Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
- Botanical Description of Broccoli.
- Best of Broccoli:Cultivation and Propagation.
- Nutrition Facts and constituents of Broccoli.
- Origin and History of Broccoli.
- Properties,Edible Uses and Self-similarity Vegetable Broccoli.
- Applications of Broccoli.
- Broccoli Dosage and Administration.
- Modern Researches of Broccoli.
- Research Update:Brassica oleracea,Broccoli Sprout,Sulforaphane GS.
Best of Broccoli:Cultivation and Propagation.:
Broccoli has long been recognized as one of the most beneficial vegetables, providing the body with needed vitamins, as well as calcium and fiber. Broccoli is known as a cancer fighter and diabetes preventer.
Broccoli is a dark green vegetable in the cruciferous family. It is rich in fiber, provitamin A carotenoids, and vitamins C and K. Cruciferous vegetables contain phytochemicals which help create immune and antioxidant support in the body by inducing extra protection of the enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens and flushing them out of the body.
These important enzymes include 'quinone reductase' and 'glutathione S-transferase', with Sulforaphane as a major and potent enzyme induced. Broccoli is an important source of Vitamin K, which helps prevent stomach and colon cancer. Broccoli has been grown for more than two thousand years. During the 16th century, Broccoli was grown in Italy and France. It began to be commercially grown in the United States in the 1920s. The word "Broccoli" derives from the Italian 'Brocco' meaning arm branch. Broccoli is related to cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts. Broccoli is said to contain as much calcium, ounce for ounce, as milk. By supplementing regularly with Broccoli you can reduce or prevent ailments like cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and heart disease.
When it comes to nutritional value, broccoli tops the list. It is rich in vitamins, high in fibre and low in calories. Broccoli is said to contain as much calcium, gram for gram, as milk. By including broccoli regularly in your diet you can reduce and prevent ailments like cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and heart disease.
Succeeds in full sun in a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Prefers a heavy soil. Succeeds in any reasonable soil. Succeeds in maritime gardens. Some forms are very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -17. Broccoli is closely related to the cauliflowers (C. oleracea botrytis) and is often grown for its edible young flowering stems which, by careful selection of varieties, can be available almost all year round from early summer right round to late spring. There are many named varieties and these can be classified into three main groups:- Calabrese, which matures in summer and autumn, is the least cold-hardy form. It produces green, or sometimes purple, flowering heads. Some forms will produce a number of side shoots once the main head has been harvested, though other forms seem unable to do this. Romanesco matures in late summer and the autumn. It has numerous yellowish-green conical groups of buds arranged in spirals. Given a little protection from the cold, it is possible to produce a crop throughout the winter.
Unlike the other types of broccoli, romanesco seems unable to produce side shoots once the main head has been harvested. Sprouting broccoli is the most cold-hardy group. It does not form a central head like the other two groups but instead produces a mass of side shoots from early spring until early summer. The more you harvest these shoots, especially if you do so before the flowers open, then the more shoots the plant produces. A good companion for celery and other aromatic plants since these seem to reduce insect predations. Grows badly with potatoes, beet and onions. Grows well with potatoes, beet and onions according to another report.
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in full sun in any reasonable soil, though it prefers a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. It does well in heavy clay soils. It is often found wild by the coast and tolerates considerable maritime exposure.
The true wild cabbage is a short-lived perennial, though we have seen specimens 5 years old or more. This species has long been cultivated for its edible leaves, stems etc and a wide diversity of forms have been developed, including cabbages, cauliflowers, broccolis and Brussels sprouts. Most of these forms are biennial in cultivation, though there are also some perennial forms. These different forms are detailed below and have each been given their own entry in the database. We have chosen the most up to date classification we can find, as treated in World Economic Plants.
B. oleracea alboglabra. Chinese kales are fast-growing plants with tender edible leaves. Although perennials, they are usually grown as annuals and are eaten as a summer and autumn crop whilst still young.
B. oleracea botrytis. Cauliflowers are grown mainly for their edible swollen inflorescence. Different cultivars can be used to provide crops all year round.
B. oleracea botrytis aparagoides. A short-lived perennial form of cauliflower producing a small cauliflower head in the spring followed by a number of broccoli-like flowering shoots.
B. oleracea capitata. These are the cultivated cabbages, grown for their edible leaves that usually form a compact head. Reasonably winter hardy, different cultivars can be used to provide edible plants all year round.
B. oleracea costata. Couve tronchuda is a tall-growing form of cabbage. It is less hardy than most other forms of this genus.
B. oleracea gemmifera. Brussels sprouts form large edible axillary buds 5cm or more long. They are mainly used as late autumn to spring crops.
B. oleracea gongylodes. Kohl rabi produces an edible swollen stem 8cm or more in diameter. It is reasonably cold hardy and provides crops from mid summer to the winter.
B. oleracea italica. The calabreses and sprouting broccolis, grown mainly for their edible flowering shoots. Calabrese is the less hardy and is used mainly as an autumn and early winter crop. The sprouting broccolis are very winter hardy and are grown outdoors through the winter to provide a spring to early summer crop.
B. oleracea medullosa. Marrowstem kales have edible leaves and stems.
B. oleracea palmifolia. The Jersey kale produces a very tall stem which has been used as a walking stick.
B. oleracea ramosa. The thousand-headed and perennial kales are very cold hardy. Their flavour is stronger than most of the other cultivated forms and they are mainly used as a winter crop. This form is very close to the wild species and has the most potential for developing perennial cultivars.
B. oleracea subauda. The savoy cabbages form large heads like the cultivated cabbages (B. oleracea capitata). They have a stronger flavour, crinkly leaves and are generally more cold-hardy so can provide a winter crop in areas with quite severe winters.
B. oleracea sabellica. The curly kales have attractively curled leaves. These are quite cold-tolerant plants and are mainly used to provide edible leaves in winter and spring.
B. oleracea viridis. Collards are a cold-hardy non-heading form of cabbage, used mainly to provide green leaves in the spring.
Seed - sow sprouting broccoli in a seedbed outdoors in March to May. Plant out in June. Do not let the seedlings get overcrowded or they will soon become leggy and will not make such good plants. If your seedlings do get leggy, it is possible to plant them rather deeper into the soil - the buried stems will soon form roots and the plant will be better supported. Romanesco and calabrese are often sown in situ in the spring.
Soil pH requirements: 6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)7.6 to 7.8 (mildly alkaline)
From seed; winter sow in vented containers, coldframe or unheated greenhouse.
From seed; sow indoors before last frost.
From seed; direct sow after last frost.
Other details: Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
Bag seedheads to capture ripening seed.
Allow pods to dry on plant; break open to collect seeds.
Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored.
Cruiser: A mid-season calabrese, maturing in two months from sowing the seed and producing secondary shoots. It does well in hot, dry conditions.
Early Purple Sprouting: A very traditional and high yielding variety of sprouting broccoli, starting to crop in late winter and continuing for a period of 2 - 3 months.
Early White Sprouting: A very traditional and high yielding variety of sprouting broccoli, starting to crop in late winter and continuing for a period of 2 - 3 months.
Late Purple Sprouting: A very traditional and high yielding variety of sprouting broccoli, starting to crop about two weeks later than 'Early Purple Sprouting' and continuing for a period of 2 - 3 months.
Late White Sprouting: A very traditional and high yielding variety of sprouting broccoli, starting to crop about two weeks later than 'Early White Sprouting' and continuing for a period of 2 - 3 months.
Minaret: A Romanesco type, cropping in late autumn until early winter if given some protection from the cold.
Shogun: A tall calabrese type with a central head up to 105mm across. It is tolerant of wet conditions. This variety can be sown under cover in mid autumn to produce a crop in late spring.
- 1.Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
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