What Is It?General Description of the Fennel Seed.
- Basic Botanical Information of Fennel,Fructus Foeniculi.
- What Is It?General Description of the Fennel Seed.
- History,Region and Habitat of Fennel Origin.
- History and Modern Use of Fennel.Traditional and Ethnic Uses of Fennel.
- Fennel Legends,Myths and Stories.
- Constituents and Pharmacology Properties of Fennel.
- Medicinal Properties,Healing with Fennel for common health problems.
- Various Common Uses Of Fennel.
- Fennel:Administration and Indications Guide,Dosages and Safety.
- Research Update:Fennel.Fructus Foeniculi.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
What Is It?General Description of the Fennel Seed.:
Fennel Seed is the oval, green or yellowishbrown dried fruit of Foeniculum vulgare, a member of the parsley family.
Its original Greek genus name was Marathron, from maraino, meaning to grow thin. Its current genus name, Foeniculum, was assigned by the Romans, derived from the Latin word foenum, meaning hay.
Most cooks-even unadventurous ones-can easily identify the yellowish-brown crescents known as fennel seeds. That's because these tiny seeds, which actually represent the dried ripe fruits of the aromatic fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare), have been handed down through the ages as a spice and food preservative. Their heady and memorable flavor, reminiscent of licorice and anise, is familiar to most people because fennel seeds are routinely used in rye bread.
In addition to keeping fennel as a kitchen staple, people in China, Europe, and other parts of the world continue to use fennel seeds in teas, tinctures, and compresses to relieve myriad ailments, including stomach upset, gas, and coughs. Scientists have even looked into fennel's value as a source for synthetic estrogen. And even though evidence to support these and other uses is spotty, it's clear that fennel seeds do work for certain conditions.
For example, chewing on a few seeds clearly helps vanquish bad breath. (Try them after meals or as needed.) Specially made fennel-flavored syrups appear to help ease coughs, and are widely used for this purpose in Europe. And stomach upset may well find relief with a gentle fennel tea made by simmering 1 to 2 teaspoons of bruised seeds in 8 ounces of water.
Taste and Aroma:Fennel has an aniselike flavor but is more aromatic, sweeter and less pungent.
Sweet and aromatic, similar to anise. For other sweet spices, see licorice. Fennel pollen, also known as "spice of the angels",has a subtle fennel flavour, lacking some of the sweetness but with a distinct note of pine needles (though others might disagree with this association of mine).
Description of Fennel Plant(s) and Culture.:
A tall herb of the umbel family, with feathery leaves and yellow flowers.
A stout, strongly scented perennial plant, with erect stems and blue-green leaves. The striated stems are solid when young, becoming hollow with age. The yellow flowers grow in compound, terminal umbels, each with 10-30 stalks. Aniseed-scented, egg-shaped fruits follow the flowers.
Its light green, feathery foliage and aromatic seeds are used to flavor foods and medicines. Stems reach 4-6 feet and flowers appear July to October. Needs full sun; partial shade in warm climates. Zones 6-9.
Seeds can be planted in autumn to ensure early germination in the spring, otherwise plant seeds in spring in rich, well-drained soil but not clay. Sow lightly in a bed or in drills six inches apart. Keep the bed moist for 2 weeks or until leaves appear. Germination takes place within 2 weeks. Thin to 6 inches apart. Do not overwater after that. Do not plant fennel near dill, coriander, bush beans, or tomatoes. Although it has never been proven, fennel is said to have a damaging effect on bush beans, caraway, tomatoes, and kohlrabi, and is harmed by coriander and wormwood. Plant away from garden; most plants dislike fennel.
Collect seeds in summer and let the plant die back naturally in winter. Harvest seeds when mature and brown, but before they drop; check for aphids. Morning hours for harvest are best to avoid unnecessary seed losses.
Varieties of fennel: F. vulgare Rubrum (bronze fennel) has beautiful, dark reddish bronze foliage. It makes a striking accent in gardens. F. vulgare azoricum (Florence fennel or finacchio; sometimes listed as var. dulce, incorrectly called sweet anise, and sold as anise in supermarkets) has thickened leaf bases that form a bulbous base called the bulb, which is eaten raw or cooked. Finocchio grows like a stalk of celery and is eaten raw or boiled as a vegetable. Florence fennel needs cool weather to develop its bulb, so sow seeds in midsummer for a fall harvest. Plants grown from a spring sowing may bolt in warm summer weather before forming the bulb. Plants benefit from frequent fertilization and watering. Cut off flower heads to encourage development of a thicker base. Once the bulb is about egg size, it can be hilled up with soil to blanch. It will be ready to harvest in a few weeks.
Humid-temperate regions, growing on a wide range of soil types (Parsons and Cuthbertson 1992). It is restricted to areas of moderate rainfall or where irrigation run-off water is available, or to low-lying areas subject to flooding (Parsons and Cuthbertson 1992). It occurs as a weed on roadsides, railway easements, channels and drains, rubbish dumps and neglected areas from which it occasionally encroaches onto more productive land (Parsons and Cuthbertson 1992). Fennel invades dry coastal vegetation, lowland grassland and grassy woodland, riparian vegetation and rock outcrop vegetation (Carr et al 1992).
- 1.Fennel Seed or Xiao HuiXiang,the seed of Foeniculum vulgare Mill,a pungent herb nature warm,its botanical introduction,chemical constituents,history and uses since ancient till today.
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