What is Poria?,a Humble, but Famous Mushroom, the poria cocos and its widely functional use.
Indications and Combinations.:
Poria is the most widely used fungus in Traditional Chinese Medicine and is utilized primarily in formulas. It is used as a diuretic and a cure for edema, a condition of excess fluids which can cause swelling. The form of Poria used looks somewhat like a potato and grows as a subterranean mass of hardened mycelial tissue called sclerotia. Poria is composed mainly of a substance called Pachyman and also contains some triterpenoids. Pachyman can be chemically converted to pachymaran, which shows a high degree of antitumor activity.
In herbal combinations, poria filaments have been used as a component of various herbal combinations for treating diarrhea,chronic glomerulonephritis, tinnitus, and for decreasing upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding.Some instructions following for reference:
1.Dysuria and edema:To treat various types of edema
Use with Umbellate pore-fungus (Zhuling), Alismatis rhizome (Zexie) and White atractylodes (Baizhu) in the formula Wuling San.
This herb is mostly used together with umbellate pore fungus (Polyporus Umbellatus), largehead atractylodes rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), oriental water plantain rhizome (Rhizoma Alismatis), etc., e.g., Wu Ling San.
a) Edema with dysuria due to the deficiency of yin, caused by pathogens consisting of excessive fluid and pathogenic heat:This herb can be used together with talcum, donkey-hide gelatin and oriental water plantain rhizome (Rhizoma Alismatis), etc., e.g., Zhuling Tang.
b) Edema due to deficiency of yang in the spleen and kidneys:This herb can be used together with monkshood root (Radix Aconiti Praeparata) and ginger, e.g., Zhen Wu Tang.
2.Retention of phlegm and fluids manifested as dizziness,palpitations and cough:
Use with White atractylodes (Baizhu) and Cinnamon twigs (Guizhi) in the formula Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang. Promotes urination and leaches Wetness rt.
3.Excessive dampness and deficiency of the spleen manifested as poor appetite, diarrhea and lassitude,Strengthens Spleen and transforms Phlegm:To treat various syndromes of insufficiency of the spleen:
Aids digestion. Improves the body's circulatory system. Helps transport moisture out of the digestive system into the blood stream and from various body tissues to the bladder.
Use with Pilose asiabell root (Dangshen) and White atractylodes (Baizhu) in the formula Sijunzi Tang.
In treating retention of phlegm, loose stool, etc. due to failure in transportation and transformation of water as a result of deficiency of the spleen, the drug is often used with Radix Codonopsis Pilosulae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, etc.
Traditional Chinese medicine uses Poria Cocos or Fu Ling to remove spleen dampness.Excessive dampness and deficiency of the spleen can be indicated by poor appetite, diarrhea and lassitude.
a) Poor appetite and lassitude due to weakness of the liver and stomach:This herb is often used together with ginseng, largehead atractylodes rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) and licorice, e.g., Sijunzi Tang.
b) Fluid retention due to hypofunction of the spleen:This herb is often used together with cassia twig, largehead atractylodes rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), etc., e.g., Ling Gui Shu Gan Tang.
c) Damp diarrhea due to hypofunction of the spleen:This herb can be used together with yam, largehead atractylodes rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) and Job's tears (Semen Coicis), e.g., Shen Ling Baishu San.
4.Palpitations and insomnia,Calming the mind,Calms the Heart and Shen:
Use with Wild jujube seed (Suanzaoren) and Polygala root (Yuanzhi). In treating palpitation and insomnia due to deficiency of the heart and spleen, the drug is often used with Radix Codonopisis Pilosulae, Arillus Longan, Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, etc.; in treating palpitation and insomnia (due to internal obstruction by turbid phlegm or breakdown of the normal physiological coordination between the heart and kidney), the drug is often used with Rhizoma Acori Graminei, Radix Polygalae, etc.
5.Inducing diuresis and removing dampness:
To strengthen the Spleen and transform dampness, in treating dysuria, edema, etc. due to retention of water, the drug is often used with Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Polyporus Umbellatus, Rhizoma Alismatis, Pericarpium Arecae, etc.
Removes dampness and treats dysuria, edema etc.It is a mild, safe and effective diuretic. It is used in hundreds of classical formulas to improve the flow of water through the body. It is especially commonly used in Qi tonics for this purpose.
Diuretic effect:Administering alcohol-based extract of this herb to rabbits at 0.5g/kg daily for five consecutive days shows a diuretic effect.
Recent test shows that pachyman containing in Poria (fu ling) has similar structure with aldehyde ketone and its antagonist. In vitro test shows that FuLingSu can combine with the receptor of aldehyde ketone in renal cytoplasmic membrane in rats. It resists aldehyde ketone activities in vivo as well. It can also raise Na+/K+ ratio in urine. So, pachyman is probably an aldehyde ketone receptor antagonist, and is effective competent of diuretic.
The function of inducing diuresis and excreting dampness is related to the effect of adjusting water and salt of body. The test proves that pachyman is closely related to Na+,K+-ATP enzyme in cytomembrance and water and salt metabolism of body. Pachyman's function to activate this enzyme can promote water and salt metabolism of body.
7.To treat palpitations and insomnia:Calms the mind,Treats palpitation and insomnia.
Calming effect:Administered at the dosages of 5, 10, 20g/kg, the water decoction of fushen, a variation of this herb (with pine roots growing into it), counteracts the caffeine-induced excitation in mice.
a) Dysphoria due to deficiency of both the heart and the spleen and insufficiency of both qi and blood:This herb is mostly used together with milk vetch root (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Chinese angelica and narrow-leaved polygala root (Radix Polygalae), e.g., Gui Pi Tang.
b) Palpitations due to attacks on the heart by retained fluids:This herb is used together with cassia twig, largehead atractylodes rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), ginger, etc., e.g., Fuling Gancao Tang.
Considered to be highly nourishing. It is one of the primary longevity herbs and is included in most longevity tonics. Recent research has discovered that Poria is a powerful immune system tonic. Poria has been found to induce the production in human beings of a-interferon. It is common in Fu Zheng therapy in China formulas used to build the immune systems of cancer patients.
9.Anti-inflammatory activities and antioxidant properties:
The extracts were assayed at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. showing strong as scavengers of the hydroxyl radical,P. cocos exhibited the highest scavenging activity. Although P. cocos inhibited the lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and red blood cells, the extract showed inhibitory actions on aminopyrine N-demethylase and xanthine oxidase activities as well as an pro-oxidant effect observed in the Fe3+-EDTA-H2O2 system. The results of the present work suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of the same extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant properties.
Anti-inflammatory effect of 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid from Poria cocos:
The structure of a new triterpene derivative isolated from Poria cocos was determined to be 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid by spectral and chemical methods. 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid showed marked inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear inflammation in mice. The 50% inhibitory doses of 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid were 0.27 and 1.25 mg per ear on TPA- and AA-induced inflammation, respectively.
Effect of the basidiomycete Poria cocos on experimental dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions:
The hydroalcoholic extract from P. cocos was examined for oral and topical anti-inflammatory activities. It proved to be active against carrageenan, arachidonic acid, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) acute edemas, TPA chronic inflammation and oxazolone delayed hypersensitivity in mice. Two lanostane-type triterpenes were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods as dehydrotumulosic and pachymic acids. Their ID50 on acute TPA edema was 4.7 x 10(-3) and 6.8 x 10(-4) mumol/ear, respectively.
10.Suggestions from experiment the anti-inflammatory and anti-phospholipase A(2) activity of extracts from lanostane-rich species:
Some scientists of MDidea Group have studied extracts from three species rich in lanostane triterpenes for their activity against different in vivo models of inflammation induced by TPA, EPP and PLA(2). The inhibitory effect against PLA(2) in vitro was also studied. When the Poria cocos extract was tested against PLA(2)-induced mouse paw edema, it was active by the oral and parenteral routes. Its effect was greater in both magnitude and duration than that of Pistacia terebinthus and Ganoderma lucidum extracts. P. terebinthus was effective against chronic and acute inflammation, and according to a preliminary chromatographic analysis, its seems to be a good source of lanostane anti-inflammatory agents. G. lucidum was the least effective of the three species studied and, unlike the other two, failed to inhibit the activity of PLA(2) in vitro.
11.Inhibitory effects of lanostane-type triterpene acids, the components of Poria cocos, on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin:
Pachymic acid, 3-O-acetyl-16 alpha-hydroxytrametenolic acid, and poricoic acid B had been isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos Wolf. These compounds showed a strong inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation in mice. At 0.2 mumol/mouse, these compounds markedly inhibited the promoting effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1 microgram/mouse) on skin tumor formation following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (50 micrograms/mouse).
12.Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor secretion from human monocytes by an extract of Poria cocos:
A Study from some scientists of TaiWan noted: Fu-Ling, the sclederma of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, has long been used as a sedative and diuretic. However, data in this report suggest that Fu-Ling is a potential suppressor of cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood monocytes under in vitro condition. Monocyte culture medium containing 10% of Fu-Ling extract significantly inhibited secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-beta, IL-6 and GM-CSF from the monocyte monolayer. However, as Fu-Ling extract content was gradually reduced, cytokine secretion was augmented in comparison with the cytokine secretion in drug-free controls. This augmentative effect resulted from the trace amount (1.24 ng/ml in 0.62% of Fu-Ling extract) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which contaminated the Fu-Ling extract during the preparation process, since TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion induced by 0.62% Fu-Ling extract could be significantly inhibited by polymyxin B, an LPS inhibitor. Furthermore, the amounts of TNF-alpha IL-1 beta and IL-6 induced by 1 ng/ml of LPS without the presence of drug were more than that induced by 0.62% of Fu-Ling extract. Thus, cytokine secretion induced by LPS contamination (1.24 ng/ml) in the Fu-Ling extract was partially suppressed by 0.62% of the Fu-Ling extract itself. GM-CSF secretion in the medium containing 0.62% of Fu-Ling extract was not induced by LPS since: a) GM-CSF induced by 0.62% Fu-Ling extract could not be inhibited by polymyxin B; b) LPS at 1 ng/ml showed no activity indicating induction of GM-CSF secretion.
13. Inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria:
Experiments conducted in China show that poria decoctions can inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria, including s. aureus, bacillus coli, and bacillus proteus. It is also used to promote diuresis and treat loose stools or diarrhea.
Antibacterial:Experiments show that the 100% water decoction of this herb inhibits Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus coli, and Bacillus proteus.
14. Amphoteric abilitye in balance:
Poria cocos is a mushroom amphoteric in its ability to help regulate either high or low, potassium and sodium balance.
15.Antitumor effects and modulate the immune system:
The polysaccharides contained in Poria Cocos are the compounds being studied. Two of these polysaccharides are Beta-pachyman and Poriatin. Poriatin has been shown to increase the antitumor effects of some chemotherapeutic agents. Beta-pachyman also has shown antitumor effects along with the ability to modulate the immune system. Poria cocos is shown to have anti-inflamatory activity both when taken orally as well as applied topically.
Enhancing immunity:Oral-feeding pachman to mice (250, 500, 1000mg/kg) daily for seven consecutive days enhances the phagocytic function of macrophage of both healthy and cancerous mice.
16.Treatment of Oily skin and Acne:
Recently, two patents have been approved for the use of Poria cocos in skin treatment creams, one for the treatment of oily skin and acne.
Suggest to apply for treatment of Leukorrhagia.Fu Ling also known as China-root, Poria Cocos, Sclerotium of Tuckahoe, Hoelen Fungus: Leeches out Dampness, Strengthens Digestion, Harmonizes the Middle Burner, Calms the Spirit, Improves the performance of other tonifying herbs.Major known constituents: B-pachyman, tumulosic acid, 3B-hydtoxylanosta-7, chitin, protein, lecithin.
18.Allergic asthma treatment:See the US Patent 6958162.
It is known that allergen-induced disorders, such as asthma, are still one of the serious health problems in the world. Recently, the onset of these allergic-related immunological disorders has shifted to the younger population. In other words, more children and adolescents have developed symptoms of allergen-induced immunological disorders. Many doctors and scientists believe that the early onset of allergen-related immunological disorders is accordingly linked to increasing environmental pollution.
To achieve the object mentioned above, the pharmaceutical composition for treating allergic asthma of the present invention comprises alcohol extracts of Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis. The preferred weight ratio of Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis is around 1:1-2: 0.5-2: 1-3. The Radix Dioscorea can be chosen from a large variety of species. The best effect comes from either Dioscorea opposita Thunb or Dioscorea alata L, which have been collected and identified by experts among assignee (the Industrial Technology Research Institute in Taiwan). Compositions extracted from both species of Dioscorea exhibited equal potency in inhibition of cytokines, such as IL-4 and TNF-alpha released from cells, which is identified in the in vitro assays as described in the following section of examples.
The present invention also provides a method for preparing a pharmaceutical composition composed of the alcohol extracts of Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis. The method comprises the following steps: extracting Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis in alcohol separately to form the alcohol extracts of Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis; filtering and concentrating each of said alcohol extracts to form condensates of Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis; and mixing said condensates of Radix Dioscorea, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria cocos (schw) Wolf, and Scutellaria Baicalensis together.
When the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention is used for asthma, it can relieve coughs, resist airway allergic inflammation reactions, improve the pulmonary functions, reduce allergen specific IgE in bloods, stabilize elasmatoblasts, and stop the attacks from asthma.
This herb has been used in TCM for lowering blood sugar and controlling stomach acids. Poria has anti-emetic activity, anti-carcinogenesis, anti-edema effect, and prevents toxicity. These medicinal activities may be related to its immune modulating function. The polysaccharides are responsible for this modulating function. Protecting the liver:Injecting poria injection into hamsters at 1.4g/kg daily for eight consecutive days can counteract carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage.
Poria cocos is a prized longevity herb. Tonic to Heart, Spleen, Kidney. Helps water flow through body; combats stress; supports immunity.
Cancer is common in pet animals, and the rate increases with age. Dogs get cancer at roughly the same rate as humans, while cats get fewer cancers. Cancer accounts for almost half of the deaths of pets over 10 years of age.Common Types of Cancer in Pets including skin tumor,breast tumors,mouse and nose tumors,lymphoma,feline leukemia complex,testicular tumors,abdominal tumors and bone tumors,Poria cocos shows good functions for anti-viral,anti-tumor and immune enhancement properties.
Mushrooms are valuable health food - low in calories, high in vegetable proteins, iron, zinc, chitin, chiton, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Mushrooms also have a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine . Their legendary effects on promoting good health and vitality and increasing a body's adaptive abilities have been supported by recent studies. These studies suggest that Mushrooms are probiotic - they help a body strengthen itself and fight off illness and cancer by maintaining physiological homeostasis - restoring your pet's bodies balance and natural resistance to disease. The compounds they contain have been classified as Host Defense Potentiators (HDP) which can have immune system enhancement properties( boost immune system).
Pachman is an anticarcinogen.Administering pachman to mice (5mg/kg) by abdominal injection daily for ten consecutive days inhibits S180 with a 95% inhibition rate.
Both polysaccharide and pachyman have obvious anti-neoplastc action. They can inhibit growth of mice's S180 stereo tumor, prolong survival time of Adie's ascites carcinoma of mice, and reduce ascitic quantity. In vitro, pachymant can obviously inhibit hyperplasia of mice L1210 and human leukemia cellline HL-60; also inhibit mice's Lewis lung cancer transformation.
Methylol polysaccharide can inhibit growth of mice's cervical carcinoma U14,especially transplanted tumor of slow growth. In addition, using pachyman together with cyclophosphamide,mitomycin,genshammycin and 5-5-fluorouracil,can raise anti-tumor rate.
23.Cosmetic Uses of Poria Cocos Mushroomt:
Poria cocos extract is derived from a mushroom, this extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.Also known as Hoelen and Fu ling.
- 1.What is Poria?,a Humble, but Famous Mushroom, the poria cocos and its widely functional use.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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