Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
- Basic Botanical Data of Peanut.
- Peanuts:Arachis hypogaea L.
- Whole Plant Description of Peanut.
- Distribution of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut:Eco-geographic Distribution.
- Taxonomy of genus Arachis.
- History and Origin of Arachis hypogaea L,Peanut,groundnut.
- Peanut: Phytochemicals and nutrients.
- Uses of Arachis hypogaea L.Peanut,groundnut.
- Folk Medicine and Medicinal Uses of Peanut.
- Cooking Peanut.
- Optimization of extraction methods for identification of selected phytochemicals in peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
- Research Update:Peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.
Research Update:Peanuts.Arachis hypogaea L.:
Production and secretion of resveratrol in hairy root cultures of peanut.:Phytochemistry. 2007 Jul;68(14):1992-2003. Epub 2007 Jun 14.Medina-Bolivar F, Condori J, Rimando AM, Hubstenberger J, Shelton K, O'keefe SF, Bennett S, Dolan MC.Arkansas Biosciences Institute and Arkansas State University, P.O. Box 639, Jonesboro, AR 72467, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, P.O. Box 599, Jonesboro, AR 72467, United States; Nature West Inc., Jonesboro, AR 72401, United States.
Resveratrol and its derivatives are natural stilbenes associated with many health benefits that include those conferred by their antioxidant and anticancer properties. While stilbenes can be recovered as an extract from a selected number of plants, these products are not suitable for many applications in the food/pharmaceutical sectors due to high levels of impurities as well as the overall low concentration of resveratrol and its derivatives in the extract. To deliver a highly defined and enriched resveratrol product, hairy root cultures of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) were established and tested as a bioproduction system for resveratrol and associated derivatives. Analyses by HPTLC and GC-MS of ethyl acetate extracts showed that a single 24h sodium acetate elicitation resulted in a 60-fold induction and secretion of trans-resveratrol into the medium of peanut hairy root cultures. trans-Resveratrol accumulated to levels of 98mug/mg of the dried extract from the medium representing 99% of the total resveratrol produced. Other stilbenes, including trans-pterostilbene, were also detected in the medium. Our results demonstrate the capacity of hairy root cultures as an effective bioprocessing system for valued nutraceuticals like resveratrol and resveratrol derivatives. In being able to effectively induce and recover high levels of resveratrol and associated derivatives from the media fraction, hairy roots may offer a scalable and continuous product recovery platform for naturally-derived, high quality, enriched nutraceuticals.
Allergy to peanut oil--clinically relevant?.:J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Apr;21(4):452-5. Review.Ring J, M?hrenschlager M.Division Environmental Dermatology and Allergology, GSF/TUM, Department of Dermatology and Allergology Biederstein, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Johannes.Ring@lrz.tum.de
The increasing prevalence of food allergies (especially allergy to peanuts) has led to a discussion of how safe topical preparations containing peanut oil are with respect to allergy. The major allergens from peanuts are proteins that have been characterized at a molecular level and cloned. Clinical signs of peanut allergy symptoms can be observed on the skin (urticaria), or in the gastrointestinal and/or respiratory tract culminating in cardiovascular symptoms and anaphylactic reactions. In most cases, symptoms are elicited by oral uptake; rarely, a contact urticaria has been described. In vegetable oils, the contents of protein differ depending on the production process: crude oils contain approximately 100 times more proteins than refined oils. This has clear-cut implications for allergic individuals. Quantitative data are available regarding elicitation of symptoms in allergic individuals with a threshold dose of 0.1-1 mg peanut allergen in oral provocation tests. There are anecdotal reports of adverse reactions after topical use of peanut oils. In one epidemiological trial, an association between topical use of skin care products containing peanut oil and the development of peanut allergy was observed; however, the data reflect a retrospective analysis without specifying skin care products containing peanut oil and also without analysing the quantity of topicals used. In contrast, oral tolerance was prevented and allergic sensitization was enhanced in a mouse model using high concentrations of peanut protein. So far, no reliable data are available regarding doses required to induce sensitization against peanut allergen via the epidermal route. A possible induction of sensitization against peanut proteins through contact with the skin via skin care products and the respective protein concentrations is a matter of speculation. Patients with atopic diseases, namely eczema, need appropriate skin care because of the disturbed skin barrier function. The benefit of avoiding damage to skin barrier functions of atopic individuals by the use of peanut protein-containing skin care products seems to outweigh possible risks of sensitization and/or allergy induction against substances contained in those products containing refined peanut oil.
Simple, rapid, and inexpensive cleanup method for quantitation of aflatoxins in important agricultural products by HPLC.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Mar 21;55(6):2136-41. Epub 2007 Feb 24.Sobolev VS.National Peanut Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 509, Dawson, Georgia 39842, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
A chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted from a ground sample with MeOH/H2O (80:20, v/v), and after a cleanup step on a minicolumn packed with Florisil, aflatoxins were quantified by HPLC equipped with a C18 column, a photochemical reactor, and a fluorescence detector. Water/MeOH (63:37, v/v) served as the mobile phase. Recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 from peanuts spiked at 5, 1.7, 5, and 1.7 ng/g were 89.5+/-2.2, 94.7+/-2.5, 90.4+/-1.0, and 98.2+/-1.1, respectively (mean+/-SD, %, n=3). Similar recoveries, precision, and accuracy were achieved for corn, brown and white rice, cottonseed, almonds, Brazil nuts, pistachios, walnuts, and hazelnuts. The quantitation limits for aflatoxins in peanuts were 50 pg/g for aflatoxin B1 and 17 pg/g for aflatoxin B2. The minimal cost of the minicolumn allows for substantial savings compared with available commercial aflatoxin cleanup devices.
Characterization of immunological activities of peanut stilbenoids, arachidin-1, piceatannol, and resveratrol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Mar 21;55(6):2376-83. Epub 2007 Feb 23.Djoko B, Chiou RY, Shee JJ, Liu YW.Department of Food Science, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan.
Biological activities of peanut stilbenoids, mainly resveratrol and its derivatives, have attracted increased attention and interest because of peanut being a potent producer and a dietary channel to convey these polyphenols to the human body. As arachidin-1 and piceatannol are structurally close to resveratrol, it is worthy to investigate their immunological activities on inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of PGE2 and NO and mediation of the related transcription factors (NF-kappaB and C/EBP) of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Productions of PGE2 and NO were inhibited by all the test stilbenoids in a dose-dependent manner while gene and protein expressions of COX-2 and iNOS were not inhibited. As shown by NF-kappaB-driven luciferase assay, LPS-induced NF-kappaB activities were also reduced by the stilbenoids. In further, when these stilbenoids were subjected to monitoring their inhibitory effectiveness on LPS-induced transcription factor expressions of C/EBPdelta and C/EBPbeta, only C/EBPdelta expressions were reduced. Thus, these stilbenoids were effective in inhibition of PGE2- or NO-mediated inflammation and NF-kappaB- or C/EBPdelta-mediated inflammatory gene expression. In comparison, the highest inhibitory activity on LPS-induced PGE2/NO production, C/EBPdelta gene expression, and NF-kappaB activation was piceatannol which was followed in order by arachidin-1 and resveratrol. The observed anti-inflammatory activities of these peanut stilbenoids are of merit in further consideration for nutraceutical applications.
Comparison of extraction methods for the quantification of selected phytochemicals in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):285-90.Chukwumah YC, Walker LT, Verghese M, Bokanga M, Ogutu S, Alphonse K.Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A&M University, Post Office Box 1628, Normal, Alabama 35762, USA.
Peanuts have been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals, particularly isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and biochanin A) and trans-resveratrol. Currently, limited data are available regarding the levels of these bioactive compounds in peanuts with variations in reported levels. The purpose of this study was to compare four methods of extraction [stirring, sonication, Soxtec, and microwave-assisted sonication (MAS)] for runner peanuts. Quantification of the selected compounds was conducted by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The results showed that the MAS and Soxtec methods extracted significantly higher amounts of the phytochemicals. Also, the defatted peanuts gave significantly higher amounts of the phytochemicals compared to the nondefatted peanuts. The high levels of the isoflavones may be attributed to heat-induced conversion of conjugate glycosides to aglycons. The MAS and Soxtec methods may be used for total isoflavone content quantitation, while sonication or stirring may be the method of choice for quantitation of isoflavone composition (aglycons and glycoside conjugates) in peanuts.
Prenylated stilbenes from peanut root mucilage.:Phytochem Anal. 2006 Sep;17(5):312-22.Sobolev VS, Potter TL, Horn BW.National Peanut Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Dawson, Georgia 39842, USA. email@example.com
Seven prenylated stilbenes were identified by combined HPLC-PAD-APCI/MSn analysis of an extract of mucilage isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) root tips. The principal constituent was assigned the structure 4-(3-methyl-but-1-enyl)-3, 5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene. The common name mucilagin A is proposed for this novel compound. Its concentration in the mucilage was estimated at 250 microg/g (wet weight basis). The large body of literature on the anti-microbial properties of plant-derived stilbenes suggests that compounds detected in peanut mucilage may play a role in regulating root-soil pathogen interactions.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).:Methods Mol Biol. 2006;343:347-58. Review.Sharma KK, Bhatnagar-Mathur P.Genetic Transformation Laboratory, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Andhra Pradesh, India.
Arachis hypogea (peanut, groundnut), an annual oil seed belonging to the Leguminosae family and the Papillionacea subfamily, is a legume native to South America but now grown in diverse environments in six continents between latitudes 40 degrees N and 40 degrees S. Arachis hypogea can grow in a wide range of climatic conditions. The low yields of this crop are mainly attributed to unreliable rainfall patterns with frequent droughts, lack of high-yielding adapted cultivars, damage by diseases and pests, poor agronomic practices, and limited use of inputs. Genetic engineering approaches have been shown to be comparatively fast, leading to better isolation and cloning of desired traits for combating the various biotic and abiotic stresses. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in peanut using the cotyledon system. The system described here is potentially applicable to a vast range of genotypes with a high transformation frequency of >70% based on the preliminary molecular data, indicating the production of a large number of independently transformed transgenic plants. The method reported here provides opportunities for crop improvement of this important legume crop via genetic transformation.
Purification, characterization and cloning of phospholipase D from peanut seeds.:Protein J. 2006 Apr;25(3):212-23.
We purified phospholipase D (PLD) enzyme from peanut seeds, and the PLD enzyme eluted as two distinct peak fractions on Mono-Q chromatography, the first of which was characterized. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the N-terminus was blocked. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 92 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.0, and the Km value against its substrate phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 4 mM deoxycholate, was estimated to be 0.072 mM. The enzyme catalyzed two reactions, i.e., hydrolysis of PC generating phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline, and transphosphatidylation of the PA-moiety in the PC molecule to the acceptor glycerol, generating phosphatidylglycerol. Furthermore, we cloned two types of full-length cDNA, Ahpld1 and Ahpld2, each encoding distinct PLD molecules having 794 and 807 residues, respectively. The partial amino acid sequence of the purified PLD was consistent with the deduced sequence of AhPLD2.
Effects of Arachis hypogaea nutshell extract on lipid metabolic enzymes and obesity parameters.:Life Sci. 2006 May 8;78(24):2797-803. Epub 2005 Dec 6.Moreno DA, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I.Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, Biotech Center, Cook College, 228 Foran Hall, 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) shell extracts (PSE) on lipases and to evaluate its potential development for the treatment of obesity. The peanut shells were extracted in 95% ethanol, and the extracts were screened for inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase (PL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities as well as on lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also examined in vivo whether PSE could prevent the body weight gain induced by feeding a high-fat diet to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. PSE inhibits a number of lipases, including PL, LPL and, possibly, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). PSE-treated Wistar rats showed increased fecal lipid excretion respect to the control group. Body weight and body weight gain, and liver size, were significantly lower in rats fed the high-fat diet with 1% of PSE (w:w diet) than in those fed the high-fat diet alone. The rats treated with PSE showed reduced triacylglycerol content in the liver, as well as the serum glucose and insulin. The inhibitory activity of PSE on the lipid metabolic enzymes and the increase in fecal fat excretion suggests that PSE might be useful as a treatment to reduce the dietary fat absorption. The observed reduction in intracellular lipolytic activity of cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes may reduce the levels of circulating free fatty acids. The observed effects are likely induced by more than one bioactive component of PSE. The PSE actions may, at least in part, be attributed to the inhibition of fat absorption in the digestive tract and the reduction of the adipocyte lipolysis.
Vinegar and peanut products as complementary foods to reduce postprandial glycemia.:J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Dec;105(12):1939-42.Johnston CS, Buller AJ.Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Mesa 85212, USA. carol.Johnston@asu.edu
Mealtime glycemic load is associated with risk for chronic disease. This study examined whether complementary foods (vinegar and peanut products) could lower postprandial glycemia without altering mealtime glycemic load. Eleven healthy subjects consumed two test meals (bagel and juice, glycemic load=81; or chicken and rice, glycemic load=48) under three conditions (control, vinegar, or peanut) using a randomized, crossover design. Vinegar or peanut ingestion reduced the 60-minute glucose response to both test meals by approximately 55%, but these reductions were significant only for the high-glycemic load meal. After consumption of the high-glycemic load meal, energy consumption for the remainder of the day was weakly affected by the vinegar and peanut treatments, a reduction of approximately 200 to 275 kcal (P=.111). Regression analyses indicated that 60-minute glucose response to the test meals explained 11% to 16% of the variation in later energy consumption. In conclusion, the addition of vinegar or peanut products to a high-glycemic load meal significantly reduced postprandial glycemia.
Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in mouse macrophages by 4-(3-methyl-but-1-enyl)-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene, a resveratrol derivative from peanuts.:Phytother Res. 2005 Jun;19(6):552-5.Patel B, Patel S, Hoffman R.Department of Life Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK.
Resveratrol derivatives are of interest as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and as antiinflammatory agents. The prenylated resveratrol derivative 4-(3-methyl-but-1-enyl)-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene was purified from fungally infected peanuts by thin layer chromatography and its structure was confirmed by mass spectrometry. 4-(3-Methyl-but-1-enyl)-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 protein and cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA in mouse macrophages at concentrations that were non-cytotoxic. 4-(3-Methyl-but-1-enyl)-3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene warrants further evaluation as an antiinflammatory agent.
Determination of the phytoalexin resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) in peanuts and pistachios by high-performance liquid chromatographic diode array (HPLC-DAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 15;53(12):5003-9.Toku?oglu O, Unal MK, Yemi? F.Celal Bayar University, Akhisar M.Y.O., 45200 Akhisar, Manisa, Turkey.
The phytoalexin resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) in edible peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) varieties grown in Turkey was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatographic diode array and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection. trans-Resveratrol in six peanut varieties, five pistachio varieties, and four market samples ranged between 0.03 and 1.92 microg/g. The Cerezlik 5025 peanut (1.92 +/- 0.01 microg/g) and Ohadi pistachio genotype (1.67 +/- 0.01 microg/g) had significantly higher trans-resveratrol contents. Peanuts contained 0.03-1.92 microg/g (av = 0.84 microg/g) of trans-resveratrol, whereas pistachio contained 0.09-1.67 microg/g (av = 1.15 microg/g). With exposure to UV light for 1 min, trans-resveratrol concentrations of samples ranged from 0.02 to 1.47 microg/g and those of cis-resveratrol from 0.008 to 0.32 microg/g. The occurrence of resveratrol in peanut and pistachio was confirmed by total ion chromatograms (TIC) of bis[trimethylsilyl]trifluoroacetamide derivatives of resveratrol isomers and comparison of the mass spectral fragmentation data with those of a resveratrol standard. Formation of the cis-isomer in pistachios was higher than in peanuts.
Production of stilbenoids from the callus of Arachis hypogaea: a novel source of the anticancer compound piceatannol.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 18;53(10):3877-81.Ku KL, Chang PS, Cheng YC, Lien CY.Department of Applied Chemistry and Graduate Institute of Agriculture, National Chiayi University, 300 University Road, Chiayi 60083, Taiwan. email@example.com
A new source to produce a significant quantity of a naturally occurring polyphenol, piceatannol, was investigated in this study. Both resveratrol and piceatannol are recognized as important ingredients in functional foods due to their beneficial health effects. However, unlike resveratrol, the piceatannol concentration in plants is very low. Thus, calluses of peanuts, an easily obtainable source, were chosen as the material to induce piceatannol production under controlled conditions. To induce resveratrol and piceatannol, calluses were exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Significant quantities of resveratrol and piceatannol were produced by calluses upon UV irradiation in both static and suspension culture conditions. The amounts of piceatannol and resveratrol produced in 1 g of calluses ranged from 2.17 to 5.31 microg and from 0.25 to 11.97 microg, respectively, in static culture. In suspension culture, the amounts of induced piceatannol and resveratrol were somewhat lower. The quantities of induced piceatannol and resveratrol reached a maximum at 18 h after UV irradiation treatment in static culture. In contrast, the levels of resveratrol and piceatannol remained almost constant throughout the experiments in suspension culture. The piceatannol produced by calluses in all studies was much higher than the values reported in the literature, whereas the resveratrol produced was comparable to reported values.
Aflatoxin production in peanut lines selected to represent a range of linoleic acid concentrations.:J Food Prot. 2005 Jan;68(1):126-32.Xue HQ, Isleib TG, Payne GA, Novitzky WF, OBrian G.Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.
To determine whether concentrations of linoleate in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed oil could be used to predict an ability to support aflatoxin production, seeds of genotypes representing a range of linoleate content were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and assayed for aflatoxin content. Seeds were blanched and quartered, inoculated with conidia of A. flavus, placed on moistened filter paper in petri dishes, and incubated for 8 days at 28 degrees C. Multiple regression analysis was used to account for the variation among lines with the use of fatty acid concentrations as independent variables. In test 1, linoleate accounted for 39 to 44% of the variation among lines for aflatoxin B1 and B2 and total aflatoxin (26 to 27% after log transformation). Oleate accounted for substantial additional variation (27 to 29%) among lines (20 to 23% after log transformation). Other fatty acids accounted for small fractions of among-line variation. In test 2, linoleate accounted for about 35 to 44% of the variation among entries across traits (29 to 37% for log-transformed data); arachidate accounted for 19 to 29% (27 to 33% after log transformation). Eicosenoate accounted for a small part of the total entry variation. In both experiments, residual variation among entries was significant. Low-linoleate lines consistently contained more aflatoxin, whereas normal- to high-linoleate lines contained variable amounts. Although fatty acid concentrations accounted for significant portions of genetic variation, it is not practical to use them as predictors for susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination, especially for lines in the normal range for oleate and linoleate.
Synthesis and degradation of the peanut storage proteins during seed development and germination.:Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao. 2004 Feb;30(1):115-8. Chinese.Liao B, Lu CB, Wang L, Li HG, Hang SZ.Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275, China.
Three polypeptides, 41 kD and 38.5 kD subunits of arachin and 60.5 kD subunit of conarachin in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Shanyou 523) seeds were purified by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. Polyclonal antibodies against these subunits were raised in mice. Western blot showed that the subunits appeared in axes and cotyledons at the tissue differentiation stage. The 60.5 kD subunit was firstly synthesized and accumulated in considerable quantity in axes and cotyledons, and then the 41 kD and 38.5 kD subunits increased during the development of peanut embryos. The degradation patterns of these three subunits were different during the germination of peanut seeds. The 41 kD and 38.5 kD subunits in the axes and cotyledons were degraded earlier than the 60.5 kD subunit.
Polyphenols from peanut skins and their free radical-scavenging effects.:Phytochemistry. 2004 Aug;65(16):2391-9.Lou H, Yuan H, Ma B, Ren D, Ji M, Oka S.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, PR China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Separation of the water-soluble fraction of peanut skins led to the isolation of five proanthocyanidins. Based on the spectroscopic investigation and partial acid catalyzed degradation, their structures were determined to be epicatechin-(2beta-->O -->7, 4beta -->6)-[epicatechin-(4beta-->8)]-catechin (1), epicatechin-(2beta-->O -->7, 4beta-->8) epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin-(4alpha-->8)-epicatechin (2), and procyanidins B2 (3), B3 (4) and B4 (5). The absolute configuration of the new compounds was determined from their circular dichroism curves and the (1)H NMR spectra of analysis of flavan-3-ols formed by thiolytic degradation of 1 and 2 in the presence of a chiral dirhodium complex (dirhodium tetra-(R)-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl acetate).
Alpha and beta-galactosidase activities and oligosaccharide content in peanuts.:Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2003;58(3):213-23.Bryant RJ, Rao DR, Ogutu S.Department of Food and Animal Science, Alabama A&M University, 4900 Meridian St. N, Normal, AL 35762, USA. email@example.com
Thirty-three peanut cultivars were examined for their alpha-1,6 and beta-1,4 galactosidase activities and oligosaccharide contents along with proximate compositions. The average moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents were: 4.9%, 26.6%, 43.1%, 2.3% and 23.1%, respectively. The corresponding coefficients of variation were: 5.2%, 10.1%, 7.2%, 7.8% and 15.7%, respectively. Raffinose and stachyose contents (%) ranged from 0.05 to 0.12 and 0.31 to 0.61, respectively. The specific activity (micromol product/min/mg protein) of crude preparation of alpha-galactosidase for the 33 cultivars ranged from 1.096 to 2.784 for the non-germinated seeds and from not being detected in some samples up to 2.432 for the germinated seeds; the mean values for non-germinated and germinated seeds were: 1.781 and 1.410, respectively. The specific activity of beta-galactosidase ranged from 0.101 to 1.727 in the non-germinated seeds and from not being detected in some samples up to 0.898 in the germinated seeds. Germination decreased the activity of both galactosidases significantly (p < or = 0.05).
Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract.:Arb Paul Ehrlich Inst Bundesamt Sera Impfstoffe Frankf A M. 2003;(94):97-105; discussion 106.Poulsen LK, Pedersen MH, Platzer M, Madsen N, Sten E, Bindslev-Jensen C, Dircks CG, Skov PS.Lab. Medical Allergology 7542, National University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen.
Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number of samples. We describe the use of rabbit basophils as a tool in biological standardization. Using peanut as a model allergen, it is described how rabbits immunized for production of antiserum may become sensitized and their basophils used for histamine release experiments. It is also possible to use rabbit antiserum to passively sensitize basophils derived from naive rabbits, but the sensitivity of this method is so far 100-1000 times lower than the direct histamine release. The rabbit histamine release results are compared to an ELISA developed by means of the same antisera and by passive sensitization of human basophils using serum from a strongly sensitized peanut-allergic patient. The overall sensitivity of the methods were ELISA > HR-human cells > HR-sensitized rabbit cells > HR-passively sensitized rabbit cells. The use of rabbit basophils for biological standardizations will allow for the use of rabbit antisera.
New approaches for the treatment of anaphylaxis.:Novartis Found Symp. 2004;257:248-60; discussion 260-4, 276-85.Leung DY, Shanahan WR, Li XM, Sampson HA.Division of Pediatric Allergy/Immunology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA.
Anaphylaxis represents the most extreme form of life-threatening allergic reactions. However, effective long-term therapies for this condition are not currently available. A number of potential approaches have proven effective in murine models of peanut-induced anaphylaxis and are currently being considered in humans, including the use of vaccines containing 'engineered' recombinant food proteins and Chinese herbal medications. TNX-901 is a humanized IgG1 anti-IgE mAb that recognizes and masks an epitope in the CH3 region responsible for binding to the high affinity Fc epsilon receptor (FcepsilonRI) on basophils and mast cells. Recently, we conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose escalation trial in 84 patients with a history of peanut allergy. Allergy was confirmed and the threshold dose of encapsulated peanut established by a double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral food challenge (DBPCOFC) at screening. Patients were randomized 3:1 in three dose groups to receive either TNX-901 (150, 300 and 450 mg) or placebo subcutaneously every four weeks for four doses. They underwent a final open food challenge within 2-4 weeks after the last dose of study medication. From mean baseline values of 178-436 mg in the various treatment groups, the mean increases in the open food challenge threshold were 710, 913, 1650 and 2627 mg for the placebo, 150, 300 and 450 mg for TNX-901 dose groups, respectively (P = 0.0004, 450 mg vs. placebo; P = 0.0008 for trend with dose). TNX-901 was well tolerated. TNX-901 at a dosage of 450 mg significantly increased the threshold of sensitivity to peanut by open food challenge from a level of about half a peanut (178 mg) to almost nine peanuts (2805 mg). These studies suggest that treatment of patients with anti-IgE therapy may represent an effective long-term approach for management of food-induced anaphylaxis.
Purification of phospholipase D by two-phase affinity extraction.:J Chromatogr A. 2004 Feb 6;1025(2):297-301.Teotia S, Gupta MN.Chemistry Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India.
An aqueous two-phase system of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-salt was used for purification of phospholipase D (PLD) from peanuts and carrots. Alginate, a known macroaffinity ligand for PLD, was incorporated in the PEG phase and resulted in 91 and 93% of the enzyme activity (from peanuts and carrots, respectively) getting partitioned in the PEG phase. The elution of the enzyme from alginate was facilitated by exploiting the fact that the latter can be reversibly precipitated in the presence of Ca2+. The enzyme was eluted from the polymer by using 0.5 M NaCl. Peanuts and carrots PLD could be purified 78- and 17-fold with 82 and 85% activity recovery, respectively. The purified enzyme from both sources gave a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) electrophoresis.
- 1.Peanut history and it's phytochemicals.
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