Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
- Basic Botanical Data of Peanut.
- Peanuts:Arachis hypogaea L.
- Whole Plant Description of Peanut.
- Distribution of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut:Eco-geographic Distribution.
- Taxonomy of genus Arachis.
- History and Origin of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut.
- Peanut: Phytochemicals and nutrients.
- Uses of Arachis hypogaea L.Peanut,groundnut.
- Folk Medicine and Medicinal Uses of Peanut.
- Cooking Peanut.
- Optimization of extraction methods for identification of selected phytochemicals in peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
- Research Update:Peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
Taxonomy of genus Arachis.:
The genus Arachis is a member of family Fabaceae (synonym: Leguminosae) subfamily Papilionoidae, tribe Aeschynomeneae and subtribe Stylosanthinae (Polhill and Raven, 1981). At the time Linnaeus first named the cultivated groundnut Arachis hypogaea L., it was the only member of the genus. One hundred years later Bentham (1841) produced the first taxonomic treatment of the genus. Subsequent taxonomic treatments include Chevalier (1933), (1934), (1936) Hoehne (1940) and Hermann (1954). These treatments are now largely outdated because of the number of new taxa that have been collected and described in the past forty to fifty years (Gregory et al., 1973). Unfortunately during this surge in germplasm collection, many new taxa were invalidly described, other unofficial names came into common use and different names were sometimes assigned to the same species and vice versa (Resslar, 1980). The basis for the confusion was a lack of recognised differentiating morphological descriptors, as well as fragmentary early collecting and the representation of species by seedling specimens.
The genus was in a state of chaos until 1994 when Krapovichas and Gregory published a taxonomic revision of the genus. This work took them nearly thirty-five years, and involved re-visiting and collecting specimens at the type locations of each known species. This taxonomic revision recognises 69 species in 9 sections. Distinctions are made on the basis of morphological characters and life cycle attributes, although eco-geographic distribution, crossability evidence, cytological information, plant form, as well as chromatographic and antigenic reactions were all considered in the groupings. The currently recognised classification of the genus Arachis can be found here, and a dichotomous key here. All species, except the cultivated species and A. monticola, in Section Arachis, and certain species in Section Rhizomatosae, are diploid (2n=2x=20).
Section Arachis contains the cultivated groundnut A. hypogaea, which is itself divided into two subspecies, subsp. fastigiata Waldron and subsp. hypogaea Krap. et Rig. Previously each subspecies was divided into two varieties (Gregory et al., 1973); subspecies hypogaea contained var. hypogaea and var. hirsuta, and subsp. fastigiata contained var. vulgaris and var. fastigiata. However in 1994, Krapovickas and Gregory proposed two new varieties of subsp. fastigiata in addition to the existing ones, namely var. peruviana and var. aequatoriana. A key to the currently recognised botanical varieties of A. hypogaea can be found here.
Commodity Classification of Peanut:
|Commodity:GROUNDNUT KERNELS H.P.S (LONG TYPE)
Specifications:20/24 24/28 28/32 34/38 38/42 45/55 Count Per Ounce
|Commodity: GROUNDNUT KERNELS H.P.S (ROUND TYPE)
Specifications:25/35 35/40 40/50 50/60 60/70 70/80 Count Per Ounce Moisture:8.0%(Max.)
|Commodity: GROUNDNUT KERNELS H.P.S (SI LI RED TYPE)
Specifications: 50/60 60/70 70/80 Count Per OunceMoisture:8.0%(Max.)
|Commodity:GROUNDNUT KERNELS H.P.S (WHITE SAND TYPE)
Specifications:25/35 35/40 40/50 50/60 60/70 70/80 Count Per OunceMoisture:8.0%(Max.)
|Commodity:BLANCHED GROUNDNUT KERNELS(LONG TYPE)
Specifications:21/25 25/29 29/33 35/39 39/43 Count Per OunceMoisture:8.0%(Max.)
|Commodity: BLANCHED GROUNDNUT KERNELS(ROUND TYPE)
Specifications:26/36 36/41 41/51 51/61 Count Per Ounce
- 1.Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
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