Old ancient soybean,Soy and the dissemination,cultivation.
- Basic Botanical Data of Soy.Glycine max.
- Cultivation and plant history of Soy:Soy and the dissemination.
- Nutrients and Phytochemicals of Soy.
- Soybeans are used in a variety of ways in Asia.
- Soy Active Compounds.
- History of Soy.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:1).Soy and Reduction in Cholesterol.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:2).Soy Improves Digestion.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:3).Soy Treat heart disease.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:4).Soy reduce certain cancers.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:5).Soy is also being studied for possible effectiveness in numerous other conditions.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:6).Soy as Bowman-Birk inhibitor(BBI).
- Health and Functionality of Soy:7).Phytoestrogens and Soy Extract.
- Health and Functionality of Soy:8).Dietary Soybean:A Source of Functional Food Ingredients, Soy proteins,Soy carbohydrates,Soy lipids and phytosterols,Soy phytoestrogens,Soy saponins,Soy Isoflavones.
- Soy Components:8.1).Soy proteins.
- Soy Components:8.2).Soy carbohydrates.
- Soy Components:8.3).Soy lipids and phytosterols.
- Soy Components:8.4).Soy phytoestrogens.
- Soy Components:8.5).What are phytoestrogens?.
- Soy Components:8.6).Soy saponins.
- Soy Components:8.7).Soy Isoflavones.
- Research Update and latest findings of Soy Isoflavones.Daidzein.Daidzin.Genistein.Genistin related.
Soy Components:8.7).Soy Isoflavones.:
Soy contains many phytochemicals, and scientists are just now identifying the roles they may play in human health. Among these phytochemicals are the isoflavones:genistein, daidzein and glycitein,which may act as estrogen analogs in the body, affecting cells that contain estrogen receptors. LSU AgCenter researchers are studying the purification and characterization of soy isoflavones.
The chemical structural differences of soy isoflavones may result in variable bioavailability in biological systems. The structures of soy isoflavones are not consistent during routine food processing. Factors induced in the food processing, such as enzymes in raw soy flour, heating and additives, can affect the stability of soy isoflavones. The isoflavones genistein, daidzein and glycitein, as found in soy foods, are usually bound to a glucose molecule forming the glucosides:genistin, daidzin and glycitin. In LSU AgCenter research, high purity genistin, daidzin and glycitin were prepared from soy flour and observed for their stability during heating. The results are useful in understanding the thermal stability of soy isoflavones. Overall, the stability of daidzein was found to be higher than that of glycitein or genistein.
Many reports have indicated that soy isoflavones lower plasma cholesterol and may reduce the risk of cancer. The detailed mechanism for this capability is not fully understood. Oxidation products of cholesterol are harmful to many cells in the vascular system, which contribute to plaque formation and cancers. Because soy isoflavones contain phenolic groups, they may possess antioxidation properties that offer protection against oxidation of cholesterol and oxidative damage to blood vessel cells. In LSU AgCenter research, both genistein and daidzein demonstrated significant antioxidant activity in the inhibition of cholesterol oxidation. Since soy contains both genistein and daidzein, the combined antioxidant benefits of both isoflavones could be important in reducing oxidative damage to body tissues.
Relative oestrogenic activity of phytoestrogens, precursors and metabolites in human cell culture bioassays, compared with oestradiol.
Biochanin A less than 0.006
Formononetin less than 0.0006
Phytoestrogens have been shown to produce both oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic responses. The current view is that phytoestrogens have mild oestrogenic activity when endogenous oestrogen levels are very low, ie post-menopause, while they have an anti-oestrogenic activity when endogenous oestrogen levels are high.
This dual activity results because phytoestrogens, while competing with endogenous oestrogen for receptors, elicit only a very weak effect compared with the real hormone.
Hence when oestrogen levels are high, phytoestrogens will occupy receptors that would otherwise have been occupied by oestradiol, resulting in a reduced oestrogenic response.
When oestrogen levels are very low, however, phytoestrogens will occupy many receptors that would otherwise have remained unoccupied, resulting in a weak oestrogenic response.
In summary, soybeans are a powerful functional food that contains phytochemicals that can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Work at the LSU AgCenter has focused on purifying and describing the characteristics of the active components of soybeans that can benefit health. Researchers are continuing to study soy products and the isolation of active components that can benefit all of us. Throughout history, people living in Asia have relied heavily on soybean products to prevent or fight disease. It is time for the western world to learn how to use soybeans effectively in our diets to maintain a healthier life.
- 1.Old ancient soybean,Soy and the dissemination,cultivation.
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