Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
- Botanical Description of Broccoli.
- Best of Broccoli:Cultivation and Propagation.
- Nutrition Facts and constituents of Broccoli.
- Origin and History of Broccoli.
- Properties,Edible Uses and Self-similarity Vegetable Broccoli.
- Applications of Broccoli.
- Broccoli Dosage and Administration.
- Modern Researches of Broccoli.
- Research Update:Brassica oleracea,Broccoli Sprout,Sulforaphane GS.
Properties,Edible Uses and Self-similarity Vegetable Broccoli.:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves.
Taste:Slightly bitter in flavor, cool in nature, it is related to the channel of the liver.
Young flowering stems and leaves - raw or cooked. The shoots of sprouting broccoli are harvested when about 10cm long, and before the flowers open, the shoots look somewhat like a small white or purple cauliflower and have a delicious flavour. They are considered to be a gourmet vegetable. When picking the stems, make sure that you leave behind a section of the stem with leaves on it, since the plants will often produce new side shoots from the leaf axils. Calabrese and Romanesco plants produce a central inflorescence rather like a small cauliflower, which are sometimes followed by a number of smaller flowering shoots. They usually come into bearing in the late summer or autumn and are very productive if they are regularly harvested. Sprouting broccoli plants come into production in late winter to early spring and can be very heavy bearing over a period of two months or more so long as all the flowering stems are harvested before coming into flower.
Leaves - raw or cooked. Slightly bitter raw, they can be cooked in one or more changes of water. We find that the slight bitterness actually enhances the flavour, and this is one of our favourite cooked leaves. The plant can usually be harvested all year round, though there will be little to pick in very cold winters
Fractal forms or Self-Similarity Vegetable:
Fractal forms,complex shapes which look more or less the same at a wide variety of scale factors, are everywhere in nature. From the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation to the coastlines of continents, courses of rivers, clouds in the sky, branches of plants and veins in their leaves, blood vessels in the lung, and the shape of seashells and snowflakes, these fractal or self-similar patterns abound. The self-similarity of most of these patterns is defined only in a statistical sense: while the general "roughness" is about the same at different scales, you can't extract a segment, blow it up, and find a larger scale segment which it matches precisely.
Cruiser:A Computational Universe?
These natural fractal patterns, of great apparent complexity, can be simulated by simple computer programs such as our Terranova, its companion Terranova Screen Saver, and Cellular Automata Laboratory, producing results which mimic those in nature. This tempts one to speculate that nature generates these patterns through a process akin to computation.
It seems like the universe just wants to compute. Of course, there's a tendency for thinkers in every age to model the universe in terms of the predominant technology of the day. To the Pythagoreans, all was number and geometry. In Newton's time, the universe seemed an intricate clockwork mechanism. Later, in the age of steam, thermodynamics and heat death dominated models of the universe. Today, surrounded by computers evolving more rapidly than anything in natural history, what could be more natural than regarding the universe as a great automaton performing some kind of cosmic computation?
And yet, there may be some truth in that viewpoint, and insights to be had by pursuing it, just as earlier worldviews provided frameworks for further discoveries. Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science and Rudy Rucker's forthcoming The Lifebox, the Seashell, and the Soul (excerpt) argue that many of the processes we see in nature are indeed computations.
Wolfram finds that, essentially regardless of details, the results of iterated computations fall into four general (although not entirely exclusive) classes. Class 1 computations produce uniform results from almost any input. Class 2 computations produce output which depends upon the input, but the results either stay the same forever or repeat with a short cycle time. Class 3 computations produce output which appears random (and often passes stringent tests of randomness), while Class 4 computations balance on the edge of order (Class 2) and chaos (Class 3), manifesting localised structures which move and interact with one another in complicated ways. Starting a one-dimensional cellular automaton with random input and various rules demonstrates the behaviour of the four classes of computation.
Many Class 3 computations produce self-similar or fractal output, which Wolfram refers to as "nested". The image below is produced by a computer program eight bits in length,the number 126,interpreted to define the new state of a cell based on its current state and those of its two immediate neighbours. The program is started on the the top line of the image, which consists of a single black cell in the middle of the line. Subsequent lines show the evolution as the program is applied over and over, each line serving as input to the line below it.
The structure produced by this rule was named the "Sierpinski Gasket" by Benoit Mandelbrot; the same pattern appears in Pascal's triangle of binomial coefficients. Note the intricate nesting of the white triangles; in this small image, eight levels of nesting are present (counting the partial triangle at the bottom). Extrapolated to infinity, an infinite number of nesting levels will be present. Heck of a lot to get from a computer program you can write down as a three digit decimal number, don't you think? Even though this is a simple two dimensional pattern produced by a one dimensional computation, the similarity with the three dimensional hierarchical structure of the Romanesco is compelling.
Images were postprocessed with The Gimp on Linux. Postprocessing amounted to cropping, modest sharpening, and adjusting the colour balance to approximate the actual colour of the vegetable as perceived by the human eye under natural light. When you shoot a photo like the close-ups where the entire field of view is a uniform hue like green, the automatic white balance in the camera will shift the white point to try to adjust the picture toward the white. It's best to disable the automatic white balance entirely, but if you forget to (as I did when taking these shots), it's easy enough to correct after the fact. Yes, a Romanesco is actually the radioactive green colour shown in these pictures. The leaves are a darker blue green typical of broccoli or cauliflower. When cooked, the colour lightens to a less saturated greenish white.
Every self-similar pattern in nature breaks down at some scale,at the level of molecules and atoms if not before. The last photo shows the tiny structures near the top level spiral. As the spirals get smaller and smaller approaching the vertex, the spirals that make them up have less and less lower level detail, with the tiniest being little more than bumpy spheroids.
|Class 1: Rule 250
||Class 2: Rule 132|
|Class 3: Rule 122
||Class 4: Rule 110|
- 1.Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
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