Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.
- Botanical Data Info of Black Pepper.
- Habitata,Cultivation and Origin of Pepper.
- Black Pepper Production.
- Black Pepper:Description and Varieties.
- History of Black Pepper and Medicinal Use.
- Table Black Peper,Coarse Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper Directions:Common use,healing qualities and cooking tips.
- Recipe of Black Pepper.
- Black Pepper:Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- Health Benefits,Medicinal Action and Uses of Black Pepper.
- Administration and Safety of Black Pepper.
- Nutrients of black pepper.
- Research Update: Black pepper or Piper nigrum L.
Black Pepper:Phytochemicals and Constituents.:
Black Pepper Constituents:
piperitone, C10H16O; piperine, C17H19NO3, 3.15%~4.82%.
Black pepper is an excellent source of manganese, a very good source of iron and vitamin K, and a good source of dietary fiber.
Piperine, which is identical in composition to morphia, volatile oil, a resin called Chavicin. Its medicinal activities depends mainly on its pungent resin and volatile oil, which is colourless, turning yellow with age, with a strong odour, and not so acrid a taste as the peppercorn; it also contains starch, cellulose and colouring.
Black pepper contains about 3% essential oil, whose aroma is dominated (max. 80%) by monoterpenes hydrocarbons: sabinene, beta-pinene, limonene, furthermore terpinene, alpha-pinene, myrcene, delta3-carene and monoterpene derivatives (borneol, carvone, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, linalool). Sesquiterpenes make up about 20% of the essential oil: beta-caryophyllene, humulene,beta-bisabolone and caryophyllene oxide and ketone. Phenylether (eugenol, myristicin, safrole) are found in traces. Loss of monoterpenes due to bad storage conditions (especially for ground pepper) should be avoided.
The most importants odorants organoleptically in black pepper are linalool, alpha-phellandrene, limonene, myrcene and alpha-pinene; furthermore, branched-chain aldehydes were found (3-methylbutanal, methylpropanal). The musty flavour of old pepper is attributed to the formation of heterocyclic compounds (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine) in concentrations of about 1 ppb. (Eur. Food Res. Technol., 209, 16, 1999)
The essential oil of white pepper has received less attention; the content of essential oil is lower (1%), and the most abundant compounds are monoterpene hydrocarbons: limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene and alpha-phellandrene. Organoleptically most important are linalool (although ocurring as a minor component), limonene, alpha-pinene and phenylpropanoids (eugenol, piperonal); furthermore, short-chain aldehydes and carboxylic acids have been found important. In overstored white pepper, scatole is formed (2 ppm) and imparts an unpleasant, faecal flavour. (Eur. Food Res. Technol., 209, 27, 1999).
The pungent principle in pepper is an alkaloid-analog compound, piperine; it is the amide of 5-(2,4-dioxymethylene-phenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (piperinic acid) with azinane (piperidine); only the trans,trans conformer contributes to pepper's pungency. Several piperine-analogs have been isolated from black pepper where the acid carbon backbone is partially hydrogenated (piperanine) or two carbon atoms longer (piperettine); amides of piperinic acid with pyrrolidine (piperyline) or isobutylamine (piperlongumine) have also been isolated. Total content of piperine-analogs in black pepper is about 5%.
Black pepper contains a volatile oil (including beta-bisabolene, camphene, beta-caryophyllene, and many other terpenes and sesquiterpenes), up to 9% alkaloids (especially piperine, largely responsible for the herb's acrid taste), about 11 % proteins, and small amounts of Minerals. White pepper contains very little volatile oil.
Other Constituents of Black pepper:chavicine;piperamine;piperyline;pipenoleine A;pipenoleine B;pipenoleine C;pipercide;dihydropipercide;piperamide-A5:2(E,E);piperamide-C5:1(2E);piperamide-C7:1(6E);piperamide-C7:2(2E,6E);piperamide-C9:1(8E);piperamide-C9:2(2E,8E);piperamide-C9:3(2E,4E,8E);1-[(2E,4E)-2,4-Decadienoyl] pyrrolidine;1-[(2E,4E)-2,4-Dodecadienoyl]pyrr-olidine;piperamide-B9:3(2E,4E,8E);piperamide-B11:3(2E,4E,10E);piperamide-C5:2(E,F);piperamide-A7:3(E,E,E);piperamide-B13:3(2E,4E,12E);piperamide-A9:1(8E).
Bioantioxidant: N-trans-lerulogltyramine; N-trans-femloylperidine.
3,4-dihydroxyph-enylethanol glycoside; O-diphenol oxidase;
Violate oil(1.2%~2.6% in black pepper fruit;0.8% in white pepper fruit): pipperonal; dihydrcarveol; caryophyllene;cryptone; cis-p-2-menthen-1-ol; cis-p-2,8-menthadien-l-ol; transpinocarrol.
Volatile Oil of pepper root mainly contains trans-caryophylene,about 51.20%.
Black pepper is a tropical twining plant from southern India. At one time Goa was the major exporter, but now black pepper is grown in all South-East Asia. The photo on the left shows a pepper plantation in Malaysia. The small fruits are green at first, then red, and black at last. When the half-ripened fruits are harvested and dried, 'black pepper' is obtained, with the dried, wrinkled skin (flesh) surrounding the seeds. When the ripe fruits are harvested and the skin removed, the naked seeds or 'white pepper' is obtained. The unripe, green peppers may be pickled in brine or vinegar. The pepper seeds contain a volatile oil and the non-volatile compound piperine, the latter being responsible for the burning effect on the mucous membranes.
Pepper oil recently has had a revival in perfumery. It is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed seeds and has an intensely woody, fresh and piquant odour, especially popular in masculine perfumes. Pepper oil is mainly composed of cyclic monoterpenes with 3-carene as the major component (around 35 %). Moreover, a number of hitherto unidentified sesquiterpenes probably contribute to its character. The spicy-aromatic and musky men's perfume Extreme Polo Sport (Ralph Lauren 1998) uses as much as 6 % pepper oil.
The genus Piper has many members, several of which are utilized, e.g. long pepper, cubeb pepper, betel pepper, ashanti pepper and kava.
Etymology: Lat. piper, from Sanskrit pippali. 'Pepper' has been used figuratively meaning 'energy', as in 'pep talk'. Several non-related species used as spices are also called peppers, e.g. Chile pepper, Cayenne pepper, pink pepper, Sichuan pepper, Tasmanian pepper.
New amide alkaloids from the roots of Piper nigrum:
Seven new amide alkaloids, named N-isobutyl-4-hexanoyl-4-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-one(1), (+/-)-erythro-1-(1-oxo-4,5-dihydroxy-2E-decaenyl)piperidine (2),(+/-)-threo-1-(1- oxo-4,5-dihydroxy-2E-decaenyl)piperidine (3),(+/-)-threo-N-isobutyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2E-octaenamide (4),1-(1,6-dioxo-2E,4E-decadienyl)piperidine (5),1-[1-oxo-3(3,4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-2Z-propenyl]piperidine (6), and 1-[1-oxo-5(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2Z,4E-pentadienyl]pyrrolidine (7), were isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum, together with 32 known amides.
- 1.Black Pepper,Black Pepper Seed,Piper nigrum,Piper:the Kind of spices,one of the oldest and the most popular spice in the world.
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