Turmeric Root or Curcuma Root,Phytochemicals and Applications.
- Basic Botanical Data and Identification of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Description of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Origin of Curcuma root.
- Curcuma Root Appearance and characters.
- Powdered plant material of Curcuma Root.
- Chemical assays and Phytochemicals of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Medicinal uses of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Experimental pharmacology of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Functions of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Curcuma Root Suggestions and Administrations.
- Literature from Chinese historical sources:Curcuma Root.
- Modern Researches of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.
- Curcuma longa Common Application.
- Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation.
- Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury.
- Quality control including chromatographic fingerprint profiling.
- Research Update:Curcumae Longae.Curcuma longa.
Experimental pharmacology of Turmeric Root.Curcuma Root.:
The anti-inflammatory activity of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae has been demonstrated in animal models. Intraperitoneal administration of the drug in rats effectively reduced both acute and chronic inflammation in carrageenin-induced paw oedema, the granuloma pouch test, and the cotton pellet granuloma test.
The effectiveness of the drug in rats was reported to be similar to that of hydrocortisone acetate or indometacin in experimentally induced inflammation. Oral administration of turmeric juice or powder did not produce an anti-inflammatory effect; only intraperitoneal injection was effective.
The volatile oil has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in rats against adjuvant-induced arthritis, carrageenin-induced paw oedema, and hyaluronidase-induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity appears to be mediated through the inhibition of the enzymes trypsin and hyaluronidase. Curcumin and its derivatives are the active anti-inflammatory constituents of the drug.
After intraperitoneal administration, curcumin and sodium curcuminate exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenin-induced oedema test in rats and mice. Curcumin was also found to be effective after oral administration in the acute carrageenin-induced oedema test in mice and rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin may be due to its ability to scavenge oxygen radicals, which have been implicated in the inflammation process. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of a polysaccharide fraction, isolated from the drug, increased phagocytosis capacity in mice in the clearance of colloidal carbon test.
Activity against peptic ulcer and dyspepsia"
Oral administration to rabbits of water or methanol extracts of the drug significantly decreased gastric secretion and increased the mucin contents of gastric juice. Intragastric administration of an ethanol extract of the drug to rats effectively inhibited gastric secretion and protected the gastroduodenal mucosa against injuries caused by pyloric ligation, hypothermic-restraint stress, indometacin, reserpine, and mercaptamine administration, andcytodestructive agents such as 80%, methanol, 0.6 mol/1 hydrochloric acid, 0.2 mol/1 sodium hydroxide and 25%, sodium chloride. The drug stimulated the produc- tion of gastric wall mucus, and it restored non-protein sulfides in rats. Curcumin, one of the anti-inflammatory constituents of the drug, has been shown to prevent and ameliorate experimentally induced gastric lesions in animal models by stimulation of mucin production. Hqwever, there are conflicting reports regarding the protective action of curcumin against histamine-induced gastric ulceration in guinea-pigs.
Moreover, both intra- peritoneal and oral administration of curcumin (100 mglkg) have been reported to induce gastric ulceration in rats.
Non-specific inhibition of smooth muscle contractions in isolated guinea-pig ileum by sodium curcuminate has been reported.
The effect of curcumin on intestinal gas formation has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Addition of curcumin to Clostridium perfringens of intestinal origin in vitro and to a chickpea flour diet fed to rats led to a gradual reduction in gas formation.
Both the essential oil and sodium curcuminate increase bile secretion after intravenous administration to dogs. In addition, gall-bladder muscles were stimulated.
Oral administration of the drug to 116 patients with acid dyspepsia, flatulent dyspepsia, or atonic dyspepsia in a randomized, double0blind study resulted in a statistically significant response in the patients receiving the drug (Thamlikitkul et al., 1989). The patients received 500 mg of the powdered drug four times daily for 7 days. Two other clinical trials which measured the effect of the drug on peptic ulcers showed that oral administration of the drug promoted ulcer healing and decreased the abdominal pain involved(Intanonta et al., 1986, Prucksunand et al., 1986 and Prucksunand et al., 2001).
Two clinical studies have shown that curcumin is an effective anti- inflammatory drug, A short-term (2 weeks) double-blind, crossover study of 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that patients receiving either curcumin (1200mg/day) or phenylbutazone (30mg/day) had significant improvement in morning stiffness, walking time and joint swelling : In the second study, the effectiveness of curcumin and phenylbutazone on postoperative inflammation was investigated in a double-blind study. Both drugs produced a better anti-inflammatory response than a placebo, but the degree of inflammation in the patients varied greatly and was not evenly distributed among the three groups.
- 1.Turmeric Root or Curcuma Root,Phytochemicals and Applications.
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