Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
- Botanical Description of Broccoli.
- Best of Broccoli:Cultivation and Propagation.
- Nutrition Facts and constituents of Broccoli.
- Origin and History of Broccoli.
- Properties,Edible Uses and Self-similarity Vegetable Broccoli.
- Applications of Broccoli.
- Broccoli Dosage and Administration.
- Modern Researches of Broccoli.
- Research Update:Brassica oleracea,Broccoli Sprout,Sulforaphane GS.
Applications of Broccoli.:
Broccoli is used to treat eye inflammations and near-sightedness; anemia (the blood is deficient in red blood cells); children's respiratory infections, measles and gastroenteritis (inflammation of the lining membrane of the stomach and the intestines); smoking; and cancer.
A good source of iron and beta carotene, broccoli may help to prevent anaemia, especially in non-meat eaters. Many women have iron stores below the recommended level of 500 mg. A significant proportion of women in the West have no iron stores at all. This can result in full-blown anaemia, which causes severe tiredness, an inability to concentrate, and an impaired immune system, making those affected much more susceptible to infection.
Scientists believe that the body can absorb a third less iron from vegetables than it can from red meat, due to substances such as phytates that block iron absorption. They have recently revealed that the beta carotene in iron-rich vegetables such as broccoli may help to overcome this blockage and make the iron available.
The phytonutrients called isothiocyanates present in broccoli may help to reduce the carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke. Broccoli is also rich in vitamin C, which is required in increased amounts by smokers.
3.Children's infections, such as respiratory infections, measles, and gastroenteritis:
Children with these infections have been found to have a significant drop in blood levels of vitamin A. The beta carotene that broccoli provides is converted into vitamin A when the body's stores run low. Adding broccoli to children's diets may, in theory, help to reduce childhood infections.
Ranked first in the United States' National Cancer Institute's list of all-round, anti-cancer vegetables, broccoli has been the subject of much research.
Broccoli is believed to play a role in protecting against cancers of the lung, stomach, mouth, ovaries, breast, cervix, colon, and prostate. It is rich in several potential anticancer substances such as indoles, glucosinolates, beta carotene, and vitamin C.
There is one particular substance, known as sulforaphane, that has been extensively examined in laboratories. Sulforaphane is a phytonutrient that stimulates the formation and function of 'phase II' enzymes.These enzymes have been identified as being responsible for processing and removing cancer-causing substances from cells under experimental conditions. It is speculated that these phase II enzymes may be able to perform this function in the human body.
In the recent finding reported in the September 9, 2003 issue of "Proceedings of the National Academy of Science," a group of researchers in Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine has confirmed that in laboratory tests, sulforaphane killed helicobacter pylori, a bacteria that causes stomach ulcers and often fatal stomach cancers. Their finding shows that there appears to be enough of sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts and some varieties of broccoli to benefit people who eat the vegetables. However, the researchers could not say how much broccoli one would have to eat for there to be an impact, something they said could not be determined without long-term tests involving humans. The above study was concentrated on mice. In the lab, the scientists found that sulforaphane even killed helicobacter that was resistant to commonly used antibiotics. They also showed it can kill the bacterium whether it is inside or outside cells.
Epithiospecifier Protein from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) Inhibits Formation of the Anticancer Agent Sulforaphane:(See J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (6), 2069 -2076, 2006. 10.1021/jf0525277 S0021-8561(05)02527-6,by Nathan V. Matusheski, Ranjan Swarup, John A. Juvik, Richard Mithen, Malcolm Bennett, and Elizabeth H. Jeffery)
In some cruciferous plants, epithiospecifier protein (ESP) directs myrosinase (EC 22.214.171.124)-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkenyl glucosinolates toward epithionitrile formation. Here, for the first time, we show that ESP activity is negatively correlated with the extent of formation of the health-promoting phytochemical sulforaphane in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica). A 43 kDa protein with ESP activity and sequence homology to the ESP of Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned from the broccoli cv. Packman and expressed in Escherichia coli. In a model system, the recombinant protein not only directed myrosinase-dependent metabolism of the alkenyl glucosinolate epi-progoitrin [(2S)-2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate] toward formation of an epithionitrile but also directed myrosinase-dependent hydrolysis of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin [4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl glucosinolate] to form sulforaphane nitrile, in place of the isothiocyanate sulforaphane. The importance of this finding is that, whereas sulforaphane has been shown to have anticarcinogenic properties, sulforaphane nitrile has not. Genetic manipulation designed to attenuate or eliminate expression of ESP in broccoli could increase the fractional conversion of glucoraphanin to sulforaphane, enhancing potential health benefits.
Scientists at Ohio State University published a study that showed compounds from broccoli were able to decrease progression of cancer in lines of bladder cancer cells from humans and mice. Steven Schwartz and his team used phytochemicals from broccoli and converted them to their active compounds such as sulforaphane. This work builds on previously reported epidemiological analyses from Harvard and Ohio State that found men who ate 2 or more half-cup servings of broccoli per week had a 44% lower incidence of bladder cancer compared to men who ate less than one serving each week. We do not yet have a citation for the above study, but following are a few additional studies.
Induction of GST and NQO1 in Cultured Bladder Cells and in the Urinary Bladders of Rats by an Extract of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica) Sprouts (#).J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 13;54(25):9370-9376.
Yuesheng Zhang, Rex Munday, Hillary E. Jobson, Christine M. Munday, Carolyn Lister, Paula Wilson, Jed W. Fahey, and Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia.doi:10.1021/jf062109h PubMed ID: 17147420
The role of c-Jun in the AP-1 activation induced by naturally occurring isothiocyanates.Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Sep;43(9):1373-80.Li J, Yao S, Zhang Y. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2005.03.011
Dietary isothiocyanates inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cells. J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8):2004-10Tang L, Zhang Y. PubMed ID: 15284390
Isothiocyanates in the chemoprevention of bladder cancer.Curr Drug Metab. 2004 Apr;5(2):193-201.Tang L, Zhang Y. PubMed ID: 15078196
In this joint study, scientists from Roswell Park Cancer Institute, New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Limited, and Johns Hopkins University, found that sulforaphane significantly stimulates Phase II enzymes in cultured bladder cells and rat bladder tissue. Researchers fed rats a broccoli sprout extract of the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, which is known to induce Phase II enzymes. Subsequent urinary output showed dose dependent high levels of isothiocyanate metabolites with no sign of toxicity. These findings suggest that Sulforaphane may be especially effective in protecting against bladder cancer.
The leaves are cardiotonic and stomachic. They have been used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds - the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The poultice should not be left on too long or it an cause blisters.The seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic.
Cruciferous vegetables are one of the most common food crops in the world. They are generally considered to be healthy foods and have been shown to have positive effects in the fight against some diseases. Cruciferous vegetables contain di-indolylmethane (DIM), a compound that stimulates more effective use of estrogen by increasing metabolism of estradiol. Estradiol is associated with breast pain, weight gain, breast and uterine cancer, moodiness and low libido.Some examples of cruciferous vegetables are:
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata);Broccoli (Brassica oleracea italica);Brussel Sprouts (Brassica oleracea gemmifera);Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis).
7.Benefit of Broccoli seed oil:
Broccoli seed oil is extracted from broccoli seeds using supercritical fluid extraction. The resulting light golden triglyceride is an extraordinary emollient for skin and hair care formulations.
Broccoli seed oil has a unique composition of fatty acids that offers both stability and light, non greasy lubricity. It is gaining popularity in skin and hair care products due to its ability to impart high shine without a heavy feel. Use broccoli seed oil in hair conditioners, lip products, creams, lotions, balms and other formulations.
Broccoli Sprouts are the only product that guarantees a consistent level of sulforaphane GS, a natural compound found in broccoli and other cruciferous plants that supports the body's own antioxidant function.
Cosmetic uses of Broccoli
Plant oils from Brassica Campestris or Aleurites Fordii flash heated in a vacuum can create a copolymer. This useful natural copolymer may creates viscosity and emollience in the lip gloss and gloss sticks.
- 1.Broccoli and Brassica oleracea italica,Broccoli Sprout Extract and its benefit.
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