Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
- Botanical Description of Broccoli.
- Best of Broccoli:Cultivation and Propagation.
- Nutrition Facts and constituents of Broccoli.
- Origin and History of Broccoli.
- Properties,Edible Uses and Self-similarity Vegetable Broccoli.
- Applications of Broccoli.
- Broccoli Dosage and Administration.
- Modern Researches of Broccoli.
- Research Update:Brassica oleracea,Broccoli Sprout,Sulforaphane GS.
Nutrition Facts and constituents of Broccoli.:
A member of the cabbage family and a close relative of cauliflower, broccoli packs more nutrients than any other vegetable. Broccoli contains large amounts of vitamin C and beta carotene which are important antioxidants. In the United States, broccoli has become the most favored cruciferous vegetable (cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, and all forms of cabbage). Researchers have concluded that broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables should be included in the diet several times a week. Consuming foods high in antioxidants can reduce the risk of some forms of cancer and heart disease. One half cup cooked broccoli contains the following nutrients as well as many other trace nutrients and phytochemicals.
Nutrition Facts (1/2 cup cooked fresh broccoli):
Dietary fiber 2.4 grams
Protein 2.3 grams
Carbohydrates 4.3 mg
Vitamin C 49 mg
Folic Acid 53.3 nanograms
Calcium 89 mg
Iron 0.9 mg
Key nutritional constituents:
Key nutritional constituents are fiber, provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C and vitamin K. Isothiocyanates are a class of compounds recently identified at Johns Hopkins University as being one key to the anticancer properties of cruciferous vegetables. The most active isothiocyanate is sulfor-aphane. Fresh, commercial broccoli has widely varying amounts of isothiocyanates and sulforaphane, depending on the plant strain, growing methods and time of harvesting. Also, the absorption and utilization of these compounds can be hampered by poor preparation or digestion. Therefore, extracts of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that concentrate isothiocyanates and sulforaphane by factors of from 133:1 to 400:1 have been developed, to provide enhanced protection. Indoles are another key to anticancer activity. Dr. H. Leon Bradlow of the Strang-Cornell Cancer Research Laboratory in New York has isolated a crucial one, indole-3-carbinol, from broccoli.
Cruciferous vegetables apparently can reduce the risk of cancer by inducing extra protection of the enzymes involved in detoxifying carcinogens and flushing them out of the body. The phase II enzymes, including quinone reductase and glutathione S-tranferase, are particularly active. Sulforaphane is a major and very potent phase II enzyme inducer. Sulforaphane, along with other cancer-protective isothiocyanates, does not induce damaging phase I enzymes. Besides protecting against the risk of cancer occuring, sulforaphane appears to reduce the severity of cancers that do occur. Estrogen is formed from estradiol, and can take either a safe, relatively inert form, 2-hydroxylated, or a dangerously reactive form that has been associated with breast cancers and increased risk of breast cancer, 16-hydroxylated estrogen. Indoles, particularly indole-3-carbinol, induce protection of the safe, rather than the dangerously reactive, form of estrogen. 2-hydroxylated estrogen is also induced by vigorous exercise (at least 2, and preferably 4 hours per week), and a major study released in September 1994 showed a strong correlation with reduced cancer risk. Broccoli may have other antioxidant activities due to its carotenoid, phenolic and anthocyanin constituents.
- 1.Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
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