Therapeutics and Pharmacology of Panax Ginseng.
- Botanical Identification and Info of Panax Ginseng.
- Difference between Ginsengs.
- Plant Description of Ginseng.
- Overview and tells of Panax ginseng.
- Panax ginseng Asian ginseng root.
- Constituents and Phytochemicals of Panax Ginseng.
- Uses of Panax Ginseng.
- Therapeutics and Pharmacology of Panax Ginseng.
- Substitutes of Panax Ginseng.
- How to use Panax Ginseng: dosage,administration,precautions and combinations.
- The Ginseng Trade War.
- Research Update:Panax ginseng and Ginsenoside
Therapeutics and Pharmacology of Panax Ginseng.
Pharmacologically, ginseng is nonspecific in its effects and is capable of a normalizing action irrespective of the pathological situation. Ginseng's effects include improved mental performance, learning, and memory and sensory awareness. The basis of ginseng's action is believed to be due to certain chemical agents in it that increase the brain's adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) activity without involving the adrenal glands. A generalized mental arousal is thereby effected.
The biologically active constituents in P. ginseng are a complex mixture of triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides (Lewis, 1986; Ng and Yeung, 1986; Liu and Xiao, 1992). The root contains 2~3% ginsenosides of which Rg1, Rc, Rd, Rb1, Rb2, and Rb0 are quantitatively the most important.
At least 30 ginsenosides have been isolated and characterized (Ng and Yeung, 1986). The pharmacological actions of individual ginsenosides may work in opposition. For example, the two main ginsenosides, Rb1 and Rg1, respectively suppress and stimulate the central nervous system (Chong and Oberholzer, 1988). These opposing actions may contribute to the "adaptogenic" description of ginseng and its purported ability to balance bodily functions. Ginseng's pharmacological activities may be multiple and complex, due not only to ginsenosides but to a variety of compounds such as panacene (a peptidoglycan), which has exhibited hypoglycemic activity (Konno et al., 1984), a peptide with insulinomimetic properties (Ando et al., 1980), and salicylate and vanillic acid, which showed antioxidant and antifatigue effects in animals (Han et al., 1983).
The Commission E reported that in various stress models such as immobilization test and coldness test, the resistance of rodents was enhanced. Ginseng is reported to possess hormone-like and cholesterol-lowering effects, promote vasodilatation, and act as an anxiolytic and antidepressant (Choi et al., 1995; Chong and Oberholzer, 1988). Many studies on animals have found ginseng extracts and ginsenosides to be effective in stimulating learning, memory, and physical capabilities (Petkov and Mosharrof, 1987), supporting radioprotection (Takeda et al., 1981; Takeda et al., 1982), providing resistance to infection (Singh et al, 1984), demonstrating antioxidant and antifatigue effects (Han et al., 1983; Saito et al., 1974), enhancing energy metabolism (Avakian et al., 1984), and reducing plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides while elevating HDL levels (Yamamoto et al., 1983). A recent study at Yale University has suggested that ginseng's vasodilatory action may be due to nitric oxide synthesis (Gillis, 1997).
Recent reports on the pharmacology of ginseng indicate a wide range of effects, including influence on the central nervous system, endocrine and adrenocortical systems, internal, organs, metabolism, blood pressure and sugar, gonadotropic activity, cellular ageing, tumours, and stress. Ginseng appears to relieve stress, increase sexual activity, and facilitate mating in laboratory animals. The herb has been reported to be effective in prolonging survival time during cardiac arrest. It is reported to show hypoglycemic activity. Asian Ginseng has also been identified to protect the testis against 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-di-benzo-di-p-DIOXIN inducing testicular damage. This particular dioxin is the most dangerous of perhaps the most toxic chemical group known to science. Dioxins are known to cause cancer in humans.
Other data shows it works not only in preventing adult diseases including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and impotence but can also aid in treatment.
German Commission E monograph and WHO support the use of ginseng as a prophylactic and restorative agent for enhancement of mental and physical capacities, in cases of weakness, exhaustion, tiredness, and loss of concentration, and during convalescence (WHO, 1999). In general, ginseng is used as a tonic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, immune booster, blood pressure modulator (lowers and raises, depending on needs), and a modulator of blood sugar level (lowers or raise, depending on needs).
Effects on the central nervous system:
Depending on which active component of Ginseng is exerting the predominant pharmacological action, Ginseng can have an excitatory or an inhibitory effect on the central nervous system.
Ginseng enhances the body's immunity and adaptability, and counteracts lipid peroxidation.
Ginseng inhibits plasma cyclic nucleoside-phosphate.The water decoction of Ginseng can significantly enhance the activity of liver cell DNA methylase in mice of physiological renal deficiency.
Effects on Alzheimer's disease:
Administered to patients of Alzheimer's disease, Ginseng can regulate their central cholinergy level and the change in the monoamine nerve transmitter.
Ginseng significantly inhibits S180 and H22 sarcomas with an average inhibition rate of 24.88% and 41.10%, respectively.
Research on central nervous transmitter, protein and cerebral nucleic acid synthesis, and the second messenger system shows that Ginseng promotes intelligence.
As rats age, their plasma T3, T4 cortisol levels decrease; Ginseng is observed to be able to reverse this trend.
Lowering blood sugar:
Administered at the dosage of 30g/kg, Ginseng can significantly lower the blood sugar level in mice of alloxan-induced diabetes. The same effect is not observed in healthy mice.
Effects on endotoxins:
Although Ginseng extract is not known to be capable of destroying directly the structure of endotoxins, it does counteract induced heat, decrease in white blood cell count, and shock.
Effects on myocardial ischemia:
Ginseng can lower the cAMP level ischemic cardiac muscles.
Effects on protein glycosylation:
Ginseng inhibits both human serum albumin and rat crystalline.
Sweet and slightly bitter in flavor, slightly warm in nature, and related to the heart, spleen and lung channels.
Invigorates qi, treats collapes, reinforces the spleen, nourishes the lung, promotes yin (the production of the body fluid), quenches thirst, tranquilizes the mind and improves intelligence.
Ginseng can strongly invigorate the primordial qi, quickly restore collapse and slowly tonify the deficiency. It is the first important herb to treat collapse due to extreme deficiency of priordial qi and internal injury caused by overstrain.
Ginseng has a history of herbal use going back over 5,000 years. It is one of the most highly regarded of herbal medicines in the Orient, where it has gained an almost magical reputation for being able to promote health, general body vigour and also to prolong life.
Nourishes the five internal organs, soothes the nerves and spirit, settles the soul, stops the palpitations, eliminates pathogenic factors, clears the eyes, opens the way to happiness and benefits the development of wisdom.
- 1.What is the differenciation between Panax ginseng and Ginsengs,How to use Panax Ginseng,Chemistry and Pharmacology,Substitutes?
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