dried root tubers of Polygonum multiflorum yielded three bioactive compounds with an inhibitory activity on calmodulin-depleted erythrocyte calcium-dependent ATPase. These compounds were identified as E-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside  (IC50 = 240 microM) and cis- and trans-E-3-butylidene-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1(3H)- isobenzofuranone [3 and 4](IC50 = 160 and 260 microM, respectively). E-2,4,6,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside  was also isolated but was found to have no inhibitory effect on the enzyme.
Moderate inhibition of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene and 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene by Chinese medicinal herbs.:Mutagenesis. 1994 Nov;9(6):523-6.
The activity of six Chinese medicinal herbs against the environmental mutagens and carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1,6-dinitropyrene (1,6-diNP) and 3,9-dinitrofluoranthene (3,9-diNF) was determined. Samples of Prunella spica, Rheum palmatum, Polygonum multiflorum, Agrimonia pilosa, Ephedra sinica and Teitoutou were tested in an in vitro system. Antimutagenic activity against B[a]P was marked in the presence of extracts (boiled for 2 h in a water bath) whereas that against 1,6-diNP and 3,9-diNF varied from 20 to 86%. The differences in inhibition might be due to inactivation of metabolic enzymes. An extract of P. multiflorum was divided into ether, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions, which were tested for antimutagenic activity against B[a]P. The antimutagenic action of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was substantial and dose-dependent. Tannins and related compounds were the major components of the extract, of which epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and tannic acid strongly inhibited the mutagenicity of B[a]P (2.5 micrograms/plate) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S9 mix. To confirm the results of the in vitro test system, F344/DuCrj male rats were given a subcutaneous injection of B[a]P. Thereafter, they received water extracts of the six Chinese medicinal herbs for 50 weeks and were examined for tumors. The P. multiflorum extract significantly reduced the tumor incidence.
Astragalus membranaceus and Polygonum multiflorum protect rat heart mitochondria against lipid peroxidation.:Am J Chin Med. 1994;22(1):63-70.Hong CY, Lo YC, Tan FC, Wei YH, Chen CF.Institute of Traditional Medicine, Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan.
We isolated rat heart mitochondria and induced lipid peroxidation with ADP and FeSO4. Oxygen consumption and MDA formation were measured for quantitating the amount of lipid peroxidation. Using these methods, we screened the water extracts of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs for their effect on lipid peroxidation. It was found that Astragalus membranaceus inhibited 42.1 +/- 3.4% of oxygen consumption and 39.8 +/- 3.2% of MDA production at concentration of 2 mg dried herb/ml mitochondrial suspension. At the same concentration, Polygonum multiflorum inhibited 52.1 +/- 7.3% of oxygen consumption and 50.9 +/- 5.3% of MDA production. Other herbs did not inhibit lipid peroxidation to 50% of control at concentration up to 6 mg dried herb/ml mitochondrial suspension. Purification and identification of the active component(s) in Astragalus membranaceus and Polygonum multiflorum as well as their clinical application await further studies.
Pharmacological and clinical studies on the processed products of radix Polygoni multiflori.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Dec;17(12):722-4, 762-3.Yin JH, Zhou XY, Zhu XQ. Shanghai Institute of Chinese Materia Medica.
The root of Polygonum multiflorum and its 2 processed products were compared by immune pharmacology and clinical observation on the aged high-fat-blood case. The results have shown that the product processed under new procedures is better than that under traditional procedures, thus providing scientific basis for spreading the application of the new one.
Effect of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its processed products on fat accumulation in the liver of mice.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Oct;17(10):595-6, 639.Liu C, Zhang Q, Lin J.China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.
Experiments have shown that the root of Polygonum multiflorum exhibits inhibitory effect on triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver of mice induced by CCl4, cortisone acetate and thioacetamide (TAA). Its processed products (I, II) were found to be effective in lowering the accumulated TG induced by cortisone acetate. The root of Polygonum multiflorum and its processed products also reduced the enlargement of liver by CCl4.
Comparison of phospholipids in crude drug of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its processed products.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Nov;16(11):662-4, 702.Ma C, Wang J. Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
This paper reports the qualitative analysis and content determination of phospholipids in the crude drug of Polygonum multiflorum and its four processed products by TLC. The content in the crude drug is 3.49% and in the products processed with black soybean and millet wine 1.62% and 1.82% respectively.
Assay of stilbene glucoside in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb and its processed products.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Aug;16(8):469-72, 511.Liu C, Zhang Q, Zhou Q.China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.
This paper reports the assay of stilbene glucoside in the root of Polygonum multiflorum and its two processed products by first derivative spectrophotometry. The method is simple, convenient and the the results are stable and reproducible. It can be used for the quality control of processing Polygonum multiflorum.
Vasorelaxants from Chinese herbs, emodin and scoparone, possess immunosuppressive properties.:Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Jun 6;198(2-3):211-3.Huang HC, Chu SH, Chao PD.Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, R.O.C.
Emodin and scoparone, the active principles isolated from Polygonum multiflorum and Artemisia scoparia, respectively, both exhibit vasorelaxant and immunosuppressive effects. Emodin (10(-6)-3 x 10(-5) M) and scoparone (10(-6)-3 x 10(-5) M) dose dependently relaxed rat thoracic aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine. Emodin (3 x 10(-7)-10(-4) M) and scoparone (10(-6)-3 x 10(-4) M) also dose dependently suppressed the responses of human mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin and mixed lymphocyte reaction. These compounds may be useful as new templates for the development of better immunosuppressive agents with vasorelaxant actions for use against transplantation rejection and autoimmune disease.
An experimental study on the anti-senility effects of shou xing bu zhi.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Apr;9(4):226-7, 198.Chen J.
This paper presents the anti-senility effects of Shou Xing Bu Zhi (SXBZ. made of thirteen herbs: Polygonum multiflorum, Codonopsis silvestris, Astragalus membranaceus, Poria cocos, etc.) in mice. The mice were administered with the SXBZ orally at dosage of 10 g/kg daily for three months. The results showed that the lipofuscin of liver and brain tissues was significantly reduced in both young (1 month old) and adult (11 months) mice. Examination of lipid peroxidation of liver tissue revealed a marked decrease in adult mice. The lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogeneous was obviously inhibited after culturing with drug solutions (5.0 mg/0.1 ml), 37 degrees C for 90 minutes in vitro. In addition, the diminution of hydroxyproline of skin in both young and adult mice was observed. Results of this study indicated that the SXBZ was effective in slowing down aging.
Polygoacetophenoside, A New Acetophenone Glucoside from Polygonum multiflorum1.:Planta Med. 1987 Jun;53(3):273-5.
Polygoacetophenoside ( 3), a new acetophenone glucoside, was isolated from POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM (Polygonaceae), together with quercetin 3- O-galactoside ( 1) and arabinoside ( 2). The structure of the new glucoside was deduced to be 2,3,4,6-tetrahy-droxyacetophenone 3- O-beta- D-glucoside ( 3) by its chemical and spectral data.
Effects of Stilbene Components of Roots of Polygonum ssp. on Liver Injury in Peroxidized Oil-fed Rats.:Planta Med. 1983 Sep;49(9):51-4.
The effects of POLYGONUM CUSPIDATUM S IEB. et Z UCC. ("Kojo-kon" or "Itadori-kon" in Japanese) of POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM ("Kashuwu" or "Tsurudo-kudami-kon" in Japanese) roots and their stilbene components (piceid and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-D-glucoside) on liver injury caused in rats by feeding peroxidized oil were investigated. Piceid and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-D-glucoside were found to partly inhibit the deposition of lipid peroxides in the liver of those rats. The stilbene glucosides reduced the elevation of GOT and GPT levels in the serum of the rats. Furthermore, resveratrol, piceid and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-D-glucoside were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by ADP and NADPH in rat liver microsomes.
- 1.Fleeceflower Root Fo-Ti root Benefits.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
♣ last edit date: