Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
- Basic Botanical Data of Peanut.
- Peanuts:Arachis hypogaea L.
- Whole Plant Description of Peanut.
- Distribution of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut:Eco-geographic Distribution.
- Taxonomy of genus Arachis.
- History and Origin of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut.
- Peanut: Phytochemicals and nutrients.
- Uses of Arachis hypogaea L.Peanut,groundnut.
- Folk Medicine and Medicinal Uses of Peanut.
- Cooking Peanut.
- Optimization of extraction methods for identification of selected phytochemicals in peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
- Research Update:Peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
Uses of Arachis hypogaea L.Peanut,groundnut.:
Peanuts are found in a wide range of grocery products.Peanuts for edible uses account for two-thirds of the total peanut consumption in the United States. The principal uses are peanut butter (see peanut butter and jelly sandwich), peanut candy, salted, shelled nuts, and nuts that have been roasted in the shell. Salted peanuts are usually roasted in oil and packed in retail size, transparent plastic bags and hermetically sealed cans. Dry roasted, salted peanuts are also marketed in significant quantities. The primary use of peanut butter is in the home, but large quantities are also used in the commercial manufacture of sandwiches, candy, and bakery products. Boiled peanuts are a preparation of raw, unshelled green peanuts typically eaten as a snack in the southern United States where most peanuts are grown.
Low grade or culled peanuts not suitable for the edible market are utilized in the production of peanut oil, seed and feed.
Peanuts have a variety of industrial end uses. Paint, varnish, lubricating oil, leather dressings, furniture polish, insecticides, and nitroglycerin are made from peanut oil. Soap is made from saponified oil, and many cosmetics contain peanut oil and its derivatives. The protein portion of the oil is utilized in the manufacture of some textile fibers.
Peanut shells are put to use in the manufacture of plastic, wallboard, abrasives, and fuel. They are also used to make cellulose (used in rayon and paper) and mucilage (glue).
Peanut plant tops are used to make hay. The protein cake (oilcake meal) residue from oil processing is utilized as an animal feed and as a soil fertilizer.
George Washington Carver, an American teacher and agricultural researcher, identified more than 300 different uses for peanuts and is generally credited with introducing peanuts to the United States food market. He encouraged cotton farmers to grow peanuts instead of or in addition to cotton because cotton had leached so much nitrogen from the soil in Alabama, and one of the peanut's properties as a legume is to put nitrogen back into the soil(a process known as nitrogen fixation). His purpose in identifying a variety of uses was to encourage the growth of demand for the peanut so it could become a viable cash crop alternative to cotton.
Groundnut is relatively inexpensive and is therefore used extensively in the tropics. It has a high content of proteins, fats, carbohydrate and calories. It has a high content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and calories, the preponderant protein of groundnut is deficient in methionine. The peanut is fruit of the somewhat unusual peanut plant. Its pods develop underground, which is why peanuts are also called groundnuts. It is a common belief that the peanut originated in Africa, but evidence suggests that South America ~Bolivia~was probably its first home. From there, through colonisation; the use of peanuts spread throughout colonisation, the use of peanuts spread throughout the world. Soon, they came to be valued for their oil.
But over the years, changes in eating habits, diets and fears about oil and fat have caused people look as once at peanuts. In fact, there is a wealth of nutrition in just that small handful of hard to resist nuts.
Peanuts contain reservatrol which may reduce the risk of heart disease. A study conducted in United States showed that diets high in good monosaturated fat (MUFA), obtained from foods like peanuts, peanut oil and olive oil were superior to low~fat diets for heart health. The presence of peanuts, peanut oil and peanut butter in the diet reduced the risk of heart disease by 21 per cent.
The fatty acid percentage weight composition of groundnut oil is saturated 20, monosaturated 50 and unsaturated 30. One of the main advantages of using peanut oil is its high level of MUFA and low level of linolenic acid. Too much of latter oxidises the soil and can produce undesirable flavours in it. Pure peanut oil contains less than 0.1 of linolenic acid while some of other Vegetable oils contain about 7% linolenic acid has been indicated as a cause for tumours.
The temperature at which an oil begins to smoke is one of the most reliable indicators of its quality for deep frying. The higher the smoke point, the better it is, as firstly, you can fry foods without foiling the oil and secondly you can reuse the oil a few times. The lower the smoke point, the sooner it has to be discarded. Peanut oil has a very high smoke point and allows food cook faster. This in turn preserves the flavour and prevents excess absorption of oil.
Peanut oil is used in a variety of cooking methods; from deep frying to sauteing. It is easy to measure and pour. Always store oil in a cool place and always seal the container tightly as exposure to air causes oil to lose its quality.
Cosmetic uses:peanut extract
Glossary notes that Arachis hypogaea extract can have emollient and anti-inflammatory properties for skin, though peanut allergy is one of the five most frequent food allergies in children and in adults.
- 1.Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
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