History and Modern Use of Fennel.

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History and Modern Use of Fennel.

Fennel Seed Foeniculum Vulgare Fructus Foeniculi Its modern therapeutic uses in Germany and the United States stem from traditional Greek medicine as practiced by Hippocrates and later by Dioscorides. It is still widely used in traditional Arabian medicine as a diuretic, appetizer, and digestive.

 Fennel's therapeutic uses have been introduced and integrated into many other systems of traditional medicine, including Chinese TCM. For example, the present Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia recommends it in dried fruit or fluidextract form, for flatulent dyspepsia, anorexia, and flatulent colic in children. Its indications for use in the present Chinese pharmacopoeia include for distending pain in the epigastrium with anorexia, dysmenorrhea with lower abdominal pain and cold sensation, vomiting, and diarrhea.

 The modern therapeutic applications for fennel seed and oil are supportable based on their history of use in well-established systems of traditional medicine, phytochemical investigations, and in vitro and in vivo studies in animals.

 Fennel Seed Foeniculum Vulgare Fructus FoeniculiIn Germany, fennel seed is licensed as a standard medicinal tea for dyspepsia. It is also used in cough syrups and honeys (antitussives and expectorants), and stomach and bowel remedies, especially in pediatrics, as aqueous infusion, water (Aqua Foeniculi), drag (lozenge), juice, and syrup. It is often used in combination with aniseed (Leung and Foster, 1996; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). In the United States, it is also used as a component of galactagogue preparations. Indications for use of fennel oil are similar to those for fennel seed. In Germany and the United States, fennel oil is used as an expectorant component of cough remedies, and also as a carminative component of stomach and bowel remedies in dosage forms including honey and syrup. Traditionally, it is combined with laxative or purgative herbs to counteract or modify their harsh griping effects in the bowels. The Commission E limits the use of fennel seed and fennel oil for up to two weeks and then recommends consulting a physician.

 Fennel historically as a galactogogue:

 Fennel has been used historically as a galactogogue (to stimulate milk production). It has also been used for gastrointestinal disorders and as an expectorant. The dose of the oil is 0.1-0.6 mL which is equivalent to 100-600 mg of herb. Side effects include allergic reactions and dermatitis. There are no known contraindications for fennel oil.

 Fennel and Witch Battle:

 Fennel:Known for its healing properties, stalks of fennel were wielded by the benandanti in their battles against evil witches (Guiley 1989 24).
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Traditional Ethnic Uses of Fennel.:

Fennel Seed Foeniculum Vulgare Fructus Foeniculi Fennel goes well with fish and is used in Italian sausages and some curry powder mixes.

 The Commission E approved the internal use of fennel seed preparations for dyspepsias such as mild, spastic gastrointestinal afflictions, fullness, and flatulence. It is also approved for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract. Fennel syrup and fennel honey are used for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract in children.

 In France, fennel seed is allowed the same indications for use as the star anise seed or aniseed. The German Standard License for infusion of fennel seed reports its use against flatulence and cramp-like pains in the gastrointestinal tract, especially in infants and small children, and to dissolve mucus in the respiratory tract. ESCOP lists fennel seed for dyspeptic complaints such as mild, spasmodic gastrointestinal complaints, bloating, and flatulence, for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, and fennel syrup or fennel honey for catarrh of the upper respiratory tract in children.

 In new houses fennel used as protection from fire, accidents and evil.

 Fennel used as an antidote for poisonous herbs or mushrooms,for serpent and other venomous bites,in ancient fertility rites.

 Grown fennel near the home to ward of negativity and evil,to cover cold stone and earth floors,to neutralize vegetable and fungus (mushroom) poisoning

 Fennel Seed Foeniculum Vulgare Fructus FoeniculiFennel Seed is also known by the names Finocchio and Carosella. The name Fennel is derived from the Latin,"foenum", meaning "hay" due to the finely divided leaves of the Fennel plant. Ancient Greek athletes ate Fennel Seed so they would gain strength, but not weight. During the Middle Ages, the seeds were chewed to stave off hunger during fasting periods, and also during long church sermons. Eating the leaves has been a traditional tonic for the eyes, brain and enhanced memory. The Fennel plant came originally from Europe, where it is still grown today. Fennel Seeds are also cultivated in many parts of North America, Asia, and Egypt. The major constituents of Fennel, which include the terpenoid anethole, are found in the volatile oil. Anethole and other terpenoids inhibit spasms in smooth muscles, such as those in the intestinal tract, and this is thought to contribute to fennel use as a carminative (gas-relieving and gastrointestinal tract cramp-relieving agent). Related compounds to anethole may have mild estrogenic actions, although this has not been proven in humans. Fennel is also thought to possess diuretic (increase in urine production), choleretic (increase in production of bile), pain-reducing, fever-reducing, and anti-microbial actions. The seeds are used as a flavoring agent in many herbal medicines, and to help disperse flatulence. The seeds, and roots, also help to open obstructions of the liver, spleen and gall bladder, and to ease painful swellings, in addition to helping with yellow jaundice, the gout and occasional cramps. Fennel Seed was formerly an official drug in the United States, and was listed for the treatment of indigestion.
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Reference:
  • 1.Fennel Seed or Xiao HuiXiang,the seed of Foeniculum vulgare Mill,a pungent herb nature warm,its botanical introduction,chemical constituents,history and uses since ancient till today.

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  • Name:Fennel Seed Extract
  • Serie No:R042.
  • Specifications:10:1TLC.
  • INCI Name:FOENICULUM VULGARE EXTRACT
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:283-414-6
  • CAS:84625-39-8
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Foeniculum Vulgare Extract is an extract of the fruit of the fennel,Foeniculum vulgare,Umbelliferae
  • Other Names:Fructus Foenicuii Extract.Foeniculum vulgare Mill,Fenchel,Large fennel,Fenkel,Sweet Fennel,Anis,Wild Fennel,Fennel,Adas landi,Adas londa,Anis Vert,Comino,Finocchio Forte,Hsiao Hui Hsiang,Hui Hsiang Chiu,Kaneer Razbana,L'Anis,La Nuit,Raziyane,Rezene,Shamar,Shbint,Shatapushpa,Xiao Hui Xiang.

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