What is Picrorrhiza Root and it's major application?
- Basic Botanical Info of Picrorrhiza kurroa.
- Phytochemical and Constituents of Picrorrhiza Root.
- Indications of Picrorrhiza Root.
- Western Properties and Reported Uses.
- Action and Classical Note of Picrorrhiza Root.
- Picrorrhiza Root:Pharmacology.
- Dosage,Administrations and Safety.
- Application Case Study:Liver function improvement formulation.
- Research Update:Picrorrhiza kurroa and Picrorhiza scrophulariaeflora.
Research Update:Picrorrhiza kurroa and Picrorhiza scrophulariaeflora.:
Protective effect of picroliv against hydrazine-induced hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in rats.:Drug Chem Toxicol. 2007;30(3):241-52.Vivekanandan P, Gobianand K, Priya S, Vijayalakshmi P, Karthikeyan S.Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. A. L. M. Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras. Chennai. India.
The protective effect of picroliv (PIC) obtained from Picrorhiza kurroa (family: Scrophulariaceae) against hydrazine (Hz)-induced hyperlipidemia was evaluated in rats. Hz administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) caused an increase in triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO), free fatty acids (FFA), and total lipids (TL) in both the plasma and liver tissue of rats accompanied by a fall in phospholipids (PL) in the liver tissue 24 h after its administration, indicating its hyperlipidemic property. The above abnormality was prevented by simultaneous treatment of PIC (50 mg/kg, p.o.) with Hz. Hz treatment also caused an increase in the mobility of TG and TL from adipose tissue, and these results indicate that Hz administration could cause hepatic steatosis by nonhepatocellular factors (such as mobilization of depot fats). This effect was also prevented by simultaneous treatment of PIC with Hz. PIC-alone treatment, however, did not produce any change in the status of all the lipid parameters evaluated in plasma, liver, and adipose tissues. These results indicate that increased mobilization of depot fats from adipose tissue may contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis in addition to decreased lipoprotein secretion, increased hepatic TG biosynthesis, and increased hepatic uptake of FFA. These have been reported as the mechanism responsible for the development of Hz-induced hepatic steatosis. PIC prevents Hz-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and mobilization of lipids from depot fats, but the mechanism behind the protective effect of PIC remains to be elucidated.
Novel lipid-peroxidation- and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory tannins from Picrorhiza kurroa seeds.:Chem Biodivers. 2004 Mar;1(3):426-41.Zhang Y, DeWitt DL, Murugesan S, Nair MG.Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
From the AcOEt extract of the seeds of Picrorhiza kurroa were isolated picrorhiza acid (1), picrorhizoside A (2), picrorhizoside B (3), picrorhizoside C (4), (-)-shikimic acid (5), gallic acid (6), ellagic acid (7), isocorilagin (8), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (9), 1-O,3-O,6-O-trigalloyl-beta-D-glucose (10), and 1-O,2-O,3-O,4-O,6-O-pentagalloyl-beta-D-glucose (11), and their structures were established by extensive NMR and chemical studies. Constituents 1-4 are novel compounds, and the known compounds 5-11 have been isolated for the first time from the seeds of P. kurroa. Compounds 2 and 3 were hydrolyzed and yielded 12, isochebulic acid. Compounds 1-12 showed 89.6, 77.3, 56.1, 50.5, 11.0, 86.4, 50.5, 29.2, 70.9, 50.5, 56.5, and 86.1% inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 5 microg/ml, respectively. The commercial antioxidants BHA (1.8 microg/ml), BHT (2.2 microg/ml), and TBHQ (1.66 microg/ml) inhibited lipid peroxidation at 85.6, 87.1, and 81.1%, respectively. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) by 2-5, 7, 8, and 10-12 at 100 microg/ml was 41.9, 28.4, 32.9, 9.3, 70.7, 34.7, 16.0, 89.6, and 53.4%, respectively. Similarly, compounds 1-8 and 11 and 12, at 100 microg/ml, inhibited COX-2 by 12.6, 15.3, 25.1, 5.3, 13.2, 21.7, 2.0, 42.4, 43.4, and 36.9%, respectively.
Hypolipemic effect of water extracts of Picrorrhiza kurroa in high fat diet treated mouse.:Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec;77(7-8):579-84. Epub 2006 Sep 22.Lee HS, Yoo CB, Ku SK.Department of Herbal Biotechnology, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, 712-715, Republic of Korea.
A hypolipemic effect of the water extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa (PR) was observed in a high fat diet feeding hyperlipemic mouse at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally, once a day for 12 weeks. Liver weight, serum aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly reduced by the treatment. On the contrary, serum HDL level seems not affected by P. kurroa water extract.
Immunomodulatory activity of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from Picrorhiza kurroa.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Oct;6(10):1543-9. Epub 2006 Jun 16.Gupta A, Khajuria A, Singh J, Bedi KL, Satti NK, Dutt P, Suri KA, Suri OP, Qazi GN.Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jammu-180001, India.
In the last three decades, numerous biopolymeric fractions have been isolated from medicinal plants and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The most promising biopharmacological activities of these biopolymers are their immunomodulatory effects. The biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 was isolated and purified from the rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa. We evaluated the effects of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from P. kurroa on the in vivo immune function of the mouse. Balb/c mice were treated with the biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as an antigen. Haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre, plaque forming cell (PFC) assay, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, phagocytic index, proliferation of lymphocytes, analysis of cytokines in serum and CD4/CD8 population in spleen (determined by flowcytometry) were studied. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, significant increases in the proliferation of lymphocytes (p<0.001) and cytokine levels (IL-4 and IFN-gamma) in serum (p<0.001) were observed. A dose dependent increase was demonstrated in HA titre (p<0.05), DTH (p<0.01), PFC (p<0.05), phagocytic index (p<0.05) and CD4/CD8 (p<0.01) population. This suggests that the biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 improves the immune system and might be regarded as a biological response modifier.
RLJ-NE-299A: a new plant based vaccine adjuvant.:Vaccine. 2007 Mar 30;25(14):2706-15. Epub 2006 Jul 10.Khajuria A, Gupta A, Singh S, Malik F, Singh J, Suri KA, Satti NK, Qazi GN, Srinivas VK, Gopinathan , Ella K.Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jammu 180001, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Alum has been in use since long as an adjuvant for vaccines. However, its use as a vaccine adjuvant offers limitation in supporting cell mediated response. Therefore, a new plant based product RLJ-NE-299A from Picrorhiza kurroa reported for its immunostimulatory activity, has been explored for its potential as an alternative adjuvant. In order to compare the adjuvant activity with alum, antigen-specific immune responses were evaluated following immunization with a formulation containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with RLJ-NE-299A and alum in mice. The adjuvant RLJ-NE-299A up-regulated remarkably the expression of Th1 cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF alpha and Th2 cytokine IL-4 in lymph node cell cultures after 2 weeks of primary immunization with HBsAg. Further, the levels of both immunoglobulins IgG2a (Th1) and IgG1 (Th2) subtypes increased profoundly in blood sera of mice immunized with HBsAg/RLJ-NE-299A. The results indicated that RLJ-NE-299A has strong potential to increase both cell mediated and humoral immune responses and is capable of sustaining the total antigen-specific antibody response. Besides, the RLJ-NE-299A provides a signal to gear up both CD4 helper cells (Th1 and Th2) and CD8 cells populations, which may have important implications for vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Variable doses of RLJ-NE-299A (0.312-40 microg) containing vaccine antigen (HBsAg) were well tolerated with optimum T cell response at 2.5 microg/ml. Not only this, the adjuvant was also able to induce cellular immune responses to HBsAg as evidenced by Th1 and Th2 cytokines upregulation, which enabled mice to overcome the unresponsiveness to antigen HBsAg encountered with alum-adjuvanted vaccine in otherwise non-responding mice population. The study presents evidence that the HPLC standardized fraction RLJ-NE-299A, is an adjuvant of choice over alum in improving and maintaining the improved immune status against HBsAg, and may also prove useful adjuvant candidate with other vaccine antigens, too.
Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory triterpenoids from Picrorhiza kurroa seeds.:Life Sci. 2005 Nov 4;77(25):3222-30. Epub 2005 Jun 23.Zhang Y, Dewitt DL, Murugesan S, Nair MG.Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
A bioassay guided phytochemical study of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of Picrorhiza kurroa afforded a new triterpenoid, 2alpha, 3beta, 19beta, 23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), along with five known triterpenoids, 2alpha, 3beta, 19beta, 23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-beta-d-glucoside (3), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 19beta, trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), and 2alpha, 3beta, 6beta, 23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by extensive NMR spectral studies. The acetyl derivatives, compounds 7 and 8, were prepared from compounds 1 and 2, respectively, to aid in their structure elucidation. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme by compounds 1--6 at 100 microg/mL was 38.3%, 39%, 37%, 49.6%, 25%, and 45.0%, respectively. However, compounds 1--6, at 100 microg/mL, did not inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme. Compound 1 is a novel triterpenoid and compounds 1--6 are isolated for the first time from the seeds of P. kurroa.
Protective activity of picroliv on hepatic amoebiasis associated with carbon tetrachloride toxicity.:Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):676-82.Singh M, Tiwari V, Jain A, Ghoshal S.Division of Microbiology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Picroliv, isolated from the root and rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, is known to have significant hepatoprotective activity. Its effects against Entamoeba histolytica induced liver damage are not studied. This study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of picroliv against the hepatotoxic changes induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and E. histolytica infection in three animal models. METHODS: Mastomys, gerbils and albino Druckray rats were used in this study. A total of 30 animals were used for each model and divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I consisted of normal animals. The rest received six doses of CCl(4) intraperitoneally. Group II served as hepatotoxic control. The remaining animals were infected intraperitoneally with E. histolytica trophozoites, of which group III was the hepatotoxic plus amoeba infected control. The remaining animals were divided into two groups, one received hepatoprotective agent picroliv and the other silymarin. All animals were sacrificed seven days post amoeba infection. RESULTS: Increase in the enzyme levels induced by CCl(4) was further elevated after E. histolytica infection. Pinpoint abscesses were found to develop only in gerbils after E. histolytica infection. Picroliv was found to possess hepatoprotective activity against amoebic liver abscess. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Significant recovery obtained in serum enzyme levels in all animal models and against amoebic liver abscess in gerbils on treatment with picroliv indicated that picroliv possesses therapeutic activity against E. histolytica induced hepatic damage.
Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease.:Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 Nov;2(11):947-56. Review.Levy C, Seeff LD, Lindor KD.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming popular among patients with liver disease. Although there is a growing body of evidence regarding potential mechanisms of action of these and other herbs, caution must be used to interpret the results of the few clinical trials available. Our goal was to discuss the biologic rationale for the use of specific herbs (silymarin, glycyrrhizin, sho-saiko-to, Phyllanthus amarus , Picrorrhiza kurroa , Compound 861, CH-100, and LIV.52) in the treatment of chronic liver diseases, as well as the evidence for their efficacy and adverse effects according to clinical trials. METHODS: Because of the relative paucity of clinical studies using herbs, every trial published in English was reviewed. RESULTS: Although many trials suggest that these herbs can decrease serum transaminase levels, the effects on hepatic histopathology and long-term survival are either poorly studied or conflicting. LIV.52 has been withdrawn from the market because of deleterious effects in patients with liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, we cannot recommend the use of herbal supplements for the routine treatment of any chronic liver disease and further well-designed clinical trials are necessary.
The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.:J Med Food. 2004 Fall;7(3):343-8.Jagetia GC, Baliga MS.Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India. email@example.com
The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite.
Cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, an indigenous endangered medicinal plant, through vitrification.:Cryo Letters. 2003 May-Jun;24(3):181-90.Sharma N, Sharma B.Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi-110012, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The cryopreservation of shoot tips of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth (IC 266698), an endangered medicinal plant of India was investigated. Shoot tips (about 1 mm in length) excised from four-week-old proliferating shoot cultures were precultured on MS medium supplemented with various osmotica before dehydrating with PVS2 solution at 0 degrees C. The dehydrated shoot tips were directly immersed in LN2. Following cryopreservation, and after rapid rewarming at 45 degrees C, shoot tips were quickly washed with 1.2 M sucrose solution and then plated on solidified shoot culture medium. Shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification, when they were precultured on medium supplemented with 5% DMSO at 4 degrees C for two days before dehydrating in PVS2 for 10-20 minutes at 0 degrees C. Average survival in terms of normal shoot formation after 4 wks of plating was about 20% without callus formation. Cold hardening of shoot cultures for four weeks at 4 degrees C significantly improved the survival and shoot regeneration of cryopreserved shoot tips to 70% and 35%, respectively.
Herbal preparations as a source of hepatoprotective agents.:Drug News Perspect. 2001 Aug;14(6):353-63.Ram VJ.Medicinal Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
Mono- and polyherbal preparations with potent antihepatotoxic activity in various liver disorders, made from traditionally used herbs with proven efficacy, have been described. More than 700 mono- and polyherbal preparations in the form of decoction, tincture, tablets and capsules from more than 100 plants are in clinical use. Some of the herbs--such as Silybum marianum, Picrorhiza kurroa, Andrographis paniculata and Glycyrrhizae radix--are very common in most of the polyherbal preparations. This review covers the preparations of widely used herbs such as S. marianum, Schisandra chinensis, Phyllanthus amarus, P. kurroa, A. paniculata, G. radix, Lycium chinense and Cochlospermum tinctorium as hepatoprotectants and includes the mode of action of these preparations. Some polyherbal preparations such as Livex, HD-03, Hepatomed and Hepatoguard with proven efficacy are also described in this review.
Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.:J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002 Dec;17 Suppl 3:S370-S376.Thyagarajan S, Jayaram S, Gopalakrishnan V, Hari R, Jeyakumar P, Sripathi M.
The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented.
Cardioprotective effects of Picrorrhiza kurroa against isoproterenol-induced myocardial stress in rats.:Fitoterapia. 2001 May;72(4):402-5.Senthil Kumar SH, Anandan R, Devaki T, Santhosh Kumar M.Bharathidasan College of Arts and Science, Ellispettai, Pallapalayam (PO), 638-116, Erode, India.
The cardioprotective effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa rhizomes and roots (PK) on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats with respect to lipid metabolism in serum and heart tissue has been investigated. Oral pre-treatment with PK (80 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 days) significantly prevented the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and maintained the rats at near normal status.
Effect of Picrorrhiza kurroa extract on transplanted tumours and chemical carcinogenesis in mice.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):261-6.Joy KL, Rajeshkumar NV, Kuttan G, Kuttan R.Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur 680 553, Kerala, Amala Nagar, India.
Anti-tumour and anti-carcinogenic activity of Picrorrhiza kurroa extract were studied in mice. Administration of 20-methylcholanthrene (20 MC) produced 100% induction of sarcoma in control mice, whereas the tumour incidence and tumour related deaths were significantly inhibited by the oral administration of P. kurroa extract 150 and 750 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract was also found to reduce the volume of transplanted solid tumours induced by Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumour cell lines and increased the life span of ascites tumour bearing mice. P. kurroa extract inhibited yeast topoisomerase I and II enzyme activity when tested on Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant cell cultures. The extract did not inhibit the enzyme involved in the activation of carcinogen and the cell cycle regulatory enzyme cdc2 kinase.
Anti-diabetic activity of Picrorrhiza kurroa extract.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Nov 1;67(2):143-8.Joy KL, Kuttan R.Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
An alcoholic extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa was found to lower blood glucose in basal conditions and after a heavy glucose load in normal rats. Maximum reduction in serum glucose was observed after 2 h at a dose level of 75 mg extract/kg of body weight. P. kurroa extract was also found to reduce the increase of blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (43% at 75 mg/kg body weight and 60% at 150 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of the extract significantly reduced the blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for several days (10 days). The extract was also found to reduce the increased blood urea nitrogen and serum lipid peroxides in alloxan-induced diabetic animals and to inhibit the body weight reduction and leukopenia induced by alloxan administration. These results indicate that P. kurroa extracts are able to ameliorate biochemical damages induced by alloxan in diabetic rats.
Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.:Cancer Lett. 1999 Feb 8;136(1):11-6.Jeena KJ, Joy KL, Kuttan R.Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Kerala, India
Extracts of Emblica officinalis (EO), Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) and Picrorrhiza kurroa (P. kurroa) significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in a dose dependent manner. The anticarcinogenic activity of these extracts were evaluated by their effect on tumour incidence, levels of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer markers and liver injury markers. Animals treated with NDEA alone showed 100% tumour incidence and significantly elevated tissue levels of drug metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and aniline hydroxylase (AH). Treatment of extracts significantly reduced these levels. Levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were also found to be elevated both in serum and tissues of tumour bearing animals, while they were significantly reduced in the treated group. Similar reduction was seen in tissue levels of reduced glutathione. Serum levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (OPT), which are markers of liver injury, were also elevated. Morphology of liver tissue and levels of marker enzymes indicated that these extracts offered protection against chemical carcinogenesis.
Effect of Trasina, an Ayurvedic herbal formulation, on pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in hyperglycaemic rats.:Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Mar;35(3):297-9.Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Chakrabarti A.Department of Pharmacology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
Diabetes mellitus was induced in male CF strain rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and hyperglycaemia and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of pancreatic islet cells was assessed on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. STZ induced significant hyperglycaemia and a concomitant decrease in islet cell SOD activity. Transina (TR), an Ayurvedic herbal formulation comprising of Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Eclipta alba, Ocimum sanctum, Picrorrhiza kurroa and shilajit, had little per se effect on blood sugar concentrations and islet SOD activity in euglycaemic rats, in the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administered once daily for 28 days. However, these doses of TR induced a dose- related decrease in STZ hyperglycaemia and attenuation of STZ induced decrease in islet SOD activity. The results indicate that the earlier reported anti-hyperglycaemic effect of TR may be due to pancreatic islet free radical scavenging activity, the hyperglycaemic activity of STZ being the consequence of decrease in islet SOD activity leading to the accumulation of degenerative oxidative free radicals in islet beta-cells.
Immunostimulant Activity of Picroliv, the Iridoid Glycoside Fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa, and its Protective Action against Leishmania donovani Infection in Hamsters1.:Planta Med. 1992 Dec;58(6):528-32.Puri A, Saxena RP, Guru PY, Kulshreshtha DK, Saxena KC, Dhawan BN.ICMR Centre for Advanced Pharmacological Research on Traditional Remedies, Central Drug Research Institute, Post Box No. 173, Lucknow 226001 (U.P.), India.
Picroliv, a standardised fraction from root and rhizome of PICRORHIZA KURROA, consisting of iridoid glycosides and shown to be responsible for its hepatoprotective activity, was studied for immunostimulant activity. Oral administration of Picroliv (10 mg/kg x 7 days) in mice prior to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) resulted in a significant increase in haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, plaque forming cells (PFC), and delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) response to SRBC. Picroliv enhanced the non-specific immune response characterized by an increase in macrophage migration index (MMI), [ (14)C]-glucosamine uptake, phagocytosis of [ (14)C]-leucine labelled ESCHERICHIA COLI, chemiluminescence of peritoneal macrophages, and higher uptake of [ (3)H]-thymidine in the lymphocytes of treated mice. It also induced a high degree of protection in golden hamsters against challenge infection with LEISHMANIA DONOVANI promastigotes.
In vitro studies on the effect of certain natural products against hepatitis B virus.:Indian J Med Res. 1990 Apr;92:133-8.Mehrotra R, Rawat S, Kulshreshtha DK, Patnaik GK, Dhawan BN.ICMR Advance Centre for Pharmacological Research on Traditional Remedies, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow.
Picroliv (active principle from Picrorrhiza kurroa), its major components picroside I, catalpol, kutkoside I, kutkoside, andrographolide (active constituent of Andrographis paniculata), silymarin and Phyllanthus niruri extract were tested for the presence of anti hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti HBs) like activity. HBsAg positive serum samples obtained from hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated acute and chronic liver diseases and healthy HBsAg carriers were used to evaluate the anti-HBs like activity of compounds/extract. The latter were mixed with serum samples and incubated at 37 degrees C overnight followed by HBsAg screening in the Elisa system. A promising anti-HBsAg like activity was noted in picroliv (and its major components) catalpol, P. niruri which differed from the classical viral neutralization. Picroliv also inhibited purified HBV antigens (HBsAg and HBsAg) prepared from healthy HBsAg carriers. The in vitro testing system appears to be a suitable model to identify an agent active against HBV, prior to undertaking detailed studies.
- 1.What is Picrorrhiza Root and it's major application?
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