What is Poria?,a Humble, but Famous Mushroom, the poria cocos and its widely functional use.

Contents

Research Update:Poria cocos.:

 Poria Cocos Poria Mushroom Hoelen.  Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer-Part 2.:Curr Oncol. 2006 Jun;13(3):99-107. Sagar SM, Yance D, Wong RK.

 The herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are expanding the clinical knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The herbs that are traditionally used for anti-cancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose-response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or as adaptogens, potentially enhancing the efficacy of the conventional therapies or reducing toxicity. Their effectiveness may be increased when multiple agents are used in optimal combinations. New designs for trials to demonstrate activity in human subjects are required. Although controlled trials may be preferable, smaller studies with appropriate endpoints and surrogate markers for anti-angiogenic response could help to prioritize agents for larger, resource-intensive phase iii trials.

  Natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis: a potential source for investigational new agents to treat cancer-Part 1.:Curr Oncol. 2006 Feb;13(1):14-26. Sagar SM, Yance D, Wong RK.

 An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiologic pathways that support tumour development and minimize normal-tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The present article focuses on products that have a high degree of anti-angiogenic activity, but it also describes some of the many other actions of these agents that can inhibit tumour progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. Natural health products target molecular pathways other than angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the HER2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the nuclear factor kappa-B transcription factor, the protein kinases, the Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbs that are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and that are anti-angiogenic through multiple interdependent processes (including effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities) include Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinalis (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens hora (Rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking upon clinical trials. More data are required on dose-response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as modifiers of biologic response or as adaptogens, potentially enhancing the efficacy of the conventional therapies.

  Triterpene Acids from Poria cocos and Their Anti-Tumor-Promoting Effects.:J Nat Prod. 2007 Jun 22;70(6):948-953. Epub 2007 May 9.

 The structures of six new lanostane-type triterpene acids isolated from the epidermis of the sclerotia of Poria cocos were established to be 15alpha-hydroxydehydrotumulosic acid (5), 16alpha,25-dihydroxydehydroeburicoic acid (9), 5alpha,8alpha-peroxydehydrotumulosic acid (10), 25-hydroxyporicoic acid H (11), 16-deoxyporicoic acid B (12), and poricoic acid CM (16) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. On evaluation of these six and 11 other known triterpene acids isolated from the sclerotium, 1-4, 6-8, 13-15, and 17, against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, all of the compounds except for 1, 3, 4, and 8 exhibited inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 195-340 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA. Compound 12 and poricoic acid C (13) exhibited inhibitory effects on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter.

  Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.:Skin Res Technol. 2006 Nov;12(4):223-7. Fuchs SM, Heinemann C, Schliemann-Willers S, Hartl H, Fluhr JW, Elsner P. Department of Dermatology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena, Germany.

 OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos (PoCo) on experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in a repeated sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) irritation model. METHODS: The anti-irritative effect of PoCo was evaluated with a visual score and quantified by non-invasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and transepidermal water loss. Three concentrations of PoCo in base cream DAC (amphiphilic emollient; German pharmacopoeia) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using SLS. RESULTS: A statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity was observed for PoCo by all three methods when applied in parallel to the induction period of ICD. Application of PoCo after induction of ICD once a day for 5 days, starting just at the end of 4 days, was without any effect. CONCLUSION: An anti-inflammatory efficacy of PoCo on the elicitation phase of the ICD induced by repeated SLS test could be observed and quantified by three independent, non-invasive biophysical assessment parameters. This effect can be explained by its influence on pro-inflammatory enzymes, namely phospholipase A2.

  Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.:Altern Med Rev. 2006 Jun;11(2):128-50. Review. Spelman K, Burns J, Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M. Clinical Division, Department of Herbal Medicine, Tai Sophia Institute, 7750 Montpelier Road, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. spelman123@earthlink.net.

 Modulation of cytokine secretion may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. One strategy in the modulation of cytokine expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. A class of herbal medicines, known as immunomodulators, alters the activity of immune function through the dynamic regulation of informational molecules such as cytokines. This may offer an explanation of the effects of herbs on the immune system and other tissues. For this informal review, the authors surveyed the primary literature on medicinal plants and their effects on cytokine expression, taking special care to analyze research that utilized the multi-component extracts equivalent to or similar to what are used in traditional medicine, clinical phytotherapy, or in the marketplace. METHODOLOGY: MEDLINE, EBSCO, and BIOSIS were used to identify research on botanical medicines, in whole or standardized form, that act on cytokine activity through different models, i.e., in vivo (human and animal), ex vivo, or in vitro. RESULTS: Many medicinal plant extracts had effects on at least one cytokine. The most frequently studied cytokines were IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and IFN. Acalypha wilkesiana, Acanthopanax gracilistylus, Allium sativum, Ananus comosus, Cissampelos sympodialis, Coriolus versicolor, Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Grifola frondosa, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia, Poria cocos, Silybum marianum, Smilax glabra, Tinospora cordifolia, Uncaria tomentosa, and Withania somnifera demonstrate modulation of multiple cytokines. CONCLUSION: The in vitro and in vivo research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical medicines modulate the secretion of multiple cytokines. The reported therapeutic success of these plants by traditional cultures and modern clinicians may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Phytotherapy offers a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of many differing conditions involving cytokines. Given the activity demonstrated by many of the reviewed herbal medicines and the increasing awareness of the broad-spectrum effects of cytokines on autoimmune conditions and chronic degenerative processes, further study of phytotherapy for cytokine-related diseases and syndromes is warranted.
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  Indoor Cultivation and Cultural Characteristics of Wolfiporia cocos Sclerotia Using Mushroom Culture Bottles.:

 We newly developed an indoor cultivation technique for Wolfiporia cocos (WOLF) RYVARDEN et GILBERTSON (Syn. Poria cocos WOLF), not with soil, but using mushroom culture bottles with pine logs, and clarified some cultural characteristics of sclerotia in the laboratory. To determine the optimum conditions for sclerotia growth, the weight of sclerotia and concentration of CO(2) in three different air filters; cloth, paper and urethane resin, and closed bottles were tested. When the cloth air filter was used, the growth rate was the fastest and the yield was maximal. These results suggested that the aeration was an important environmental factor for cultivation. To clarify the characteristics of culture in the cloth air filtered and closed bottles, the weight of sclerotia, the compositions of pine logs and the contents of pachymic acid and dehydropachymic acid were examined during 24 weeks. The growth of scleroia and the wood decaying efficiency in the cloth air filtered bottles were better than those in the closed bottles. Also, it was found that W. cocos was a brown rot fungus due to the alkaline solubility of pine logs in the wood decay process. In addition, the contents of pachymic acid and dehydropachymic acid and the TLC pattern between the cultivated and commercial sclerotia did not differ remarkably.

  Chemical investigation on Sijunzi decoction and its two major herbs Panax ginseng and Glycyrrhiza uralensis by LC/MS/MS.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Aug 28;41(5):1642-7. Epub 2006 Mar 29. Liu Y, Yang J, Cai Z. Peking Union Medical College, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100094, China.

 Sijunzi decoction consists of Panax ginseng, Poria cocos, Atractylodes macrocephala and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS(n)) was applied to identify and characterize three types of active components, ginsenoside (from P. ginseng), flavonoid and triterpenoid (from G. uralensis) in Sijunzi decoction. Spectra of MS and MS/MS from [M+Na](+) ions of ginsenosides were acquired and interpreted for their identification. Fragmentations with losing masses of 194 or 176Da were the characteristic ions of triterpenoids in the MS/MS analysis. A characteristic fragment ion of the aglycon moiety at m/z 257 from source collision-induced dissociation was observed for flavonoid. LC/MS was also applied for the comparison of relative peak area of major active components between Sijunzi decoction and the single herb extracts. The concentration ratios of major active components detected in the individual herbs of P. ginseng and G. uralensis were found different from those in Sijunzi decoction. The experimental data indicated that the decocting process could result in the difference in the amount of active components.

  Targeting angiogenesis with integrative cancer therapies.:Center for Natural Healing, Ashland, Oregon, USA.

 An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the multiple biochemical and physiological pathways that support tumor development while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The authors will focus on natural health products (NHPs) that have a high degree of antiangiogenic activity but also describe some of their many other interactions that can inhibit tumor progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. NHPs target various molecular pathways besides angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the HER-2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the NF-kB transcription factor, the protein kinases, Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are confirming the knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The following herbs are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and are antiangiogenic through multiple interdependent processes that include effects on gene expression, signal processing, and enzyme activities: Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood), Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinale (ginger), Panax ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens (rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking on clinical trials. More data are required on dose response, appropriate combinations, and potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as biological response modifiers and adaptogens, potentially enhancing the efficacy of the so-called conventional therapies. Their effectiveness may be increased when multiple agents are used in optimal combinations. New designs for trials to demonstrate activity in human subjects are required. Although controlled trials might be preferred, smaller studies with appropriate end points and surrogate markers for antiangiogenic response could help prioritize agents for the larger resource-intensive phase 3 trials.

  Neuroprotective effect of a chuk-me-sun-dan on neurons from ischemic damage and neuronal cell toxicity.:Neurochem Res. 2006 Jan;31(1):1-9. Chung TW, Koo BS, Choi EG, Kim MG, Lee IS, Kim CH. Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University and National Research Laboratory for Glycobiology, Jangan-Gu, Suwon City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746, Korea.

 Chukmesundan (CMSD), composed of the following 8 medicinal herbs including Panex ginseng C.A. MEYER, Atractylodes macrocephala KOID, Poria cocos WOLF, Pinellia ternata BREIT, Brassica alba BOISS, Aconitum carmichaeli DEBX, Cynanchum atratum BGE and Cuscuta chinensis LAM. CMSD is being used in Korea for the treatment of various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. This study was carried out to examine the effects of CMSD on cultured primary neuron cell, cell cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in Abeta-treated cells. Cell death was enhanced by addition of Abeta. Pretreatment of CMSD attenuated in cell killing induced by Abeta. The protective effect of the CMSD water extracts on Abeta-induced neuronal death was also observed by lactate dehydrogenase assay using cultured astrocyte cells. Abeta-induced cell death was protected by the water extract of CMSD in a dose-dependent manner, and 25-50 microg/ml was the most effective concentration. CMSD has been also shown to protect primary cultured neurons from N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor-mediated glutamate toxicity. It was in vivo evidenced that CMSD protects neurons against ischemia-induced cell death. Moreover, oral administration of CMSD into mice prevented ischemia-induced learning disability and rescued hippocampal CA1 neurons from lethal ischemic damage. The neuroprotective action of exogenous CMSD was also confirmed by counting synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. The presence of CMSD in neuron cultures rescued the neurons from nitrogen oxide (NO)-induced death. From these, it was suggested that CMSD may exert its neuroprotective effect by reducing the NO-mediated formation of free radicals or antagonizing their toxicity.

  Growth-inhibitory effects of a beta-glucan from the mycelium of Poria cocos on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells: cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction..:Oncol Rep. 2006 Mar;15(3):637-43. Zhang M, Chiu LC, Cheung PC, Ooi VE. Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, P.R. China.

 Because of the reported immune-enhancing and anti-tumor activities of some mushroom polysaccharides, their applications as biological response modifiers have attracted significant attention. We have purified a water-soluble beta-glucan PCM3-II, comprising mainly 1right curved arrow 3 and 1right curved arrow 4 linkages, from the mycelia of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (Fu-ling). In this study, the growth-inhibitory effect of PCM3-II was further explored on the human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in vitro. The dose effect of PCM3-II was studied by incubating the breast cancer cells with 12.5-400 microg/ml of the glucan for 72 h. The MTT study showed that PCM3-II reduced proliferation and viability of the MCF-7 cells dose-dependently, so that the cancer-cell growth was decreased by 50% of the control level at 400 microg/ml of the glucan. The time effect of PCM3-II was then investigated by treating the breast cancer cells with 400 microg/ml of the glucan for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Results from the flow cytometry study demonstrated that PCM3-II induced cell-cycle G1 arrest time-dependently and about 90% of the cells in cell cycle were accumulated at G1 phase after 72 h of treatment. The G1 arrest was associated with downregulations of the unscheduled cyclin D1 and cyclin E expressions in the breast cancer cells. Apoptosis was also induced by PCM3-II in the MCF-7 cells, so that the subG1 cells in DNA histogram of the flow cytometry were elevated by 5-fold of the control level at 48 h and by 24-fold at 72 h of treatment. The immunoblot study also showed that the glucan induced depletion of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, but not the proapoptotic Bax protein, so that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was elevated in the breast cancer cells at the time when the most prominent apoptosis was also observed. In conclusion, although the detailed mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of the P. cocos beta-glucan still needs further investigation, this study provides preliminary insights into its mode of action and perspectives of its development as a water-soluble anti-tumor agent.
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  Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 3. In vitro fermentability using human fecal microflora.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9407-12. Wong KH, Wong KY, Kwan HS, Cheung PC. Food and Nutritional Sciences Program, Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T., Hong Kong, China.

 The in vitro fermentability of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, was investigated and compared with that of the cellulose control. All DF samples (0.5 g each) were fermented in vitro with a human fecal homogenate (10 mL) in a batch system (total volume, 50 mL) under strictly anaerobic conditions (using oxygen reducing enzyme and under argon atmosphere) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. All three novel sclerotial DFs exhibited notably higher dry matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 8.56%; P. rhinocerus, 13.5%; and W. cocos, 53.4%) and organic matter disappearance (P. tuber-regium, 9.82%; P. rhinocerus, 14.6%; and W. cocos, 57.4%) when compared with those of the cellulose control. Nevertheless, only the W. cocos DF was remarkably degraded to produce considerable amounts of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (5.23 mmol/g DF on organic matter basis, with a relatively higher molar ratio of propionate) that lowered the pH of its nonfermented residue to a slightly acidic level (5.89). Variations on the in vitro fermentability among the three sclerotial DFs might mainly be attributed to their different amounts of interwoven hyphae present (different amounts of enzyme inaccessible cell wall components) as well as the possible different structural arrangement (linkage and degree of branching) of their beta-glucans.

  Dietary fibers from mushroom Sclerotia: 2. In vitro mineral binding capacity under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9401-6. Wong KH, Cheung PC. Food and Nutritional Sciences Program, Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T., Hong Kong, China

 The in vitro mineral binding capacity of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, to Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human stomach, small intestine, and colon was investigated and compared. Apart from releasing most of their endogenous Ca (ranged from 96.9 to 97.9% removal) and Mg (ranged from 95.9 to 96.7% removal), simulated physiological conditions of the stomach also attenuated the possible adverse binding effect of the three sclerotial DFs to the exogenous minerals by lowering their cation-exchange capacity (ranged from 20.8 to 32.3%) and removing a substantial amount of their potential mineral chelators including protein (ranged from 16.2 to 37.8%) and phytate (ranged from 58.5 to 64.2%). The in vitro mineral binding capacity of the three sclerotial DF under simulated physiological conditions of small intestine was found to be low, especially for Ca (ranged from 4.79 to 5.91% binding) and Mg (ranged from 3.16 to 4.18% binding), and was highly correlated (r > 0.97) with their residual protein contents. Under simulated physiological conditions of the colon with slightly acidic pH (5.80), only bound Ca was readily released (ranged from 34.2 to 72.3% releasing) from the three sclerotial DFs, and their potential enhancing effect on passive Ca absorption in the human large intestine was also discussed.

  Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 1. Preparation and physicochemical and functional properties.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9395-400. Wong KH, Cheung PC. Food and Nutritional Sciences Program, Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T., Hong Kong, China.

 Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89.7 to 94.5% NSP DM) with a very low level of resistant glycogen (ranged from 3.77 to 3.94% sclerotial TDF DM). All three novel sclerotial DFs also exhibited similar, if not better, physicochemical and functional properties (pH, color, water binding capacity, oil holding capacity, and emulsifying properties) as those of barely DF control and commercial DF-rich ingredients. The potential use of the three mushroom sclerotial DFs as a new beta-glucan type DF-rich ingredient in the food industry was discussed.

  Antioxidant and antiplatelet effects of dang-gui-shao-yao-san on human blood cells.:Am J Chin Med. 2005;33(5):747-58. Shen AY, Wang TS, Huang MH, Liao CH, Chen SJ, Lin CC. Basic Medical Science Education Center, Fooyin University Ta-Liao, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan.

 Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San (DGSYS) is a mixture of medicinal herbs, which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating anemia and ovulary disorders. Its preparation comprises Angelicae sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Ligustucum chuanxiong Hort, Paeonia lactiflora pall, Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, Atractylodis macrocephala Koidz and Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. The present study examined the anti-superoxide formation, free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of DGSYS by xanthine oxidase inhibition, cytochrome C system with superoxide anion released by the fMLP or PMA activating pathway in human neutrophils, and FeCl2 ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation effects on lipids in rat liver homogenate, respectively. DGSYS showed anti-superoxide formation and free radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. It also inhibited PMA- but not fMLP-induced superoxide anion released from human neutrophils. These antioxidant actions of DGSYS showed beneficial cytoprotective effects against lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate, human platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and mitomycin C-mediated hemolytic in human erythrocytes.

  Neuroprotective effect of Chuk-Me-Sun-Dan on NMDA- and AMPA-evoked nitric oxide synthase activity in mouse brain.:Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(3):499-514. Koo BS, Choi EG, Park JB, Cho CH, Chung KH, Kim CH. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Neuropsychiatry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongguk University, Kyungbuk, Korea.

 Chukmesundan (CMSD) is composed of 8 medicinal herbs including Panex ginseng C.A. MEYER, Atractylodes macrocephala KOID, Poria cocos WOLF, Pinellia ternata BREIT, Brassica alba BOISS, Aconitum carmichaeli DEBX, Cynanchum atratum BGE, and Cuscuta chinensis LAM and used for the treatment of various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. This study was carried out to examine the effects of CMSD on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-evoked nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in mouse brain. In adult forebrain, CMSD influences neuronal maintenance and is neuroprotective in several injury models through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Interaction is observed between CMSD and nitric oxide (NO). Because NO affects both neural plasticity and degeneration, we hypothesized that CMSD might rapidly modulate NO production. Using in vivo microdialysis we measured conversion of L-[14C] arginine to L-[14C] citrulline as an accurate reflection of NOS activity in adult mouse hippocampus. CMSD significantly reduced NOS activities to 62% of basal levels within 2 days of onset of delivery and maintained NOS activity at less than 45% of baseline throughout 3 days of delivery. These effects did not occur with control (distilled water) and were not mediated by effect of CMSD on glutamate levels. In addition, simultaneous delivery of CMSD treatment prevented significant increases in NOS activity triggered by the glutamate receptor agonists NMDA and AMPA. Rapid suppression by CMSD of basal and glutamate-stimulated NOS activity may regulate neuromodulatory functions of NO or protect neurons from NO toxicity and suggests a novel mechanism for rapidly mediating functions of CMSD. It is shown that NMDA receptor stimulation leads to activation of p21ras (Ras) through generation of NO via neuronal NOS. The competitive NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester, and CMSD prevents Ras activation elicited by NMDA, thus supporting the physiologic relevance of endogenous NO regulation of Ras. These results suggest that Ras is a physiologic target of endogenously produced NO and indicates a signaling pathway for NMDA receptor activation that may be important for long-lasting neuronal responses.
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  Tumor initiation inhibition through inhibition COX-1 activity of a traditional Korean herbal prescription, Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan, in human hepatocarcinoma cells.:Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(3):473-83. Park WH, Lee SK, Oh HK, Bae JY, Kim CH. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Diagnostics, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine and National Research Laboratory for Glycobiology, Kyungju, Kyungbuk, South Korea.

 Some Korean and oriental herbal prescriptions used for a syndrome expressed as chest paralysis and heartache are thought to be effective for angina pectoris. We investigated the effects of an oriental medicinal prescription, Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH) consisting of herbs of Cinnamomi Ramulus, Poria Cocos Hoelen (Pachymae Fungus), Moutan Cortex Radicis, Paeoniae Radix, and Persicae Semen, on growth-inhibitory activity and cancer chemopreventive activity in assays representing three major stages of carcinogenesis. The GBH was found to act as an potent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 only but not as COX-2 inhibitor. Furthermore, the extract mediated anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited COX-associated hydroperoxidase functions (anti-promotion activity). Inhibitory effect of the GBH on the growth of cancer cell lines such as HepG2 cell and Hep3B cell was shown. These data suggest that GBH extracts merit investigation as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans, especially in hepatological cancers.

  Biosoftening of coir fiber using selected microorganisms.:Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2005 Dec;28(3):165-73. Epub 2005 Nov 16. Rajan A, Senan RC, Pavithran C, Abraham TE. Bioactive Polymer Engineering Section, Polymer Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Trivandrum, 695 019 Kerala, India.

 Coir fiber belongs to the group of hard structural fibers obtained from coconut husk. As lignin is the main constituent of coir responsible for its stiffness, microbes that selectively remove lignin without loss of appreciable amounts of cellulose are extremely attractive in biosoftening. Five isolated strains were compared with known strains of bacteria and fungi. The raw fiber treated with Pseudomonas putida and Phanerocheate chrysosporium produced better softened fiber at 30+/-2 degrees C and neutral pH. FeSO4 and humic acid were found to be the best inducers for P. chrysosporium and P. putida, respectively, while sucrose and dextrose were the best C-sources for both. Biosoftening of unretted coir fibers was more advantageous than the retted fibers. Unlike the weak chemically softened fiber, microbial treatment produced soft, whiter fibers having better tensile strength and elongation (44.6-44.8%) properties. Scanning electron microscopy photos showed the mycelia penetrating the pores of the fiber, removing the tylose plug and degrading lignin.

  Dehydrotrametenolic acid selectively inhibits the growth of H-ras transformed rat2 cells and induces apoptosis through caspase-3 pathway.: Life Sci. 2006 Jan 2;78(6):607-13. Epub 2005 Aug 19.Kang HM, Lee SK, Shin DS, Lee MY, Han DC, Baek NI, Son KH, Kwon BM.Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52 Uendong, Yusung, Taejon, Republic of Korea.

 The screening of natural products that preferentially inhibit growth of H-ras transformed rat2 cells vs. rat2 cells was performed to identify H-ras specific growth inhibitor. A lanostane-type triterpene acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid (3beta-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid), was isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos (Polyporaceae). Dehydrotrametenolic acid selectively inhibited the growth of H-ras transformed cells with a GI(50) value of 40 microM. FACS analysis indicated that the compound exerted its anti-proliferation effects through cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and accumulation of sub-G1 population. Dehydrotrametenolic acid-induced apoptosis was further confirmed with chromosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and degradation of PARP and Lamin A/C degradation. The compound also regulated the expression of H-ras, Akt and Erk, which are the downstream proteins of H-ras signaling pathways. The results suggest that dehydrotrametenolic acid can be a potential anticancer agent against H-ras transformed tumor.

  Solution properties of (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan and its sulfated derivative from Poria cocos mycelia via fermentation tank.:Biopolymers. 2005 Sep;79(1):28-38.Huang Q, Zhang L.Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

 From Poria cocos mycelia yielded via a pilot scale facility-fermentation tank, a water-insoluble (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan coded as Pi-PCM3-I was isolated by extraction with 0.5 M NaOH/0.01 M NaBH(4) aqueous solution. Nine fractions from F1 to F9 with a weight-average molecular mass (M(w)) range from 7.75 x 10(4) to 57.3 x 10(4) were prepared from the Pi-PCM3-I sample by a nonsolvent addition method. The fractions were reacted with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine complex to product water-soluble sulfated derivatives coded as S1 to S8 with M(w) from 2.36 x 10(4) to 14.5 x 10(4) and degree of substitution (DS) of 0.86-1.38. M(w), z-average radius of gyration (s(2) (z) (1/2)), the second virial coefficient (A(2)), and the intrinsic viscosity ([eta]) of the native and sulfated Pi-PCM3-I were measured by laser light scattering (LLS), size-exclusion chromatography combined with LLS (SEC-LLS), and viscometry at 25 degrees C. The Mark-Houwink equations for Pi-PCM3-I in 0.25 M LiCl/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (Me(2)SO) and for its sulfated derivative in 0.15 M NaCl aqueous solution at 25 degrees C were established to be [eta] = 1.33 x 10(-2) M(w) (0.75+/-0.01) (mL g(-1)) and [eta] = 1.46 x 10(-4) M(w) (1.13+/-0.01) (mL g(-1)), respectively. On the basis of theories for a wormlike cylinder model, the conformational parameters of the native and sulfated Pi-PCM3-I were calculated to be 760 +/- 50 and 1060 +/- 30 nm(-1) for the molar mass per unit contour length (M(L)), 6.3 +/- 0.5 and 13.1 +/- 1 nm for the persistence length (q), and 14.9 +/- 0.2 and 31.8 +/- 1 for the characteristic ratio (C( proportional, variant)), respectively. The results revealed that Pi-PCM3-I existed as an extended flexible chain in 0.25 M LiCl/Me(2)SO, and its sulfated derivative existed as a semistiff chain in 0.15 M NaCl aqueous solution. Furthermore, Pi-PCM3-I possessed similar structure and molecular parameters to wc-PCM3-I from a rotary shaker; this suggests promising industrialization of Poria cocos polysaccharides.

  Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pachymic acid from Poria cocos.:Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jul 15;332(4):1153-61.Gapter L, Wang Z, Glinski J, Ng KY.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

 Pachymic acid (PA) is a natural triterpenoid known to inhibit the phospholipase A2 (PLA(2)) family of arachidonic acid (AA)-producing enzymes. PLA(2) is elevated in prostatic adenocarcinoma and conversion of AA to prostaglandins leads to AKT pro-survival activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of PA on the growth of human prostate cancer cells. PA significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, with androgen-insensitive DU145 prostate cancer cells showing greater growth inhibition relative to androgen-responsive LNCaP. Despite elevated protein expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, apoptosis occurred in the absence of cell cycle arrest. PA-treatment decreased Bad phosphorylation, increased Bcl-2 phosphorylation, and activated caspases-9 and -3, suggesting that PA initiated apoptosis through mitochondria dysfunction. PA-treatment also decreased the expression and activation of proteins within the AKT signal pathway. We speculate that PA influenced apoptosis by reducing prostaglandin synthesis and AKT activity.
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  Effect of molecular mass on antitumor activity of heteropolysaccharide from Poria cocos.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Mar;69(3):631-4. Zhang L, Chen L, Xu X, Zeng F, Cheung PC. Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, China. lnzhang@public.wh.hb.cn

 A water-soluble heteropolysaccharide ac-PCM0 from Poria cocos was successfully fractionated using a preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) column, and their weight-average molecular mass (M(w)) was characterized by analytical SEC combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS). The results indicate that the fractions having relatively high M(w) exhibited higher inhibition ratio in vivo antitumor activity than those having M(w) below 3.29 x 10(4). However, the relatively low molecular mass was beneficial to the in vitro antitumor activity. Moreover, ac-PCM0 has a significantly higher enhancement ratio of the body weight than 5-fluorouracil, and its 50% lethal dose is above 1250 mg/kg, indicating a nontoxic nature.

  Nematicidal activity and chemical component of Poria cocos.:J Microbiol. 2005 Feb;43(1):17-20. Li GH, Shen YM, Zhang KQ. Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, PR China.

 Poria cocos, a famous traditional Chinese medicine, was found to have nematicidal activity in experiments searching for nematicidal fungi. The experiment showed it could kill 94.9% of the saprophytic nematode, Panagrellus redivivue, 92.6% of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, and 93.5% of the pine nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, on PDA plate within 12 hours. According to the nematicidal activity, three new compounds, 2, 4, 6-triacetylenic octane diacid, 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrahydroxyhexanoic acid and 3, 4-dihydroxy-2-keto-n-butyl 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanate, were isolated from submerged cultures of Poria cocos. Of these, 2, 4, 6-triacetylenic octane diacid could kill 83.9% Meloidogyne arenaria and 73.4% Panagrellus redivivus at 500 ppm within 12 hours. Here, it is reported for the first time that Poria cocos has nematicidal activity.

  Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: pathogen biology and epidemiology.:Mycopathologia. 2005 Jan;159(1):129-37. Pilotti CA. PNG Oil Palm Research Association Inc., P.O. Box 36, Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. cpilotti@global.net.pg

 Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base. This is the same disease that constitutes a major threat to sustainable oil palm production in SE Asia. Investigations into the causal pathogen have revealed that the stem rots in PNG are caused predominantly by the basidiomycete Ganoderma boninense, with a minor pathogen identified as G. tornatum G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms. The population structure of G. boninense was investigated using inter-fertility studies between isolates collected from basal stem rots on oil palm. Although the G. boninense field populations are predominantly comprised of distinct individuals, a number of isolates were found that share single mating alleles. This indicates that out-crossing had occurred over several generations in the resident or wild population of G. boninense prior to colonization of oil palm. No direct hereditary relationship between isolates on neighbouring diseased palms was found, although an indirect link between isolates causing upper stem rot and basal stem rot was detected.

  Antioxidant activities of some common ingredients of traditional chinese medicine, Angelica sinensis, Lycium barbarum and Poria cocos.:Phytother Res. 2004 Dec;18(12):1008-12. Wu SJ, Ng LT, Lin CC. Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

 The antioxidant activities of three popular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine, namely Angelica sinensis (AS), Lycium barbarum (LB) and Poria cocos (PC) were evaluated in this study. The results showed that aqueous extracts of these crude drugs exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. All extracts displayed an inhibitory effect on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate in vitro, with the order of activity LB > AS > PC. The tested extracts showed a superoxide anion scavenging activity ranging from 28.8% to 82.2% and anti-superoxide activity varying from 38.0% to 84.5%. Among the different extracts, LB extract exhibited the lowest IC50 values (0.77-2.55 microg/mL) in all model systems tested in this study. The present study concludes that LB extract possessed the strongest inhibition on malondialdehyde formation in rat liver homogenate, and superoxide anion scavenging and anti-superoxide formation activities. These results also suggest that LB extract is a good source of antioxidant agent in the daily dietary supplement.

  The experimental research of Atractylodes macrocephala and Poria cocos on the meridian tropism theory in animals.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Nov;29(11):1076-9. Chinese. Wang SR, Wang X, Hu S. Department of Pharmacology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250014, China. wangshr@sdutcm.edu.cn

 OBJECTIVE: The research was designed to study the meridian tropism theory of traditional Chinese drug through experiments in animals. METHOD: We used the mouse model of deficient spleen as the object. After administering Atractylodes macrocephala and Poria cocos respectively, we measured the indexes of MDA, SOD, NO to observe the effects of the drugs on various organs and compared the results with the traditional meridian tropism theory. RESULT: The two drugs had selective effects on the quantity or activity of MDA, SOD, NO in the organs for the normal group and the model group. CONCLUSION: The selective influence of the two drugs has close relativity with the traditional meridian tropism theory.
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  Molecular mass and antitumor activities of sulfated derivatives of alpha-glucan from Poria cocos mycelia.:Int J Biol Macromol. 2004 Oct;34(5):289-94.Lin Y, Zhang L, Chen L, Jin Y, Zeng F, Jin J, Wan B, Cheung PC. College of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

 Two kinds of water-insoluble (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan samples, ab-PCM3-I and ac-PCM3-I, isolated from different Poria cocos mycelia were sulfated, to produce two series of water-soluble derivatives ab-PCM3-I-S1-S5 and ac-PCM3-I-S1-S5, respectively. The derivatives having different weight-average molecular mass (Mw) were produced by changing reaction temperature and time as well as molar ratios between chlorosulfonic acid and number of hydroxyl groups in the glucan. The degrees of substitution (DS) of the sulfated derivatives were analyzed by elemental analysis (EA) to be 0.39-0.67 for ab-PCM3-I-S and 0.73-0.96 for ac-PCM3-I-S, respectively. The Mw and the intrinsic viscosity ([eta]) of the samples ab-PCM3-I-S and the ac-PCM3-I-S were measured by size exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS) and viscometry in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37 degrees C. The results indicated that their Mw ranged from 2.0 to 11.3 x 10(4) for the samples ab-PCM3-I-S, and 4.7 to 40.0 x 10(4) for the samples ac-PCM3-I-S. Moreover, the antitumor activities of the sulfated derivatives ab-PCM3-I-S and ac-PCM3-I-S against Sarcoma 180 tumor cell tested both in vitro and in vivo are significantly higher than those of the native alpha-D-glucans. Therefore, a moderate range of molecular mass from 2.0 x 10(4) to 40.0 x 10(4), relatively high chain stiffness and good water solubility of the sulfated derivatives are beneficial to the enhancement of their antitumor activities.

  Morphological variation and host range of two Ganoderma species from Papua New Guinea.:Mycopathologia. 2004 Aug;158(2):251-65. Pilotti CA, Sanderson FR, Aitken EA, Armstrong W. PNG Oil Palm Research Association, PR O. Box 36, Alotau, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. cpilotti@global.net.pg

 Two species of Ganoderma belonging to different subgenera which cause disease on oil palms in PNG are identified by basidiome morphology and the morphology of their basidiospores. The names G. boninense and G. tornatum have been applied. Significant pleiomorphy was observed in basidiome characters amongst the specimens examined. This variation in most instances did not correlate well with host or host status. Spore morphology appeared uniform within a species and spore indices varied only slightly. G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms in Papua New Guinea.

  Screening of Korean herbal medicines used to improve cognitive function for anti-cholinesterase activity.:Phytomedicine. 2004 Sep;11(6):544-8. Oh MH, Houghton PJ, Whang WK, Cho JH. Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 8WA, UK.

 Methanolic extracts of seven herbs (Acorus calamus, Acorus gramineus, Bupleurm facaltum, Dioscorea batatas, Epimedium koreanum, Poria cocos and Zizyphi jujuba) used in traditional Korean medicine for improvement of memory and cognition in old age were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory properties using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibition of the enzyme at 200 microg/ml was observed for extracts from A. calamus and E. koreanum. The possible bases for the reputation of these and the other herbs tested are discussed in the light of previous investigations into their chemistry and biological activity.

  Correlation of structure to antitumor activities of five derivatives of a beta-glucan from Poria cocos sclerotium.:Carbohydr Res. 2004 Oct 20;339(15):2567-74. Wang Y, Zhang L, Li Y, Hou X, Zeng F. Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

 A water-insoluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan isolated from fresh sclerotium of Poria cocos was, respectively, sulfated, carboxymethylated, methylated, hydroxyethylated, and hydroxypropylated, to afford five water-soluble derivatives. Their weight-average molecular masses (Mw) and intrinsic viscosities ([eta]) were determined by size-exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS), LLS, and viscometry in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37 degrees C. The antitumor activities, against Sarcoma 180 tumor cell (S-180) and gastric carcinoma cell strain (MKN-45 and SGC-7901) of the native beta-glucan and the five derivatives, were tested in vitro and in vivo. The Mw values of the five derivatives in PBS were determined to be 3.8 x 10(4), 18.9 x 10(4), 16.0 x 10(4), 76.8 x 10(4), and 224.3 x 10(4), respectively. The high Mw values of the hydroxyethylated and hydroxypropylated derivatives in aqueous solution resulted from aggregation, and their true Mw values obtained in dimethyl sulfoxide were 20.1 x 10(4) and 19.1 x 10(4). The sulfated and carboxymethylated derivatives having DS of 1.0-1.3 show good water solubility, and exist as relatively expanded chains in aqueous solution. Interestingly, the native beta-glucan did not show antitumor activity, whereas the sulfated and carboxymethylated derivatives exhibit significant antitumor activities against S-180 and gastric carcinoma tumor cells. This work showed that good water solubility, relatively high chain stiffness, and moderate molecular mass of the derivatives in aqueous solution contribute beneficial to enhancement of antitumor activity.

  Inhibitory effect of GBH on platelet aggregation through inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in activated human platelets.:Life Sci. 2004 Nov 5;75(25):3063-76. Park WH, Kim HK, Nam KS, Shon YH, Jeon BH, Moon SK, Kim MG, Kim CH. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Diagnostics, Dongguk University College of Oriental Medicine and National Research Laboratory for Glycobiology, Sukjang-Dong 707, Kyungju City, Kyungbuk 780-714, Korea.

 Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH) was studied on antiplatelet activity in human platelet suspensions. GBH consists of the 5 herbs Cinnamomi Ramulus, Poria Cocos, Mountan Cortex Radicis, Paeoniae Radix, and Persicae Semen, which have been used in herbal medicine for thousands of years for atherosclerosis. The mechanism involved in the antiplatelet activity of GBH in human platelet suspensions was investigated. GBH inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization in a concentration-dependent manner without increasing intracellular cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. GBH had no inhibitory effect on thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production in cell-free systems. Collagen-related peptide (CRP)-induced Ca2+ mobilization is regulated by phospholipase C-2 (PLC-gamma2) activation. We evaluated the effect of GBH on tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 and the production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). GBH at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization had no effects on tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 or on the formation of IP3 induced by CRP. Similar results were obtained with thrombin-induced platelet activation. GBH inhibited platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization induced by thrombin without affecting the production of IP3. We then evaluated the effect of GBH on the binding of IP3 to its receptor. GBH at high concentrations partially blocked the binding of IP3 to its receptor. Therefore, the results suggested that GBH suppresses Ca2+ mobilization at a step distal to IP3 formation. GBH may provide a good tool for investigating Ca2+ mobilization.
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  Cytotoxicity and DNA topoisomerases inhibitory activity of constituents from the sclerotium of Poria cocos.:Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Aug;27(8):829-33. Li G, Xu ML, Lee CS, Woo MH, Chang HW, Son JK. College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, P. R. China.

 The bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methylene chloride extract of the sclerotium of Poria cocos led to the isolation of (S)-(+)-turmerone (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), polyporenic acid C (3), dehydropachymic acid (4), pachymic acid (5), and tumulosic acid (6). Compounds 4-6 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities, with IC50 values of 20.5, 29.1, and 10.4 microM, respectively, against a human colon carcinoma cell line. However, 3-6 not only showed inhibitory activities as potent as etoposide used as a positive control on DNA topoisomerase II (36.1, 36.2, 43.9 and 66.7% inhibition at a concentration of 20 microM, respectively), but also inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I (55.8, 60.7, 43.5, and 83.3% inhibition at a concentration of 100 microM, respectively).

  Determination of the effectiveness of components of the herbal medicine Toki-Shakuyaku-San and fractions of Angelica acutiloba in improving the scopolamine-induced impairment of rat's spatial cognition in eight-armed radial maze test.:J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Sep;96(1):33-41. Epub 2004 Sep 4. Hatip-Al-Khatib I, Egashira N, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Iwasaki K, Kurauchi K, Inui K, Ikeda T, Fujiwara M. Department of Pharmacology, Division of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.

 The improving effects of various components of Toki-Shakuyaku-San (TSS) and fractions isolated from Angelica acutiloba Radix (Toki) on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment were investigated in eight-armed radial maze. The scopolamine-induced memory impairment was characterized by prominent increase of error choices in addition to decreased correct choices. Toki, Cnidium officinale Rhizoma (Senkyu), Poria cocos Hoelen (Bukuryo), Alisma orientale Rhizoma (Takusha), and Atractylodes lancea Rhizoma (Sojutsu) increased the correct choices, while only the Toki, Sojutsu, and Takusha decreased the error choices. No effect was produced by Paeonia lactiflora Radix (Shakuyaku). Investigation of effects of fractions isolated from Toki revealed that its activity mainly resided in the butanol layer and its contents of N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide and amines. Moreover, the alkaloid, internal and external solutions (containing poly-, di-, and monosaccharides) obtained by dialysis with Visking cellophane tubing also improved the memory. However, no improving properties were detected for methanol and hexanol layers, L-(-)-tryptophan, L-arginine, L-(-)-lysine, and choline chloride. The results showed that the TSS components could improve the reference and working memory impaired by scopolamine. The improving effect of TSS is produced greatly by the Toki component, the activity of which was greatly produced by the fraction extracted by butanol.

  Polysaccharide isolated from Poria cocos sclerotium induces NF-kappaB/Rel activation and iNOS expression through the activation of p38 kinase in murine macrophages.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Aug;4(8):1029-38. Lee KY, You HJ, Jeong HG, Kang JS, Kim HM, Rhee SD, Jeon YJ. Department of Pharmacology, Chosun University College of Medicine, 375 Susukdong, Kwangju 501-709, South Korea.

 In our previous studies, we showed that PCSC, a polysaccharide isolated from Poria cocos, activated macrophages to induce the translocation of NF-kappaB/Rel into nucleus and DNA binding to its cognate site in the promoter of iNOS gene [Int. Immunopharmacol. 3 (2003) 1353]. In the present study, we investigated the role of p38 kinase pathway and membrane receptors (CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and CR3) in mediating nitric oxide (NO) production and NF-kappaB/Rel activation induced by PCSC. Treament of RAW 264.7 cells with PCSC resulted in significant activation of p38. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 abrogated the PCSC-induced NF-kappaB/Rel activation and NO generation, whereas the selective mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD98059 did not affect the NF-kappaB/Rel and NO induction. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with anti-CD14 Ab, anti-TLR4 Ab, and anti-CR3 Absignificantly blocked PCSC-induced NO production activation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PCSC induces NF-kappaB/Rel activation and iNOS expression through the CD14, TLR4, and CR3 membrane receptor and p38 kinase which is critically involved in the signal transduction leading to NF-kappaB/Rel activation in murine macrophages.

  Anti-rejection effect of ethanol extract of Poria cocos wolf in rats after cardiac allograft implantation.:Chin Med J (Engl). 2004 Jun;117(6):932-5. Zhang GW, Liu HY, Xia QM, Li JQ, Lu H, Zhang QH, Yao ZF. Second Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086, China. godway@tom.com

 BACKGROUND: A living fetus within the maternal uterus provides an example of allogene tolerance in mammals. Poria cocos Wolf is the main component of many Chinese medicinal combination drugs that have therapeutic effects on recurrent spontaneous abortion and that can maintain pregnancy until delivery. It was hypothesized that this herbal medicine can also prolong allograft survival after organ transplantation. Here, in an in vivo study, we report the anti-rejection effect of the ethanol extract of Poria cocos Wolf (EEPCW) in rats after cardiac allograft implantation. METHODS: Ten normal rats were healthy controls. Eighty rats receiving homologous heart transplants were divided into 4 groups of 20 rats each based on type of treatment: olive oil 8 ml.kg(-1).d(-1), EEPCW 25 mg.kg(-1).d(-1), EEPCW 50 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) or cyclosporin A 5 mg.kg(-1).d(-1). Allograft survival was observed in 10 rats from each group. On the seventh day post transplantation, pathological lesions and percentages of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood were assessed in another 10 rats from each group and in 10 normal rats. RESULTS: The survival time of donor hearts in the two EEPCW groups was significantly prolonged, to (15.9 +/- 2.4) days and (30.0 +/- 0.0) days, respectively, compared with (6.7 +/- 0.8) days in the control group. Pathological lesions in the two EEPCW groups were also less severe, and the percentages of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly lower in the EEPCW groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute rejection of heart transplants and cellular immune reaction can be effectively suppressed using the EEPCW. Taking advantage of novel immunosuppressants derived from Chinese medicinal herbs used to treat abnormal pregnancy provides a hopeful road for future research and treatment in organ transplantation.

  PAP 9704, a Korean herbal medicine attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion via adenosine A2A receptor stimulation in mice.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Jun;27(6):906-9. Kwon YS, Nabeshima T, Shin EJ, Chun W, Jhoo JH, Jhoo WK, Wie MB, Jang CG, Chung H, Sung YE, Kim HC. Neurotoxicology program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Korea

 The effect of PAP 9704, a traditional prescription in Korea consisting of Polygala tenuifolia, Acorus gramineus, and Poria cocos at a ratio of 1:1:1 (dry weight), on methamphetamine (MA)-induced hyperlocomotion was examined in mice. The increased locomotor activity induced by MA (1 mg/kg/d, i.p. x 7) was significantly attenuated by co-administration with PAP 9704 (100 or 200 mg/kg/d, p.o. x 7) in a dose dependent manner. Consistently, it was found that the hyperlocomotor activity occurred in parallel with the expression of striatal fos-related antigen immunoreactivity. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist, 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reversed the pharmacological action of PAP 9704 in a dose related manner, but the adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the A(2B) receptor antagonist alloxazine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly affect this pharmacological action. Our results suggest that PAP 9704 prevents MA-induced hyperlocomotion, at least in part, via the stimulation of the adenosine A(2A) receptor.
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  Effects of the Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan on carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice and cyclooxygenase-2 in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Hep3B.:Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004 Feb;26(1):103-12. Park WH, Joo ST, Park KK, Chang YC, Kim CH. National Research Laboratory for Glycobiology, Korean Ministry of Science and Technology, Kyungju, Kyungbuk, Korea.

 We investigated the effects of a Korean traditional prescription, Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH) consisting of five herbs of Cinnamomi Ramulus (Korean name Geiji), Poria cocos (Bokryung), Moutan Cortex Radicis (Modanpi). Paeoniae Radix (Jakyak) and Persicae Semen (Doin) on tumor growth-inhibitory activity and cancer chemopreventive activity in assays representing three major stages of carcinogenesis. Effects of the GBH extracts on carrageenan-induced edema inflammation using female (C57BL/6XC3H) F1 (B6C3F1) mice and tumorigenesis were examined. Finally, cyclooxygenase metabolites were determined after extracts treatment. These data suggest that GBH extracts merits investigation as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.

  A novel DNA topoisomerase inhibitor: dehydroebriconic acid, one of the lanostane-type triterpene acids from Poria cocos.:Cancer Sci. 2004 Apr;95(4):354-60. Mizushina Y, Akihisa T, Ukiya M, Murakami C, Kuriyama I, Xu X, Yoshida H, Sakaguchi K.

 Traditional Chinese medicinal plants are a treasure house for screening novel inhibitors of DNA polymerases and DNA topoisomerases from mammals; in the present study, nine lanostane-type triterpene acids were found in sclerotium of Poria cocos. Among the nine compounds, only dehydroebriconic acid could potently inhibit DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) activity (IC(50) = 4.6 microM), while the compound moderately inhibited the activities of DNA polymerases alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, eta, iota, kappa and lambda only from mammals, to similar extents. Another compound, dehydrotrametenonic acid, also showed moderate inhibitory effects against topo II (IC(50) = 37.5 microM) and weak effects against all the polymerases tested. Both compounds showed no inhibitory effect against topo I, higher plant (cauliflower) DNA polymerase I (alpha-like polymerase) or II (beta-like polymerase), calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase, prokaryotic DNA polymerases such as the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I, Taq DNA polymerase and T4 DNA polymerase, or DNA metabolic enzymes such as T 7 RNA polymerase, T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. These findings suggest that dehydroebriconic acid and dehydrotrametenonic acid should be designated as topo II-preferential inhibitors, although they also moderately inhibited all the mammalian DNA polymerases tested. Both dehydrotrametenonic acid and dehydroebriconic acid could prevent the growth of human gastric cancer cells, and their LD(50) values were 63.6 and 38.4 microM, respectively. The cells were halted at the G1 phase in the cell cycle. The relation between the structure of triterpene acids and their inhibitory activities is discussed.

  Antiproliferative and differentiating effects of polysaccharide fraction from fu-ling (Poria cocos) on human leukemic U937 and HL-60 cells.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 May;42(5):759-69. Chen YY, Chang HM. Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106-17, Taiwan.

 Poria cocos (PC), Fu-Ling, is an oriental fungus and has been widely used as a Chinese traditional herbal medicine for centuries. In the present study, a neutral polysaccharide fraction from PC (PC-PS) was isolated by a series of chromatographies and its effects on antiproliferation and differentiation of human leukemic cells, U937 and HL-60, were investigated in vitro. Results showed that the molecular weight of isolated PC-PS was approximately 160 kDa, as estimated by gel permeation chromatography. The conditioned medium prepared with PC-PS (15 microg/ml)-stimulated human blood mononuclear cells for 5 days (PC-PS-MNC-CM5) exhibited a potent activity in suppressing the proliferation of U937 and HL-60 cells by 87.3 and 74.7%, respectively. Furthermore, PC-PS-MNC-CM5 induced about 66.6% of the U937 cells and 49.4% of the HL-60 cells to differentiate into mature monocytes/macrophages, which also markedly expressed surface antigens of CD11b, CD14, and CD 68. The differentiated U937 and HL-60 cells displayed physiological functions such as respiratory burst and phagocytosis, while PC-PS group and control group showed insignificant effects. Interestingly, the levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in PC-PS-MNC-CM were about 41 and 10 times, respectively, higher than that of control group. Antibody neutralization tests of the PC-PS-MNC-CM5 revealed that the growth-inhibitory and differentiation-inducing activities were mainly due to the elevated cytokines of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. It suggests that PC-PS is a biological response modifier (BRM), instead of a cytotoxic reagent, and may be a potential alternative in leukemia therapy.

  Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.:J Nat Prod. 2004 Feb;67(2):300-10. Review. Zjawiony JK. Department of Pharmacognosy and National Center for Natural Product Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677-1848, USA. jordan@olemiss.edu

 This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen).

  Dehydrotrametenonic acid and dehydroeburiconic acid from Poria cocos and their inhibitory effects on eukaryotic DNA polymerase alpha and beta.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004 Feb;68(2):448-50. Akihisa T, Mizushina Y, Ukiya M, Oshikubo M, Kondo S, Kimura Y, Suzuki T, Tai T.

 A new lanostane-type triterpene acid, (20xi)-3-oxolanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid (1; dehydrotrametenonic acid), along with a known triterpene acid, dehydroeburiconic acid (2), were isolated from the epidermis of the sclerotia of Poria cocos. The structure of 1 was analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited calf DNA polymerase alpha and rat DNA polymerase beta, with the 50% inhibition values of 45.5 microM (1) and 40.8 microM (2), and 86.5 microM (1) and 30.0 microM (2), respectively.
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  Chemical components and molecular mass of six polysaccharides isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos.:Carbohydr Res. 2004 Jan 22;339(2):327-34. Wang Y, Zhang M, Ruan D, Shashkov AS, Kilcoyne M, Savage AV, Zhang L.Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan, China.

 Six polysaccharides were extracted sequentially from the fresh sclerotium of Poria cocos cultivated in China using 0.9% NaCl (PCS1), hot water (PCS2), 0.5M NaOH (PCS3-I and PCS3-II), and 88% formic acid (PCS4-I and PCS4-II). Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography (GC), GC-MS methylation analysis, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elementary analysis (EA), protein analysis, size exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS), light scattering (LS), and viscometry. The results indicated that the polysaccharides PCS1, PCS2, and PCS3-I were heteropolysaccharides containing D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-fucose, and D-xylose; the predominant monosaccharide was D-glucose except for PCS1 where it was D-galactose. PCS3-II, the main component of the sclerotium of P. cocos, was a linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan of high purity. PCS4-I consisted of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan with some beta-(1-->6) linked branches. PCS4-II was mainly composed of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan containing some glucose branches. The M(w) values of the six polysaccharides PCS1, PCS2, PCS3-I, PCS4-I in 0.2M NaCl aqueous solution, PCS3-II, and PCS4-II in dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) were determined to be 11.6 x 10(4), 20.8 x 10(4), 17.1 x 10(4), 9.1 x 10(4), 12.3 x 10(4), and 21.1 x 10(4), respectively. The six polysaccharides in aqueous solution or Me(2)SO exist as flexible chains.

  The antiplatelet activity of Danggijakyaksan by inhibition of phospholipase C.:Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2003 Nov;25(4):561-71. Park WH, Kim SH, Chang YC, Lee YC, Kim CH. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Diagnostics, Dongguk University COM, Kyungju, Kyungbuk, Korea.

 We investigated the effects of the traditional Korean prescription, Danggijakyaksan (DJS) on antiplatelet activity in human platelet suspensions. The effect of oriental medicinal prescriptions, Danggijakyaksan consisting of 6 herbes of Paeoniae Radix (2 g), Poria Cocos (1.33 g), Angelicae Sinensis Radix (1 g), Cnidii Rhizoma (1 g), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (1.33 g) and Alismatis Rhizoma (1.66 g), was studied. In this study, the mechanism involved in the antiplatelet activity of DJS in human platelet suspensions was investigated. Danggijakyaksan did not significantly affect the thromboxane synthetase activity of aspirin-treated platelet microsomes and DJS (20 and 40 microg/mL) significantly inhibited [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) released in collagen-activated platelets but not in unactivated-platelets. Nitric oxide (NO) production in human platelets was measured by a chemiluminesence detection method in this study. Danggijakyaksan did not significantly affect nitrate production in collagen (10 microg/mL)-induced human platelet aggregation. On the other hand, various concentrations of DJS (10, 20, and 40 microg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited [3H]inositol monophosphate (IP) formation stimulated by collagen (10 microg/mL) in [3H]myoinositolloaded platelets at different incubation times (1, 2, 3, and 5 min). It is concluded that the antiplatelet activity of DJS may possibly be due to the inhibition of phospholipase C activity, leading to reduced phosphoinositide breakdown, followed by the inhibition of thromboxane A2 formation, and then inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization of platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists.

  Biochemical and microstructural Ccharacteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolf.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Nov 19;51(24):7197-202. Wong KH, Cheung PC, Wu JZ. Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T., Hong Kong, China.

 The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0.02 to 0.14% DM). Besides, all three sclerotia possessed substantial amounts of IDF (ranging from 77.4 to 94.6% DM) with notably high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (89.9-92.2% DM) in which glucose was the predominant sugar residue (90.6-97.2% of NSP DM). On the contrary, both the yield (only ranging from 1.45 to 2.50% DM) and the amount of NSP (ranging from 22.4 to 29.6% DM) of the three sclerotial SDF fractions were very low. Scanning electron micrographs showed fragments of interwoven hyphae and insoluble materials in the three sclerotial IDF fractions, but only an amorphous structure of soluble materials was observed in the SDF fractions. The potential use of these fiber preparations was discussed.

  Influence of traditional Chinese anti-inflammatory medicinal plants on leukocyte and platelet functions.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;55(9):1275-82. Prieto JM, Recio MC, Giner RM, Manez S, Giner-Larza EM, Rios JL. Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.

 The enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and elastase are therapeutic targets in dermatological disorders such as psoriasis. Fifteen extracts from traditional Chinese medicinal plants used to treat topical inflammations were screened for their inhibitory effect on lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase and elastase activity in intact leukocytes and platelets. Astragalus membranaceus, Forsythia suspensa and Poria cocos inhibited 5-lipoxygenase, with IC50 values of 141, 80 and 141 microg mL(-1), respectively. The latter two species, along with Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescens, also inhibited elastase (IC50 values of 80, 123, 68 and 93 microg mL(-1), respectively), while A. pubescens, Atractylodes macrocephala, Lentinus edodes, Rehmannia glutinosa and Paeonia lactiflora selectively inhibited 12-(S)-HHTrE production, a valid marker of cyclooxygenase activity. The inhibition of phospholipase A(2) activity by P. cocos is discussed. Dehydrotumulosic and pachymic acids, which have been isolated from P. cocos, were shown to inhibit leukotriene B(4) release. The results indicate that both P. cocos and F. suspensa are potentially valuable species in the management of skin pathologies involving chronic inflammation.

  Polysaccharide isolated from Poria cocos sclerotium induces NF-kappaB/Rel activation and iNOS expression in murine macrophages.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Oct;3(10-11):1353-62. Lee KY, Jeon YJ. Department of Pharmacology, Chosun University College of Medicine, 375 Susukdong, Kwangju 501-709, South Korea.

 We show that PCSC, a polysaccharide isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos with 1% sodium carbonate, significantly induces nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) transcription through the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB/Rel (NF-kappaB/Rel). In vivo administration of PCSC induced NO production by peritoneal macrophages of B6C3F1 mice. PCSC also dose-dependently induced the production of NO in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Moreover, iNOS protein and mRNA transcription were strongly induced by PCSC in RAW 264.7 cells. To further investigate the mechanism responsible for the induction of iNOS gene expression, we investigated the effect of PCSC on the activation of transcription factors including NF-kappaB/Rel and Oct, whose binding sites were located in the promoter of iNOS gene. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with PCSC produced strong induction of NF-kappaB/Rel-dependent reporter gene expression, whereas Oct-dependent gene expression was not affected by PCSC. DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB/Rel was significantly induced by PCSC, and this effect was mediated through the degradation of IkappaBalpha. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PCSC stimulates macrophages to express iNOS gene through the activation of NF-kappaB/Rel.
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  Antitumor activities of heteropolysaccharides of Poria cocos mycelia from different strains and culture media.:Carbohydr Res. 2003 Jul 4;338(14):1517-21. Jin Y, Zhang L, Zhang M, Chen L, Cheung PC, Oi VE, Lin Y.Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

 Ten water-soluble heteropolysaccharide fractions were isolated from Poria cocos mycelia cultured from one wild and one cultivated strain in two identical culture media differing only in one component: either corn steep liquor or bran extract. The chemical compositions, including monosaccharide profile, protein content, and molecular mass M(w) of the mycelial polysaccharides were determined. Both the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of the heteropolysaccharides were evaluated and compared. The heteropolysaccharides from Poria cocos mycelia cultured with the wild strain in a medium containing corn steep liquor exhibited the highest antitumor activities against Sarcoma 180 in vivo.

  Effect of culture media on the chemical and physical characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from Poria cocos mycelia.:Carbohydr Res. 2003 Jul 4;338(14):1507-15. Jin Y, Zhang L, Chen L, Chen Y, Cheung PC, Chen L. Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, PR China.

 Mycelia of a wild strain Poria cocos were cultured in two media differing in one constituent: bran extract or corn steep liquor, and are designated as wb and wc, respectively. Six polysaccharide fractions were isolated sequentially from the two mycelia by 0.9% NaCl (PCM1), hot water (PCM2), 0.5 M NaOH (PCM3-I and -II) and 88% formic acid (PCM4-I and -II). Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined by infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography (GC), 13C NMR, light scattering (LS) and viscometry. The results indicated that wb-, wc-PCM1, and PCM2 were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of alpha-D-glucose, mannose, and galactose, whereas wb-PCM3-I and wc-PCM3-I were mainly (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans, and wb- and wc-PCM3-II, PCM4-I and PCM4-II were (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Interestingly, (1-->3) alpha- and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans co-existed in the 0.5 M NaOH fraction and were separated individually into the two fractions (PCM3-I and PCM3-II) after neutralizing with acetic acid. The polysaccharides from wc-PCM cultured in media containing corn steep liquor contained relatively more protein. The polysaccharide fractions also existed in conformations including random coil (as in PCM0 and PCM1) and expanded chain (as in PCM3), and differed molecular mass. In addition, two exo-polysaccharides isolated from the two culture media by methanol precipitation (wb- and wc-PCM0) also differed in their monosaccharide composition.

  The antiplatelet activity of Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan, Korean traditional formulation, is mediated through inhibition of phospholipase C and inhibition of TxB(2) synthetase activity.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jul;3(7):971-8. Park WH, Kim KS, Kim KH, Kim DS, Kim CH. Department of Biochemistry, Dongguk University COM, Kyungbuk Kyungju 780-714, South Korea.

 Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH), consisting of herbes of Cinnamomi ramulus (Geiji), Poria cocos (Bokryun), Mountan cortex radicis (Mokdanpi), Paeoniae radix (Jakyak), and Persicae semen (Doin), on antiplatelet activity in human platelet suspensions was studied. The mechanism involved in the antiplatelet activity of GBH in human platelet suspensions was investigated. GBH did not significantly affect the thromboxane synthetase activity of aspirin-treated platelet microsomes and GBH (15 and 30 microg/ml) significantly inhibited [3H]arachidonic acid released in collagen-activated platelets but not in unactivated-platelets. Nitric oxide (NO) production in human platelets was measured by a chemiluminesence detection method in this study. GBH did not significantly affect nitrate production in collagen (10 microg/ml)-induced human platelet aggregation. Various concentrations of GBH (0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 microg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited [3H]inositol monophosphate formation stimulated by collagen (10 microg/ml) in [3H]myoinositol-loaded platelets at different incubation times (1, 2, 3, and 5 min). These results indicated that the antiplatelet activity of GBH may possibly be due to the inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) activity, leading to reduce phosphoinositide breakdown, followed by the inhibition of thromboxane A(2) formation, and then inhibition of [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization of platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists. In conclusion, GBH suppressed PLC in a dose-dependent manner, and may have pharmaceutical applications. These data suggest that GBH extracts merit investigation as a potential anti-atherosclerogenic agent in humans.

  Study on HPLC fingerprint of the triterpene acids in Poria cocos:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Oct;27(10):756-8. Chinese. Ding G, Wang ZZ, Zhang CF, Sheng LS. Center for Instrumental Analysis, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China. dingg2000@mail.china.com

 OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for HPLC fingerprint determination of the triterpene acids in Poria cocos. METHOD: RP-HPLC, linear gradient elution and LC/MS, etc. were used to optimize the fingerprint determination method, and identify the main peaks in the HPLC fingerprint. RESULT: A preferable method for HPLC fingerprint determination of the triterpene acids in P. cocos was established, and 9 peaks in the HPLC fingerprint were identified. CONCLUSION: A general acquaintance of the triterpene acids in P. cocos can be obtained by using the preferable HPLC fingerprint determination method, which is useful for quality evaluation of the crud drug of P. cocos.

  A water-extract of the Korean traditional formulation Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan reduces atherosclerosis and hypercholesteremia in cholesterol-fed rabbits.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 May;3(5):723-34. Kim BJ, Kim YK, Park WH, Ko JH, Lee YC, Kim CH. National Research Laboratory for Glycobiology, Korean Ministry of Science and Technology, Kyungju, Kyungbuk 780-714, South Korea.

 Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH), a drug preparation consisting of five herbs of Cinnamomi Ramulus (Geiji), Poria Cocos (Bokryun), Mountan Cortex Radicis (Mokdanpi), Paeoniae Radix (Jakyak) and Persicae Semen (Doin), is a traditional Korean herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related disorders. A water extract of GBH was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation more effectively than probucol, a well-known commercially available antioxidant. In order to evaluate the anti-atherogenic potential of this medication, New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were fed a normal diet for 12 weeks, a high cholesterol diet, a high cholesterol diet containing 1% probucol or a high cholesterol diet containing 5% water-soluble extract of GBH. Both GBH and probucol reduced plasma cholesterol levels. LDLs from the GBH-treated group were more resistant to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation and contained more vitamin E than LDLs from the high cholesterol diet group. Endothelial damage, determined at week 6, was reduced by 55% in the GBH group (P<0.01). GBH treatment reduced an atherosclerotic area in the abdominal aorta by 58% (P<0.05) and cholesterol deposition in the thoracic aorta by 55% (P<0.05). The severity of atherosclerosis in the GBH group was significantly reduced after an adjustment using cholesterol exposure as an index of the cholesterol-lowering effect. On the other hand, diet-induced hyperlipidemic rabbits were given water extract of GBH in doses of 50 (Group B) and 200 mg/kg (Group C) and compared with controls (Group A). At 40 days after intervention in groups A, B and C, total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly lowered (P<0.01). LDL/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio was also significantly decreased (P<0.01). This study concludes that the reduction in atherosclerosis by GBH relies not only on its cholesterol-lowering effect but also more heavily on its antioxidant potential, which prevents endothelial damage and inhibits LDL oxidative modification in hypercholesterolemic animals.
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  Immunological study on the antitumor effects of fungus polysaccharides compounds.:Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2000 May 30;29(3):178-80. Chinese. Liu C, Gao P, Qian J, Yan W. Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021, China.

 Fungus polysaccharides compounds (FPC) are the mixture of procyanidins oligomers, glycyrrhetinicacid and polysaccharides of hericium erinaceus, lentinus edodes and poria cocos. The antitumor effects of FPC and its immunity regulating effects as an immunostimulant on the mice burdened with sarcoma 180 (S-180) were studied. FPC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW) was gavaged to mice for 31 days. S-180 was transplanted to these mice on the 21th day. Lentinus edodes group was gavaged 200 mg/kg BW saccharine of lentinus edodes. The results showed that FPC could inhibit the growth of S-180 effectively. The inhibitory rates were 37.74%, 44.73% and 48.32% respectively. The antineoplastic activity of FPC (200 mg/kg. BW) was more effective than polysaccharide of lentinus edodes at the same dose. In S-180 burdened mice, the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2, NK activity and the induced IL-2, IFN-gamma levels were decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. As an immunostimulant, FPC could increase the percentage of L3T4 and the ratio of L3T4/Lyt-2 in S-180 burdened mice, but had no significant effects on the percentage of Lyt-2. Polysaccharide of lentinus edodes alone could also increase the immunity competence of mice burdened with S-180, but was not better than that of FPC at the same dose. It could be concluded that the compound of antineoplastic component could be synergetic.

  Inhibitory effects of triterpenes isolated from Hoelen on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells.:Phytother Res. 2003 Feb;17(2):160-2.

 Hoelen, sclederma of Poria cocos Wolf, has long been used as a sedative and diuretic in traditional medicine. Formerly, we demonstrated that Hoelen in vitro protects red blood cells from AAPH-induced hemolysis. In this study, tests were carried out to identify the main ingredient of Hoelen that has the scavenging effect on free-radicals. Triterpene carboxylic acids isolated from the methanol extract of Hoelen, i.e. pachymic acid, polyporenic acid, 3-epidehydrotumulosic acid, 3beta-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-21-oic acid and 3-o-acetyl-16 alpha -hydroxytrametenolic acid, were found to have inhibitory activities against AAPH-induced lysis of red blood cells.

  Triterpenes isolated from Poria cocos by derivazations.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Apr;25(4):247-50. Chinese. Zhong Z, Liu J. Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100050.

 The separation of triterpene acids was achieved from Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf by TLC after treatment with Ph2CNN or RX under mild condition followed by selective hydrolysis of ester groupings. Three triterpene acids, 3 beta-acetoxyl-16 alpha-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24(31)-diene-21-oic acid (I), 3-oxo-16 alpha-hydroxy-lanosta-7,9(11), 24(31)-trien-21-oic acid (II) and 3 beta, 16 alpha-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11), 24(31)-trien-21-oic acid (III) were isolated.

  Evaluation of herbal formulas by pulse analysis method.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Feb;24(2):145-51. Wang WK, Hsu TL, Bau JG, Wang-Lin YY. Biophysics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, China.

 AIM: To distinguish the component difference between two similar herbal formulas by pulse analysis method. Many Chinese herbs were found to have specific effects on the Fourier components of the blood pressure pulse; it might infer a specific blood redistribution process on the body and reflect the health conditions of specific organs or tissues. The pulse effect of an herbal formula was similar to the linear combination of all its herbal compositions. METHODS: Two different versions of the herbal formula Liu-Wei-Dihuang were fed to the Wistar rats as a single blind test. The blood pressure pulses on the rat tail artery were recorded and then transformed to the frequency domain by Fourier analyzer. RESULTS: Formula A, Bai-Wei-Dihuang, with two more herbs Cortex Cinnamomi and Radix Aconiti added to Liu-Wei-Dihuang, increased the harmonic proportion of the 1st harmonic (C1) but decreased C4, C5. Formula B is composed in the same way but without Rhizoma Batatatis and Poria cocos; it increased the DC of the pulse spectrum (C0), but decreased C2, C3, C4, C5, C6. CONCLUSION: The component adjustment of an herbal formula could be distinctly and quantitatively detected by pulse analysis method.

  Inhibitory activity of Dianthus superbus L. and 11 kinds of diuretic Traditional Chinese medicines for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000 Oct;25(10):628-30. Chinese. Li JJ, Tu YY, Tong JZ, Wang PT.Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To detect the susceptibility of urogenital chlamydia trachomatis(CT) to 12 kinds of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of these medicines for CT was detected by microculture technique of McCoy cell in vitro. RESULTS: All the 12 kinds of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines had inhibitory activities for urogenital CT, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 0.122 mg.ml-1 to 62.5 mg.ml-1. The activities of Dianthus superbus L., Poria cocos(Shcw.) Woft, Polyporus umbellatus and Artemissia capillaris were stronger. The number and volume of CT inclusions reduced gradually and disappeared finally with the rise of concentration. CONCLUSION: All the 12 kinds of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines possess some inhibitory activity for urogenital CT.
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  Over-the-counter sleeping pills: a survey of use in Hong Kong and a review of their constituents.:Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2002 Nov-Dec;24(6):430-5. Review. Chung KF, Lee CK. Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. kfchung@hucc.hku.hk

 This study examined the composition of over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills in Hong Kong and reviewed the current knowledge about the hypnotic efficacy and safety of their major herbal and dietary supplement constituents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of OTC sleep aids at drug stores in a residential district of 0.3 million population and literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China Journal Net, China Biomedical Database and relevant English and Chinese literature. We identified 17 brands of OTC sleeping pill: eleven of them were composed of mixtures of Chinese and Western herbal agents and six brands contained 3 mg of melatonin. The Chinese herbal mixture suanzaorentang, comprising zizyphi spinosi semen, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii, anemarrhenae rhizoma and glycyrrhizae radix in ratio of 7:5:2:1:1, was the most common OTC sleeping pill available in the survey. Our literature review showed that kava, valerian and melatonin were the better-researched herbs and dietary supplements, however, the data on hypnotic efficacy and safety was inadequate to support their clinical use. More rigorous investigations of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal agents and dietary supplements used for insomnia are needed.

  Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth by medical plant extracts.:Fitoterapia. 2002 Dec;73(7-8):569-75. Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Rios JL, Buschiazzo H, Zaidenberg A. Cátedra de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calles 60 y 120, La Plata 1900, Argentina. schinell@lacasilla.com.ar

 This study describes the screening of extracts obtained from 18 plants and two fungi used in the Chinese and Mediterranean traditional medicines on epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The extracts were tested against epimastigote of T. cruzi Bra C15C2 clone in vitro at 27 degrees C and at a concentration of 250 microg/ml in axenic culture. Angelica dahurica, A. pubescens, A. sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Coptis chinensis, Haplophyllum hispanicum, Phellodendron amurense, Poria cocos, Ranunculus sceleratus and Scutellaria baicalensis showed significant effects against the parasite with a percentage of growth inhibition between 20 and 100%. C. chinensis and R. sceleratus showed the greatest activity with IC(50) values of 1.7 microg/ml for C. chinensis and 10.7 microg/ml for R. sceleratus. These activities are greater than that of allopurinol. C. chinesis and R. sceleratus extracts did not show cytotoxic effects on rat polimorphonuclear cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactic dehydrogenase assays. These results allowed us to suggest that R. sceleratus and C. chinensis could be a source of new compounds clinically active against T. cruzi.

  The isolation, identification and determination of dehydrotumulosic acid in Poria cocos.:Anal Sci. 2002 May;18(5):529-31. Song Z, Bi K, Luo X, Chan K. Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, PR China

 Poria cocos (Fuling), a popular Chinese medicinal (CM) herb of fungal origin, has been included in many combinations with other CM herbs for its traditionally claimed activities of inducing diuresis, excreting dampness, invigorating the spleen and tranquilizing the mind and its modern pharmacological use of modulating the immune system of the body. Dehydrotumulosic acid, one of the effective constituents of Fuling, was isolated from the chloroform-soluble material of ethanol extract of the fungus. After further purification by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method on a C18 column, the purified constituent was identified using modern analytical techniques, such as UV, 13C-NMR and EI-MS. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of dehydrotumulosic acid in Poria cocos. The determination can be accomplished in less than 50 min using methanol-acetonitrile-2% glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a UV detector setting at 242 nm and testosterone propionate used as an internal standard. This assay for dehydrotumulosic acid is simple, rapid and with good reproducibility.

  Inhibition of tumor-promoting effects by poricoic acids G and H and other lanostane-type triterpenes and cytotoxic activity of poricoic acids A and G from Poria cocos.:J Nat Prod. 2002 Apr;65(4):462-5.

 The structures of two novel 3,4-seco-lanostane-type triterpenes isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos were established to be 16alpha-hydroxy-3,4-seco-lanosta-4(28),8,24-triene-3,21-dioic acid (1; poricoic acid G) and 16alpha-hydroxy-3,4-seco-24-methyllanosta-4(28),8,24(24(1))-triene-3,21-dioic acid (2; poricoic acid H) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. These two, and eight other known compounds isolated from the sclerotium, poricoic acid B (3), poricoic acid A (4), tumulosic acid (5), dehydrotumulosic acid (6), 3-epidehydrotumulosic acid (7), polyporenic acid C (8), 25-hydroxy-3-epidehydrotumulosic acid (9), and dehydroabietic acid methyl ester (10), showed potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 4 against human cancer cell lines revealed that 1 was significantly cytotoxic to leukemia HL-60 cells [GI(50) (concentration that yields 50% growth) value 39.3 nM], although it showed only moderate cytotoxicity to the other cells. Compound 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity to all of the cancer cell lines tested.

  Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts.:Life Sci. 2002 Jan 18;70(9):1023-33. Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Mordujovich de Buschiazzo P, Rios JL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. schinell@lacasilla.com.ar

 The antioxidant properties of twenty medical herbs used in the traditional Mediterranean and Chinese medicine were studied. Extracts from Forsythia suspensa, Helichrysum italicum, Scrophularia auriculata, Inula viscosa, Coptis chinensis, Poria cocos and Scutellaria baicalensis had previously shown anti-inflammatory activity in different experimental models. Using free radical-generating systems H. italicum. I. viscosa and F. suspensa protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in model membranes and also showed scavenging property on the superoxide radical. All extracts were assayed at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Most of the extracts were weak scavengers of the hydroxyl radical and C. chinensis and P. cocos exhibited the highest scavenging activity. Although S. baicalensis inhibited the lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and red blood cells, the extract showed inhibitory actions on aminopyrine N-demethylase and xanthine oxidase activities as well as an pro-oxidant effect observed in the Fe3+-EDTA-H2O2 system. The results of the present work suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of the same extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant properties.
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  Dehydrotrametenolic acid induces preadipocyte differentiation and sensitizes animal models of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to insulin.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Jan;25(1):81-6.

 We recently discovered that the triterpene acid compound dehydrotrametenolic acid promotes adipocyte differentiation in vitro and acts as an insulin sensitizer in vivo. This natural product has been isolated from dried sclerotia of Poria cocos WOLF (Polyporaceae), a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant. We examined the effects of dehydrotrametenolic acid on plasma glucose concentration in obese hyperglycemic db/db mice. Dehydrotrametenolic acid can reduce hyperglycemia in mouse models of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and act as an insulin sensitizer as indicated by the results of the glucose tolerance test. These terpenoids and thiazolidine type of antidiabetic agents such as Ciglitazone, although structurally unrelated, share many biological activities: both induce adipose conversion, activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in vitro, and reduce hyperglycemia in animal models of NIDDM. Dehydrotrametenolic acid is a promising candidate for a new type of insulin-sensitizing drug. This finding is very important for the development of insulin sensitizers that are not of the thiazolidine type.

  Antioxidant activity of qizhu tang.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Dec;21(12):1141-4. Wang XJ, Feng P. Beijing Union University, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology College, Beijing 100013, China. Wang-xj@netease.com

 AIM: To study the antioxidant, activity of Qizhu Tang (QZT) both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: QZT consists of 4 herbal constituents (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Poria cocos, Kadix Notoginseng, and Radix Astragali), each of the components and their combinations were examined in vitro for 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and for the inhibition of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat liver homogenate. At the same time, their in vivo protective effect on cerebral ischemia-areperfusion injury was determined in rats. RESULTS: Only the preparations having a higher antioxidant activity comparable to QZT in all three in vitro assays were relatively active in vivo both for TBARS inhibition and glutathione peroxidase preservation, although the activities were much lower than that of QZT as a whole. CONCLUSION: QZT formula is a good natural antioxidant having an effective preventive effect against cerebral ischemia reperfusion damage.

  Effect of water extract of Poria on cytosolic free calcium concentration in brain nerve cells of neonatal rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1998 May;18(5):293-5. Chinese. Chen W, An W, Chu J. Department of Pharmacology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053.

 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Poria cocos, a Chinese medicinal herb, on cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in brain nerve cells of neonatal rats. METHODS: Double-wave-length fluorospectrophotometer and laser confocal scanning microscope were used to measure the [Ca2+]i in neurons. RESULTS: The water extract of poria (31-250 mg/L) induced a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i, but poria at the range of 500 mg/L did not cause [Ca2+]i to increase. It was also shown that the water extract of poria significantly inhibited the increment of [Ca2+]i induced by 500 mumol/L glutamate. The similar results were observed from the experiments in primarily cultured hippcampal neurons of neonatial rats by using laser confocal scanning microscope. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of Poria cocos has the effect of bidirectional regulation on cytosolic free calcium in brain nerve cells.

  Evaluating the basidiomycetes Poria medula-panis and Wolfiporia cocos for xylanase production.:Enzyme Microb Technol. 2001 Apr 5;28(6):522-526. Milagres AM, Sales RM. Department of Biotechnology, Faculdade de Engenharia Química de Lorena, CP 116, 12600-000, Lorena, SP, Brazil

 Xylanase, oxidative enzymes and iron-binding compounds were detected in the filtrates of Wolfiporia cocos and Poria medula-panis grown in wheat bran liquid medium. Xylanase and iron-binding compounds were produced at high levels by the brown-rot fungus (BR) W. cocos and at low levels by the white-rot fungus (WR) P. medula-panis. Phenoloxidase was produced only by P. medula-panis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) (SDS-PAGE) showed a wide variety of bands for extracellular proteins produced by W.cocos, with low molecular weight (<30 kDa) and minor bands with molecular weight above 45 kDa. Two bands with xylanase activity derived from W. cocos extracts were detected in the gels, whereas many different bands with xylanase activity were found in the extracts from P. medula-panis. P. medula-panis is a selective lignin degrader, whereas W. cocos preferentially removes cellulose from wood.

  Antidepressant effects of Banxia Houpu decoction, a traditional Chinese medicinal empirical formula.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):277-81. Luo L, Nong Wang J, Kong LD, Jiang QG, Tan RX.Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, 210093, Nanjing, PR China.

 Banxia Houpu Decoction, having been used for the treatment of depression-related diseases since ancient times, is a traditional Chinese medicinal empirical formula consisting of Pinellia ternata, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis, Perilla frutescens and Zingiber officinale. The effects of the total decoction extract and five fractions therefrom, were evaluated in mice by tail suspension and forced swimming tests. The total 90% ethanol extract of the decoction was shown to possess an antidepressant activity that was close to that of Prozac, an antidepressant agent being applied clinically. Furthermore, the active principles were desmonstrated to be mainly in the aqueous (Bx4) and lipophic (Bx5) parts of the decoction extract while the polyphenol fraction (Bx2) exhibited a moderate action.
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  On the anti-inflammatory and anti-phospholipase A(2) activity of extracts from lanostane-rich species.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):61-9. Giner-Larza EM, Manez S, Giner-Pons RM, Carmen Recio M, Rios JL. Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

 We have studied extracts from three species rich in lanostane triterpenes for their activity against different in vivo models of inflammation induced by TPA, EPP and PLA(2). The inhibitory effect against PLA(2) in vitro was also studied. When the Poria cocos extract was tested against PLA(2)-induced mouse paw edema, it was active by the oral and parenteral routes. Its effect was greater in both magnitude and duration than that of Pistacia terebinthus and Ganoderma lucidum extracts. P. terebinthus was effective against chronic and acute inflammation, and according to a preliminary chromatographic analysis, its seems to be a good source of lanostane anti-inflammatory agents. G. lucidum was the least effective of the three species studied and, unlike the other two, failed to inhibit the activity of PLA(2) in vitro.

  Observation on the effects of Chinese medicine zhenxuanyin for improving cerebral blood flow in rats with cerebral ischemia.:J Tradit Chin Med. 1997 Dec;17(4):299-303.

 Zhenxuanyin [symbol: see text] is composed of pure Chinese medicinal herbs, such as gastrodia tuber, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii etc. 4-verssel occlusion (4VO) model rats were reperfused after 30 minutes' complete occlusion, and Zhenxuanyin was administered 3 times a day. 24 hours later, 123I-IMP uptake in the brain was evaluated as an index of cerebral blood flow (CBF). The results show that Zhenxuanyin (0.03 g/kg, 0.3 g/kg, 1 g/kg, or 3 g/kg a day) can greatly improve the blood flow in the main cerebral regions, and 0.3 g/kg can increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the normal level.

  Sulphorhodamine B assay for measuring proliferation of a pigmented melanocyte cell line and its application to the evaluation of crude drugs used in the treatment of vitiligo.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Aug;66(2):141-50. Lin ZX, Hoult JR, Raman A. Institute of Chinese Medicine, London, UK.

 A rapid 96-well plate assay using sulphorhodamine B (SRB) protein stain for cell number has been adopted to screen herbs used in traditional treatments of vitiligo for substances capable of stimulating melanocyte proliferation. Its applicability to melan-a cells, a mouse pigmented cell line, has been validated. SRB assay produced good linearity up to 11 x 10(4) cells/well and interference by melanin present in the cells accounted for less than 10% of the total optical density readings. The intra-assay variation was small but interassay variation was marked. For better assay precision, it is recommended that the results to be compared should be performed on the same day and controls should be plated in the same experiment, ideally in the same plate. Optimum conditions for exponential melan-a cell growth were established: viz. initial plating density (3-8 x 10(3) cells/well), incubation period (4 days) and foetal bovine serum concentration (5%). Under these conditions cells were responsive to the mitogen tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA). Out of 28 herbal extracts screened in this assay, significant stimulation (P < 0.05) of melanocyte proliferation was observed, in the absence of TPA, using aqueous extracts of Astragalus membranaceous root, Citrus reticulata peel, Dictamnus dasycarpus root bark. Ophiopogon japonicus root, Poria cocos sclerotium and Tribulus terrestris fruit.

  3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid from Poria cocos, and its anti-inflammatory effect.:Phytochemistry. 1998 Aug;48(8):1357-60.

 The structure of a new triterpene derivative isolated from Poria cocos was determined to be 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid by spectral and chemical methods. 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid showed marked inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear inflammation in mice. The 50% inhibitory doses of 3 beta-p-hydroxybenzoyldehydrotumulosic acid were 0.27 and 1.25 mg per ear on TPA- and AA-induced inflammation, respectively.

  Liu-wei-dihuang: a study by pulse analysis.:Am J Chin Med. 1998;26(1):73-82. Wang WK, Hsu TL, Wang YY. Biophysics Laboratory, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

 Pulse analysis method was used in studying the traditional Chinese formula Liu-Wei-Dihuang as well as five of its main components (Rehmannia glutinosa, Cornus officinalis, Paeonia Suffruticosa, Poria cocos and Alisma plantogo-aquatica var oriental). Based on our recently developed resonance theory, we tried to elucidate the mechanism and mutual reactions of these meridian related herbs. Hot water herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally into rats and the pressure pulse spectrum at the caudate artery was measured. The results of this study indicated that Liu-Wei-Dihuang mildly increased blood flow to meridians with lower resonance frequency: namely the liver C1, the kidney C2 and the spleen C3; but decreased blood flow to the higher resonance frequency organs and meridians: the lung C4, the stomach C5, the gall bladder C6, and the bladder C7. It also decreased the heart load C0. All of the five herb components increased blood flow to the kidney C2 and the spleen C3; but their effects on the high frequency organs varied. Alisma plantogo-aquatica var. oriental decreased the C0, C5, C6, C7; Poria cocos decreased C1, C4, C5, C6; Rehmannia glutinosa, Paeonia Suffruticosa decreased C0, C4, C5, C6, C7; Cornus officinalis increased C4 but decreased C0, C5, C6, C7.
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  Effect of the basidiomycete Poria cocos on experimental dermatitis and other inflammatory conditions.:Chem Pharm Bull. 1997 Mar;45(3):492-4.Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de València, Spain.

 The hydroalcoholic extract from P. cocos was examined for oral and topical anti-inflammatory activities. It proved to be active against carrageenan, arachidonic acid, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) acute edemas, TPA chronic inflammation and oxazolone delayed hypersensitivity in mice. Two lanostane-type triterpenes were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods as dehydrotumulosic and pachymic acids. Their ID50 on acute TPA edema was 4.7 x 10(-3) and 6.8 x 10(-4) mumol/ear, respectively.

  Comparative test on spawn culture materials of Poria cocos.:Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Jan;20(1):1-2. Chinese. He H, Shi W, Song Z, Wang Q, Tong Y. Anhui Agricultural Technical and Teachers College, Fengyang 233100.

 It saves much time, work and timber when Poria cocos spawn is made from cottonseed hulls and pine sawdust. Compared with the yields from pine wood chip, the difference is not significant.

  Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.:J Nat Prod. 1996 Oct;59(10):977-9. Cuella MJ, Giner RM, Recio MC, Just MJ, Manez S, Rios JL. Departament de Farmacologia, Universitat de València, vda,. Spain.

 The hydroalcoholic extract of Poria cocos and two lanostane derivatives isolated from it, pachymic acid (1) and dehydrotumulosic acid (2), were active as inhibitors of phospholipase A2 from snake venom when a polarographic method was used. Dehydrotumulosic acid exhibited an IC50 of 0.845 mM. These two compounds are structurally related to certain triterpenoids from Ganoderma and Schinus that have previously been described as competitive inhibitors of phospholipase A2. These comprise a new group of natural potential antiinflammatory agents due to their interaction with that enzyme.

  Inhibitory effects of lanostane-type triterpene acids, the components of Poria cocos, on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.:Oncology. 1996 Sep-Oct;53(5):382-5.

 Pachymic acid, 3-O-acetyl-16 alpha-hydroxytrametenolic acid, and poricoic acid B had been isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos Wolf. These compounds showed a strong inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation in mice. At 0.2 mumol/mouse, these compounds markedly inhibited the promoting effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1 microgram/mouse) on skin tumor formation following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (50 micrograms/mouse).

  Isolation of inhibitors of TPA-induced mouse ear edema from Hoelen, Poria cocos.:Chem Pharm Bull . 1996 Apr;44(4):847-9.

 Triterpene carboxylic acids were isolated from the methanol extract of Hoelen, Poria cocos, and found to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TAP)-induced mouse ear edema. Their chemical structures were identified as 3 beta,-16 alpha-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid, 16 alpha-hydroxydehydropachymic acid, 16 alpha-hydroxytrametenolic acid and dehydrotumulosic acid.
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  Fu-Ling, a Chinese herbal drug, modulates cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood monocytes.:Int J Immunopharmacol. 1996 Jan;18(1):37-44.Department of Biology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei.

 Fu-Ling, the sclederma of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, has long been used as a sedative and diuretic in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Our study demonstrated that the substances extracted from Fu-Ling by 50% hot ethanol significantly augmented the secretion of interleukins IL-1 beta and IL-6 6 h after in vitro cultivation of human peripheral blood monocytes. The augmented effect was dose dependent. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion was also increased as the cells were treated with 0.4 mg/ml or higher doses of Fu-Ling extract. By contrast, Fu-Ling extract significantly suppressed the secretion of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) 3 h after the in vitro drug treatment. The suppressive effect was shown at doses as low as 0.2 mg/ml of Fu-Ling extract. Since Fu-Ling extract enhanced the secretion of immune stimulators (IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) but suppressed the secretion of an immune suppressor (TGF-beta), the substance in 50% hot ethanol extract of Fu-Ling might have potentiated the immune response. Fu-Ling extract was further fractionated by reverse-phase column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The components showing activity in modulating the cytokine secretion were relatively high in hydrophobicity.

  Anti-emetic principles of Poria cocos.:Planta Med. 1995 Dec;61(6):527-30.

 The triterpenes isolated from P. cocos and their derivatives were examined for anti-emetic activity. Some of these triterpenes inhibited emetic action induced by oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard frog. The triterpenes having an exomethylene group at C-24 showed anti-emetic activity to frogs.

  Effects of poria cocos on ototoxicity induced by kanamycin in guinea-pigs.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Jul;15(7):422-3. Chinese. Liu YC, Liu GY, Liu RL. Weifang Medical College, Shandong.

 In order to prevent the ototoxicity of kanamycin (KM), the effects of Poria Cocos (PC) on the ototoxicity induced by KM in guinea-pigs was observed by infusing the PC decoction into the guinea-pigs with comparing the difference in the general intoxicating symptom, prayer's reflex (PR) threshold, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and the absence rate of outer hair cells in the first turn of cochlea. The results suggested that the ototoxicity of KM was retarded by giving the PC decoction. On 7th day after given KM, PR threshold of 4,6,8 kHz in the medicated group and control group were 4.7 +/- 1.5 dB, 5.7 +/- 2.4 dB, 2.7 +/- 1.2 dB and 10.5 +/- 3.2 dB, 12.1 +/- 3.7 dB, 8.5 +/- 2.7 dB respectively. BAEPs threshold on 13th day given KM raised 22.7 +/- 9.7 dB in the medicated group and 51.3 +/- 14.4 dB in control group. The absence rate of outer hair cells in first turn of cochlea were 39.4% and 67.4% respectively. The results suggested that PC might be antagonistic to the ototoxicity of KM in guinea-pigs.

  Hoelen (Poria Cocos Wolf) and ginseng (Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer), the ingredients of a Chinese prescription DX-9386, individually promote hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo.:Biol Pharm Bull. 1995 Apr;18(4):518-22.

 DX-9386 is a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription consisting of ginseng (Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer), polygala (Polygala Tenuifolia Willdenew), acorus (Acorus Gramineus Soland) and hoelen (Poria Cocos Wolf). We recently found that oral administration of the prescription at a dose of 500 mg/kg intensified the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentoff gyrus of anesthetized rats. To evaluate the individual contribution of separate ingredients in DX-9386 towards the observed biological activity, we investigated their direct influence upon LTP formation in vivo. A single oral administration of hoelen and ginseng (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly increased the spike amplitude evoked by a subthreshold tetanic stimulation at time intervals up to 30 min after tetanus. Only minor effects of polygala (500 mg/kg) and no influence of acorus up to 500 mg/kg were observed. No drugs affected the basal spike amplitude induced by a test stimulus. In addition, we ascertained that DX-9386 was also active at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Taken together, these results indicate that hoelen and ginseng are the active components of DX-9386 with regard to the enhancement of hippocampal LTP.

  Effect of improving memory and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity by invigorating-qi and warming-yang recipe.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Nov;13(11):675-6, 646. Chinese. Liu ZY, Yang YG, Zheng B. Hunan Institute of TCM, Changsha.

 Invigorating-Qi and Warming-Yang (IQWY) had a good curative effect to some senile diseases such as senile dementia, senile hypomnesia etc. This experiment was designed for probing into the therapeutical mechanism of IQWY recipe. BALB/C pure bred mice were divided into five groups. Group I was taken per os of invigorating Qi (IQ), Group II warming Yang (WY), Group III IQWY drugs, Group IV was dysmnesia model, and Group V blank control group injected with normal saline only. All groups except Group V were injected scopolamine (5mg/kg) intraperitoneally to induce dysmnesia model after medication. IQ drug consisted of Codonopsis pilosula, Astragalus membranaceus, Poria cocos, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, WY drug of Cynomorium songoricum, Epimedium brevicornum and Cuscuta chinensis, while IQWY recipe consisted of both IQ and WY drugs. The results showed that IQ, WY and IQWY had an evident antagonistic action to Scopolamine induced dysmnesia mice, and could improve their memory. The erroneous times of the animal's reaction in Group I, II and III were less than those in Group IV, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in the mice could be inhibited by IQ, WY and IQWY also. The activity in Group I, II and III was less than that in Group IV and V, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. The therapeutic mechanism of IQWY was in connection with its effect to M-cholinergic transmitters of central nervous system.
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  Studies on chemical constituents from solvent extracts of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Oct;18(10):613-4, 639. Chinese. Wang LY, Wan HJ, Chen LX, Zhang HM, Yu ZY. Hubei Provincial Institute of Chemistry, Wuhan.

 Crystals I-N were isolated from the ethereal extracts of Poria cocos and identified respectively as O-acetyl-pachymic acid (I), 3 beta-hydroxy-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid (II), beta-amyrin acetate (III) and 3 beta-hydroxy-16 alpha-acetoxy-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid (N). Crystal III was obtained from P. cocos for the first time, and crystal N was newly discovered.

  Shi-quan-da-bu-tang (ten significant tonic decoction), SQT. A potent Chinese biological response modifier in cancer immunotherapy, potentiation and detoxification of anticancer drugs.:Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Nov;14(9):725-36. Review. Zee-Cheng RK. Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City.

 Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang (Ten Significant Tonic Decoction), or SQT (Juzentaihoto, TJ-48) was formulated by Taiping Hui-Min Ju (Public Welfare Pharmacy Bureau) in Chinese Song Dynasty in AD 1200. It is prepared by extracting a mixture of ten medical herbs (Rehmannia glutinosa, Paeonia lactiflora, Liqusticum wallichii, Angelica sinesis, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Poria cocos, Atractylodes macrocephala, Panax ginseng. Astragalus membranaceus and Cinnamomum cassia) that tone the blood and vital energy, and strengthen health and immunity. This potent and popular prescription has traditionally been used against anemia, anorexia, extreme exhaustion, fatigue, kidney and spleen insufficiency and general weakness, particularly after illness. In order to restore immunity in cancer patients, potentiate the therapeutic effect and ameliorate adverse toxicity of anticancer agents, 116 Chinese herbal formularies (Kampo) have been screened and evaluated. Fifteen compounds were found to have such actions. Among these, SQT was selected as the most effective as a potent biological response modifier. During the last eight years, animal models and clinical studies have revealed that SQT demonstrates extremely low toxicity (LD50 > 15 g/kg op murine), self-regulatory and synergistic actions of its components in immunomodulatory and immunopotentiating effects (by stimulating hemopoietic factors and interleukins production in association with NK cells, etc.), potentiates therapeutic activity in chemotherapy (mitomycin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil) and radiotherapy, inhibits the recurrence of malignancies, prolongs survival, as well as ameliorate and/or prevents adverse toxicities (GI disturbances such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hematotoxicity, immunosuppression, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia and nephropathy, etc.) of many anticancer drugs. The application and mechanistic studies of SQT in future development have potential importance in basic and clinical research of the traditional Chinese therapeutic approach of "toning the blood and strengthening Qi (vital energy)" in cancer immunotherapy.

  Clinical study of rapid bladder filling agent.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1992 Sep;12(9):533-4, 517. Chinese. Li QD, Wang SQ, Sun CM. 1st Sanatorium of Qingdao, Jinan Military Region.

 The Rapid Bladder Filling Agent (RBFA) was prepared with Polyporus umbellatus, Poria cocos and Furosemidum. The urinary volume and the best filling time of urinary bladder were observed with ultrasonography in 211 cases. The result showed that in experimental group the largest urinary volume in unit time was more than that in control group and shortest filling time was shorter (30.35 +/- 7.9 min) in comparing with control group (145.6 +/- 50.1 min). Clinical observation for 1180 cases proved that the RBFA had the effects of raising the quality of ultrasonographic examination and escalating work efficiency, shortening the waiting time of patients and relieving patients' suffering from excessive filling of urinary bladder. The effective time of the RBFA was fast but the duration was short. The RBFA had no adverse effect.

  Studies on antinephritic effects of plant components (3): Effect of pachyman, a main component of Poria cocos Wolf on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats and its mechanisms.:Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 May;59(1):89-96.

 The antinephritic effect of pachyman on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats was investigated. Pachyman was given to original-type anti-GBM nephritic rats for 10 days from the day of anti-GBM serum injection. Pachyman prevented urinary protein excretion and the elevation of serum cholesterol content. Histopathological observations of the glomeruli indicated that although the number of nuclei and adhesion to capillary walls of Bowman's capsule in nephritic control rats were significantly increased, pachyman reduced the degree of histopathological changes such as hypercellularity and adhesion as compared to the control group. Although the serum complement CH50 ratio in control group was significantly lower than that in the normal group, the decrease in serum complement CH50 was inhibited by pachyman, and rat C3 deposition in the glomeruli in the pachyman-treated group was significantly reduced. These results suggest that pachyman was effective against original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats and that the antinephritic mechanisms of pachyman may be partly due to the inhibitory action of this agent on C3 deposition in the glomeruli.

  Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor secretion from human monocytes by an extract of Poria cocos.:Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1992 Feb;25(1):1-11. Tseng J, Chang JG. Department of Biology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, ROC.

 Fu-Ling, the sclederma of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, has long been used as a sedative and diuretic. However, data in this report suggest that Fu-Ling is a potential suppressor of cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood monocytes under in vitro condition. Monocyte culture medium containing 10% of Fu-Ling extract significantly inhibited secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-beta, IL-6 and GM-CSF from the monocyte monolayer. However, as Fu-Ling extract content was gradually reduced, cytokine secretion was augmented in comparison with the cytokine secretion in drug-free controls. This augmentative effect resulted from the trace amount (1.24 ng/ml in 0.62% of Fu-Ling extract) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which contaminated the Fu-Ling extract during the preparation process, since TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion induced by 0.62% Fu-Ling extract could be significantly inhibited by polymyxin B, an LPS inhibitor. Furthermore, the amounts of TNF-alpha IL-1 beta and IL-6 induced by 1 ng/ml of LPS without the presence of drug were more than that induced by 0.62% of Fu-Ling extract. Thus, cytokine secretion induced by LPS contamination (1.24 ng/ml) in the Fu-Ling extract was partially suppressed by 0.62% of the Fu-Ling extract itself. GM-CSF secretion in the medium containing 0.62% of Fu-Ling extract was not induced by LPS since: a) GM-CSF induced by 0.62% Fu-Ling extract could not be inhibited by polymyxin B; b) LPS at 1 ng/ml showed no activity indicating induction of GM-CSF secretion.
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  Pharmacotherapeutic effects of kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (keishi-bukuryo-gan) on human uterine myomas.:Am J Chin Med. 1992;20(3-4):313-7.

 Kuei-chih-fu-ling-wan (Keishi-bukuryo-gan; KBG), a traditional Chinese herbal remedy contains five components: bark of Cinnamomum cassia Bl. (Lauraceae), root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Paeoniaceae), seed of Prunus persica Batsch. or P. persiba Batsch.var.davidiana Maxim. (Rosaceae), carpophores of Poria cocos Wolf. (Polyporaceae), and root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (Paeoniaceae). This prescription has been frequently used in the treatment of gynecological disorders such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and sterility. We previously reported that KBG might act as a LH-RH antagonist and a weak anti-estrogen on the uterine DNA synthesis in immature rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of KBG on 110 premenopausal patients with uterine myomas. Clinical symptoms of hypermenorrhea and dysmenorrhea were improved in more than 90% of the cases with shrinking of uterine myomas in roughly 60% of the cases.

  Clinical and experimental study on the treatment of children diarrhea by granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Feb;11(2):79-82, 67. Chinese. Li YL. Henan College of TCM, Zhengzhou.

 Granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping is a proved recipe composed of seven medical herbs such as Poria cocos, haw charcoal, Euphorbia humifusa, etc. After more 20 years' clinical application of 419 cases, the total effective rate proved to be 96.4% and the cure rate 90%, much better than the control groups [TCM: gelian san and shenglingbaizhu san; WM: gentamycin and PPA]. It had the effect of fast-stopping diarrhea and shortening the recovery period. It also had excellent curative effect for acute and chronic diarrhea, for noninfective and infective diarrhea with virus or germs, and for the diarrhea due to moist heat and spleen weakness in TCM. Clinical tests and experiments showed that this medicine had no toxic or side effects. The diarrhea-cure mechanisms were (1) Inhibiting germs so as to eliminate pathogeny. (2) Adjusting and improving organism immunity function. (3) Accelerating the recovery of intestinal digestion and absorption functions. (4) Inhibiting intestinal movement.

  A clinical study on the treatment of acute upper digestive tract hemorrhage with wen-she decoction.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 May;9(5):272-3, 260. Chinese. Gong QM, Wang SL, Gan C.

 This paper deals with the prospective clinical study on treatment of acute upper digestive tract hemorrhage with Wen-She decoction (WSD). An opened sequential controlled trial method of simple orientation quality reaction was adopted in this study. 7 cases were treated and all of them were cured. It was concluded that WSD was an excellent therapy to treat the middle or small amount hemorrhage of acute upper digestive tract. The effective rate of WSD of the stool OB (+) becoming (-) within 5 days was more than 95%. WSD consists of Codonopsis pilosulae, Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Os sepiae Halloysitum rubrum and Astragalus membranaceus. It is effective in stopping bleeding by warming the Spleen and tonifying Qi.

  Tinnitus treated with combined traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 May;9(5):270-1, 259-60. Chinese. Yang DJ.

 Cases of annoying tinnitus were selected for this observation. They were examined by general physical examination, otoscopy and some of them by audiometry and tinnitus masking patterns test, and/or Ecoch G and BSER. Two groups, TCM-WM and controls, were designed with patient's sexes, ages, severity of tinnitus almost evenly distributed. Different kinds of medicines were given to the patients of 2 groups with single blind trial. For the controls, only western medicines such as valium, nicotinic acid, mixture bromides, vitamin B Co, ATP and carbamazepine (if 100 mg of lidocaine added to 50% glucose solution intravenously was effective) were taken orally. For TCM-WM group patients, besides the drugs used above, herbal decoctions were given twice a day, and observed for 5 days per therapeutic course. The medicinal herbs consist of: Rhizoma Gastrodiae, Ramulus Uncariae cum Uncis, Poria cocos, Flos Chrysanthemi, Akebia quinata, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Fructus Liquidambris, Radix Rehmanniae, Rhizoma Alismatis, Radix Scrophulariae, Fructus Lycii, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Semen Plantaginis and Semen Vaccariae. Of the therapeutic results in 32 cases of TCM-WM group, 11 cases (34.4%) showed absence of tinnitus, 16 (50%) improved, and 5 (15.6%) failed. The total effective rate was 84.4%. In 27 cases of the controls, 5 cases (18.6%) showed absence of tinnitus, 10 (37%) improved, and 12 (44.4%) failed. The total effective rate was 55.6%. It showed that the therapeutic results of TCM-WM group was better than those of the controls (P less than 0.05).

  An experimental study on the anti-senility effects of shou xing bu zhi.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Apr;9(4):226-7, 198. Chinese. Chen J.

 This paper presents the anti-senility effects of Shou Xing Bu Zhi (SXBZ. made of thirteen herbs: Polygonum multiflorum, Codonopsis silvestris, Astragalus membranaceus, Poria cocos, etc.) in mice. The mice were administered with the SXBZ orally at dosage of 10 g/kg daily for three months. The results showed that the lipofuscin of liver and brain tissues was significantly reduced in both young (1 month old) and adult (11 months) mice. Examination of lipid peroxidation of liver tissue revealed a marked decrease in adult mice. The lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogeneous was obviously inhibited after culturing with drug solutions (5.0 mg/0.1 ml), 37 degrees C for 90 minutes in vitro. In addition, the diminution of hydroxyproline of skin in both young and adult mice was observed. Results of this study indicated that the SXBZ was effective in slowing down aging.
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  Effects of a Chinese herbal medicine, keishi-bukuryo-gan, on the gonadal system of rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 Jul-Aug;23(2-3):151-8.

 Keishi-bukuryo-gan (TJ-25) is a traditional Chinese herbal remedy containing five components: bark of Cinnamomum cassia, root of Paeonia lactiflora, seed of Prunus persica or P. persiba var. davidiana, carpophores of Poria cocos and root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa. This preparation has been used in the treatment of gynecological disorders such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and infertility. In the present study, the effects of TJ-25 on plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2), and on uterine wet weight and thymidine kinase (TK) activity were documented in immature rats. Long-term daily oral administration of TJ-25 (300 mg/kg) for 14 days decreased plasma levels of LH, FSH and E2 by 94%, 67% and 50%, respectively, compared to controls. Uterine wet weight and TK activity were reduced to 65% and 64% that of controls, respectively. Short-term effects of TJ-25 on E2 were also examined. Thirty hours after administration of E2 (1.0 micrograms/kg) alone, uterine wet weight and TK activity were elevated 2.4- and 21-fold, respectively, over controls. However, simultaneous administration of TJ-25 (three consecutive doses, every 12 h) with E2 reduced E2-induced increases in uterine wet weight and TK activity by 29% and 39%, respectively. Treatment with TJ-25 also enhanced LH-RH-induced increases in plasma LH and FSH levels 1.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, as compared with controls. The results obtained in the present study indicate that TJ-25 may act as a LH-RH antagonist and/or as a weak anti-estrogen.

  Preparative approach to mannobiose and laminaribiose (author's transl).:J Chromatogr. 1977 Jan 11;130:305-13. German. Thiem J, Sievers A, Karl H.

 For synthetic purposes mannobiose is isolated from the polysaccharide mannan of ivory nut flower. The chain length of mannan A is determined to approximately 15 mannose units on average with a definite distribution from 5 to 25 mannose units. Acetolysis is optimized and yields 41% mannobiose. The separation on Sephadex G-15 yields pure mannobiose, and in addition its higher homologues in gram amounts. Detection of the eluates is performed using a differential refractometer. Correspondingly laminaribiose can be obtained from the polysaccharides laminaran (brown algae Laminaria hyperborea) and pachyman (fungus Poria cocos Wolf, Bukuryo) by selectively optimized acetolysis in 30% yield. Depending on the starting material separations are favourably performed on silica gel or on Sephadex G-15. Laminaribiose and its higher homologues are obtained in gram amounts.
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Reference:
  • 1.What is Poria?,a Humble, but Famous Mushroom, the poria cocos and its widely functional use.

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  • Name:Poria Cocos Extract
  • Serie No:R045.
  • Specifications:10:1TLC.
  • INCI Name:PORIA COCOS EXTRACT
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:N/A
  • CAS:168456-53-9
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Poria Cocos Extract is an extract of the mushroom Poria cocos,Polyporaceae
  • Other Names:Poria Mushroom Extract,Hoelen Extract.Poria Extract.Fu Ling Extract.Poria cocos (schw.) wolf,Whole fungus sclerotium of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf,Poria,Hoelen,Fu Ling,Fu-ling,Fu Ling Pi,Fu Shen.

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Poria Cocos Extract INCI Name Poria Cocos Extract CAS 168456-53-9

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