Administration and Suggestions of Elderberry.
- Basic Botanical Information of Elderberry.
- Plant Parts Introduction of Sambucus Nigra,Sambucus Canadensis.
- Botanical Description of Sambucus Nigra and Sambucus Canadensis.
- Habitat of European Elder,American Elder and Dwarf Elder.
- History of Elderberry.
- Chemistry and Pharmacology of Elderberry.
- Phyto-chemicals and Nutrients Profile of Elder Berry.
- Medicinal Constituents of Elderberry Parts.
- Medicinal Uses in brief of Elderberry Plant Part.
- Medicinal Uses and Effects,Therapeutics and Pharmacology of Elderberry.
- Edible Uses of Elderberry.
- Other Uses of Elderberry.
- Magical Uses of Elderberry.
- Elder or Jie Gu Mu:Notes from Ancient Herbal Classics and Herbalists.
- Administration and Suggestions of Elder and Elderberry.
- Research Update:Sambucus nigra or Elderberry
Administration and Suggestions of Elderberry.:
Elderberry Most Common Dosage Standardization.
Flowers: 500mg (standardized extract), 2-3 times a day.
Flowers- 5% bioflavonoids per dose.
Tea: Pour 5 ounces of boiling water over 2 heaping teaspoonfuls of dried elder flowers, steep and drink 1~2 cups, 3 times a day.
Elderberry-flower tea is made by steeping 3 to 5 g of dried flowers in 1 cup of boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes. A typical dosage is 1 cup 3 times daily. Standardized extracts should be taken according to the directions on the product's label.
Berries: Capsules - 500mg (standardized extract), 2~3 times a day.
Berries: Liquid extract:1 tablespoonful (15ml), 2-3 times a day for 3~4 days.
Berries: Capsules - 500mg (standardized extract), 3 times a day.
Berries: 30% anthocyanins with 8% total acids and 7% total phenols per dose.
Elderberry fruit syrups are often standardized to 30~38 percent elderberry.
Powdered extracts are dosed at 500 mg (capsule) 2~3 times daily.
Liquid form, dosed at one teaspoonful (10 mL) 4 times daily.
For children one teaspoon times per day.
In the case of acute viral infections, course of treatment is generally at least three days.
The most current available medical and scientific literature indicates that this dietary supplement should be standardized to:
The flower preparations are usually administered as teas and alcoholic extracts, and are often found in composite herbal remedies. The traditional dose is 3-5 g of the flower, and this is typically administered 2-3 times a day. Topical cosmetic preparations are used for the skin and eyes. Sinupret contains 18 mg of powdered elder flower extract per dose in combination with other herbs, and Sambucol (a standardized elderberry extract) is marketed in the U.S. by both J.B. Harris and Nature's Way.
Combinations:The flowers may be combined with Achillea and Mentha piperata for colds and influenza, or with Achillea and/or Hyssopus in influenza. For catarrhal states Sambucus can be combined with Solidago.
Elderberry or Jie Gu Mu:Administration and Suggestions from Pharmacopoeias.
Indications and Dosage from CCHM for Elderberry(Jie Gu Mu):The CCHM defined the herb Elderberry(Jie Gu Mu) as the whole herb of the Caprifoliaceae family plant Sambucus williamsii Hance,and noted the herb Elderberry(Jie Gu Mu) taste sweet,bitterness,nature plain.Enter into liver meridians.Main functions reunion of bone muscle and ligament,promoting blood circulation to arrest pain,dispelling wind evil(dispel the wind relieve rheumatic pains colds, etc.)and remove dampness through diuresis.Indicated for cataclasis(catagma,fractura,fracture),traumatic injury(injuries from falls,fractures,contusions and strains),rheumatic arthritis,gout(arthrolithiasis,urathritis),Kaschin-Beck disease(osteoarthritis deformans),acute nephritis and chronic nephritis;external indicated for traumatic injury bleeding.Suggested Dosage 0.5~1 liang,proper amount for external application.(2)
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Williams Elder Twig(Jie Gu Mu):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) defined the herb Elderberry(Jie Gu Mu) as the branches and twigs of the Caprifoliaceae family plant 1.Sambucus williamsii Hance,2.Sambucus williamsii Hance var. miquelii (Nakai) Y.C.Tang,3.Sambucus nigra L.It noted the herb taste sweet,bitter,nature plain.Enter into liver meridians.Main functions dispelling wind evil(dispel the wind relieve rheumatic pains colds, etc.)and remove dampness through diuresis,invigorate the circulation of blood,hemostasis(stanch bleeding).Indicated for rheumatism painful impediment,gout(arthrolithiasis,urathritis),Kaschin-Beck disease(osteoarthritis deformans),acute nephritis and chronic nephritis,rubella(nettle rash,urticaria,measles),traumatic injury(injuries from falls,fractures,contusions and strains),cataclasis(catagma,fractura,fracture) swelling pain,traumatic injury bleeding.Suggested Dosage:internal as decoction 15~30 grams,or into pellets,powder.External proper amount mash up apply or wash therapy,or grind powder and apply at affected area.Cautions should be paid pregnant shoud Not take the herb.(3)
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Root of Williams elder(Jie Gu Mu Gen):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) defined the herb Root of Williams elder(Jie Gu Mu Gen) as the root or root bark of the Caprifoliaceae family plant 1.Sambucus williamsii Hance,2.Sambucus williamsii Hance var. miquelii (Nakai) Y.C.Tang,3.Sambucus nigra L.It noted the herb taste bitter,sweet,nature plain.Main functions dispelling wind and eliminating dampness,promoting the circulation and relaxing the tendons,]inducing diuresis to reduce edema.Indicated for arthritis pain,phlegm and fluid retention,icterus(jaundice,aurigo),traumatic injury and stasis pain,cataclasis(catagma,fractura,fracture) swelling pain,acute nephritis and chronic nephritis,burns and scalds.Suggested Dosage internal as decoction 15~30 grams,external proper amount mash up or grind powder apply at affected area.(3)
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Flower of Williams Elder(Jie Gu Mu Hua):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) defined the herb Flower of Williams Elder(Jie Gu Mu Hua) as the flower of the Caprifoliaceae family plant 1.Sambucus williamsii Hance,2.Sambucus williamsii Hance var. miquelii (Nakai) Y.C.Tang,3.Sambucus nigra L.It noted the herb taste hot(pungent),nature warm.Main functions induce perspiration and prompt diuresis,indicated for common cold,dysuria(difficulty in micturition).Suggested Dosage internal as decoction 4.5~9 grams,or brewing tea drink.(3)
Indications and Dosage from CHMM for Leaf of Willianms Elder(Jie Gu Mu Ye):The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) defined the herb Leaf of Willianms Elder(Jie Gu Mu Ye) as the leaves of the Caprifoliaceae family plant 1.Sambucus williamsii Hance,2.Sambucus williamsii Hance var. miquelii (Nakai) Y.C.Tang,3.Sambucus nigra L.It noted the herb taste hot(pungent) and bitter,nature plain.Main functions prompt blood circulation,relax tendons,relieve pain,eliminate dampness.Indicated for traumatic and bones injuries,arthralgia and myalgia(bones aching,sinew and bone pain),rheumatoid arthritis pains,gout(arthrolithiasis,urathritis),beri-beri(barbiers,beriber,dermatophytosis),burns and scalds.Suggested Dosage:internal as decoction 6~9 grams,or soaking with wine,external proper amount mash up or water decoction fumigation and wash,or grind powder and apply at affected area.(3)
Indications and Dosage from APA Guide for Elder:The APA Guide book give some guide of indications and dosage for the herb Elder,it classified 2 species under the title "Elder",which included "Sambucus canadensis L.(American elder) and Sambucus nigra L.(European elder),Family:Caprifoliaceae.Common Names:Common elder,elderberry,sambucus,sweet elder",it defined the medidinal parts are "the small cream-colored flowers,blue-black fruit('berries'),roots,and inner bark have been used medicinally.",it give some brief introduction of the herb uses in various fields, "What It Is Used For:Elder is steeped in folklore,the flowers and dried fruit('berries') having been variously used since ancient times as flavorings,food colorings,and ingredients in perfumes,wines,preserves,and other foods.Both the flowers and the berries have also been valued as healing agents to induce perspiration for feverish chills,promote urination as a diuretic('water pill'),dispel constipation,fight rheumatic inflammation,and control coughs,colds,flus,and associated fevers.External formulations have been enlisted as astringents,pain relievers,and gargles.",togethor it give some dosage suggestions of the herb flower,"Dosage Commonly Reported:Elder-flower tea is made with 2 teaspoons dried flowers per cup of water and is drunk several times per day.To use commercial ointments and teas containing elder,follow the package instructions."(4),togethor it give some explain of the elder-flower properties and safety evaluation too.
Indications and Dosage from PDR for European Elder(Sambucus nigra):The PDR 4th edition defined the herb European Elder as from botanical origin Sambucus nigra,and noted the "medicinal parts are the bark peeled from the branches in spring and freed from the cork,the air-dried flowers,the fresh and dried leaves,the fresh and dried ripe fruit,the dried roots,and the fresh leaves,and inflorescences in equal parts.",the herb used more frequency at Europe area and they made a lot study with it,it give some brief indications of their CE approved as for "Cough/bronchitis,Fevers and colds:the drug is used for colds and coughs.It is a sweat-producing remedy for the treatment of feverish colds.",and it note some folks medicine and Homeopathic uses of the herb too,as "Unproven Uses:In folk medicine,Elder flowers are used internally as a sudorific tea and for colds and other feverish conditions.Elder is also used as an infusion,as a gargle/mouthwash and for respiratory disorders such as coughs,head colds,laryngitis,flu,and shortness of breath.Elder is used occasionally by nursing mothers to increase lactation.Externally,herbal pillows are used for swelling and inflammation.Homeopathic Uses:Among uses in homeopathy is inflammation of the respiratory tract.",togethor it give some noted of precautions and adverse reactions in details sound not like a standard phrase but useful,and drug interactions,for administration,it suggested as "Dosage:Mode of Administration:Whole herb and other galenic preparations for infusions.Preparation:To prepare an infusion,brew 2 teaspoonfuls(3 to 4 g) of elder flowers in 150 mL of boiling water and strain after 5 minutes.Daily Dosage:the average daily dose of the drug is 10 to 15 g.The infusion(tea) should be freshly prepared and drunk in doses of 1 to 2 cups several times-especially in the afternoon and evening.Homeopathic Dosage:For adults,5 drops,1 tablet,or 10 globules every 30 to 60 minutes(acute) or 1 to 3 times daily(chronic);parenterally: 1 to 2 mL sc acute:3 times daily;chronic once a day(HAB1).Adjust dosages for children.Storage:Elder should be stored where it is protected from light and moisture."(5)
Precautions,Adverse Reactions,Safety and Toxicity of Elder.
Precautions,Adverse Reactions:"Only fully ripe purple berries are used,as red berries can be mildly toxic.Leaves,shoots,bark,and raw(red)berries contain a cyanogenic glycoside,sambunigrin,that can cause dizziness,headache,convulsions,gastrointestinal distress,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea and tachycardia(Brinker,1989).Bark lectins may stimulate hyperplasia of the small intestine.Data suggest Sambucus may be a source of potential harm to diabetic patients and caution should be advised."(5)
Drug Interactions:Potential Interactions"Iron:the tannin content of Elder may complex with iron,and may result in adverse sequelae on blood components.Clinical Management:Patients who need iron supplementations should separate administration times of iron and Elder by two hours."(5)
Safety In General:Primarily on the basis of years of folk use,elder-flower preparations appear to be safe to consume.German authorities report that they cause no known side effects or negative reactions with other medicines.The raw berries are edible but may cause nausea and vomiting,once properly cooked,however,they pose no risk,as any lover of elderberry jam knows.The leaves and stems contain the potentially fatal poison cyanide,carefully avoid them.
Toxicities and Precautions:Toxicology
Be sure to tell your pharmacist, doctor, or other health care providers about any dietary supplements you are taking. There may be a potential for interactions or side effects.
General:This dietary supplement is considered safe when used in accordance with proper dosing guidelines.
Consumption of the roots, stems, leaves and unripe fruit of the elder plant is not recommended. These parts of the plant can induce vomiting or severe diarrhea if ingested.
Because of the cyanogenic potential of the leaves, extracts of the plant may be used in foods, provided HCN levels do not exceed 25 ppm in the flavor. Toxicity in children who used pea shooters made from elderberry stems has been reported.
One report of severe illness following the ingestion of juice prepared from elderberries has been recorded by the Centers for Disease Control. People attending a picnic, who ingested several glasses of juice made from berries picked the day before, reported nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, numbness, and stupor. One person who consumed 5 glasses of juice was hospitalized for stupor. All recovered. Although cyanide levels were not reported, there remains the possibility of cyanide-induced toxicity in these patients. While elderberries are safe to consume, particularly when cooked (uncooked berries may produce nausea), leaves and stems should not be crushed when making elderberry juice.
The bark should not be used in pregnancy as it is a strong purgative while the unripe berries, young bark and leaves contain the toxic glycoside d-sambunigrin which can produce hydrocyanic acid.
Toxicity of the Elder Root:The CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica) defined noted the water extracts of the Root of Williams elder(Jie Gu Mu Gen) "LD50 for Kunming-mice,I.V.(intravenous injection),value is LD50 1.90±0.32g/kg".(3)
To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects related to fetal development during pregnancy or to infants who are breast-fed. Yet little is known about the use of this dietary supplement while pregnant or breast-feeding. Therefore, it is recommended that you inform your healthcare practitioner of any dietary supplements you are using while pregnant or breast-feeding.
To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects specifically related to the use of this dietary supplement in children. Since young children may have undiagnosed allergies or medical conditions, this dietary supplement should not be used in children under 10 years of age unless recommended by a physician.
Role For Anti-Aging:
An animal study carried out in 1987 reported that elder flowers had moderately strong anti-inflammatory properties, however, no further research to back this claim has been carried out. Recent research carried out at Tufts University has revealed that elderberry contains four anthocyanins that work to protect endothelial cells, which line artery walls, from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.
Black elderberry got noted has potent antioxidant properties,some cosmetic products declared the flavanoids present in these lozenges are among the most potent naturally occurring antioxidants available.On this property,the positive effects of elderberries have already been established:as early as at July 6,2007,Science Daily claims "forget expensive moisturisers and cosmetic surgery, a compound found in the humble elderberry could give a natural boost to skin.",the specific 12-week trial on post-menopausal women(aged between 45 and 70, non-smokers and not on HRT) will consume either extracts from elderberries or four capsules each day for 12-weeks, and will have their skin's structure and appearance measured with state-of-the-art equipment used by experts in skin science. At the same time, researchers will also test whether the elderberry extract can reduce risk factors for heart disease.
There are no confirmed drug interactions with elderberry extract. However, due to the ability of Sambucus flower extracts to potentiate insulin release in vitro, patients with diabetes should be advised to monitor blood sugar closely when using flower extracts.
No adverse reactions to elderberry are known to exist. Raw berries are edible but may cause nausea and vomiting. Herbal products made from the leaves, stems or bark of the elderberry tree should NOT be taken internally as they contain the potentially fatal poison cyanide.
Elderberry extracts are generally without side effects when taken in the suggested dosages. Berries should be cooked, as the consumption of uncooked berries or juice can result in vomiting and diarrhea. Certain constituents of the leaves, stems, flowers, and roots contain poisonous alkaloids. It has also been reported that small percentages of the general population have a type-1 allergy to Sambucus nigra as evidenced by positive-skin prick or RAST test.
Elderberry flowers are generally regarded as safe. Side effects are rare and consist primarily of occasional mild gastrointestinal distress or allergic reactions. Nonetheless, safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.The stems, roots, unripe berries, and seeds may contain cyanide, and could cause vomiting and severe diarrhea if chewed or eaten uncooked. Ripe berries are safe when prepared for use in foods.
Elder as a Ward:
Elder:Spirits were believed to have inhabited elder trees, and for this reason, the tree was accociated with witches and bad luck (Huxley 2203).
As a Ward:If properly handled, it was believed an elder tree could protect and inable one "under certain circumstances to find out what witches were doing" (Huxley 2203).
1: Sambucus nigra,Black elder,Elderberry and its narration literature.
2: see CCHM(Quan Guo Zhong Cao Yao Hui Bian,or Compilation of Chinese Herbal Medicine)
3: see CHMM(Zhong Hua Ben Cao,or Chinese Herbal Materia Medica)
4: see The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines,1st Ed,under title "Elder",p240~241.
5: see PDR for Herbal Medicines 4th Ed.under title "European Elder(Sambucus nigra)",p298~300.
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