What is Sea Buckthorn,Hippophae rhamnoides L,Sea Buckthorn Berry,Argousier,Sanddorn,Finbar,Homokt?Seabuckthorn and its History?
- Basic Botanical Data of Sea Buckthorn.
- Sea-Buckthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides L.).
- Phytochemicals and Properties of Sea-Buckthorn berries.
- Nutritional Values of Sea-Buckthorn berries.
- What is the secret of Sea-Buckthorn berries?.
- Wonder-working berries,antioxidant and wide uses.
- Typical composition of the Sea Buckthorn Fruit Extract.
- History of Sea Buckthorn.
- Research Update:Sea Buckthorn or Hippophae rhamnoides.
Research Update:Sea Buckthorn or Hippophae rhamnoides.:
Photosynthetic characteristics of dominant plant species at different succession stages of vegetation on Loess Plateau.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2007 Jun;18(6):1175-80. Chinese.An H, Shangguan ZP.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. email@example.com
According to the succession sequence of vegetation on Ziwuling of Loess Plateau, the dominant species at different secondary succession stages, i. e., Bothriochloa ischaemum, Artemisia gmelinii, Hippophae rhamnoides, Sophara viciifolia, Populus davidiana and Quercus liaotungensis, were selected to measure the total N contents in their leaves and soil, and the parameters of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence. The results showed that with the succession of vegetation, the total N content in 0-20 cm soil layer had an increasing trend, while the leaf total N and chlorophyll contents were increased first but decreased then. The leaf total N content of dominant species at shrub community stage (H. rhamnoides and S. viciifolia) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that at other succession stages, and the photosynthetic rate (P(n)) was higher at the stages of herbaceous and shrub communities than at the early and climax stages of forest community. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and P(n) had the similar variation trends. The dominant species at the stages of herbaceous and shrub communities had a higher transpiration rate (T(r)), while those at the climax stage of forest community had the lowest one. With vegetation succession, the maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) had a slow increase, while the actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (Phi(PSII)) was increased first but decreased then. Along the succession sequence, photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)) presented an increasing trend, while non-photochemical quenching coefficient (q(NP)) showed a single-peaked curve. Therefore, the ecophysiological attributes and adaptation to microhabitats of early succession plant are different from the late succession plants.
Influence of Harvest Time on the Quality of Oil-Based Compounds in Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis) Seed and Fruit.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 3;55(20):8054-61. Epub 2007 Aug 31.St George SD, Cenkowski S.firstname.lastname@example.org.
The effect of the harvest time on oil-based bioactive compounds in sea buckthorn berries ( Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. sinensis) was investigated. Sea buckthorn berries were collected at early maturity (September), maturity (November), and postmaturity (January) during the 2003-2004 harvest year. Whole berries were analyzed for physical characteristics, and fruit and seed fractions were analyzed for bioactive content. November-harvested berries yielded the highest values for berry sizes, CIELab factor a*, and total carotenoid content in the fruit fraction ( p < 0.05). September yielded significantly higher ( p < 0.05) levels of major compounds, alpha-tocopherol and beta-sitosterol, in the fruit fraction. Seed characteristics and bioactive compounds did not vary significantly with respect to the harvest time ( p > 0.05). These results have identified the most suitable level of maturity for the optimization of certain compounds and the losses that may occur with winter harvest, commonly practiced in cold climates.
Possible mechanism of adaptogenic activity of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) during exposure to cold, hypoxia and restraint (C-H-R) stress induced hypothermia and post stress recovery in rats.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jun 23;Saggu S, Kumar R.Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054, India; Department of Anatomical Sciences/Neurobiology, University of Louisville, HSC Building, Louisville, KY 40202, United States.
The present study was carried out to investigate mechanism of adaptogenic activity of seabuckthorn dry leaves aqueous lyophilized extract, administered in rats at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight prior to cold (5 degrees C)-hypoxia (428mmHg)-restraint (C-H-R) exposure up to fall of T(rec) 23 degrees C and recovery (T(rec) 37 degrees C) from C-H-R induced hypothermia. The effect of extract treatment was studied on key metabolic regulatory enzymes in blood, liver and muscle and tissue glycogen in rats on attaining T(rec) 23 degrees C and post stress recovery of T(rec) 37 degrees C. In control rats during C-H-R exposure on attaining T(rec) 23 degrees C there was significant decrease in enzyme activities of blood hexokinase (HK), citrate synthase (CS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD); liver CS; and in muscle glycogen, and CS and G-6-PD activities. In control rats on recovery of T(rec) 37 degrees C there was also a significant decrease in liver and muscle glycogen levels along with decreased enzyme activities of blood G-6-PD; liver CS; and liver and muscle G-6-PD. This suggested that during severe stressful exposure to C-H-R and post stress recovery the aerobic metabolism as well as hexose monophosphate (HMP) pathway is suppressed. The single and five doses extract treatment restricted the decrease or better maintained tissue glycogen and enzyme activities, viz. HK, phosphofructokinase (PFK), CS and G-6-PD, in blood, liver and muscle, during C-H-R exposure (T(rec) 23 degrees C) and recovery of T(rec) 37 degrees C. The results suggest that seabuckthorn extract treatment caused a trend for shifting anaerobic metabolism to aerobic during C-H-R exposure and post stress recovery.
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.:Fitoterapia. 2007 Jul 3;Chauhan AS, Negi PS, Ramteke RS.Fruit and Vegetable Technology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute Mysore-570 020, India.
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to posses antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation.
Effects of sea buckthorn berries on infections and inflammation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.:Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun 27;Larmo P, Alin J, Salminen E, Kallio H, Tahvonen R. 1Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, Turku, Finland  2Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Objective:To study the effect of sea buckthorn berries on the number and duration of common cold (CC) infections. As secondary objectives the effects on digestive and urinary tract infections (DTI, UTI), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were also investigated.Subjects:A total of 254 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive sea buckthorn or placebo product during the study, which 233 of them completed.Results:There were no significant differences in the number or duration of CC or DTI between groups (CC: relative risks (sea buckthorn vs placebo) for the number and duration were 1.15 (95% CI 0.90-1.48) and 1.05 (95% CI 0.87-1.27), respectively). In the sea buckthorn group, as compared to the placebo, the serum CRP concentrations decreased significantly (difference in median change -0.059 mg/l, P=0.039). The number of UTI was too small to draw solid conclusions, but the results indicate the subject merits further investigation.Conclusion:Sea buckthorn berries did not prevent CC or DTI. However, a reductive effect on CRP, a marker of inflammation, and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, was detected.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 27 June 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602831.
The major sources of daily dietary intake of micronutrients in the adult rural population of the Republic of Chuvashia.:Gig Sanit. 2007 Mar-Apr;(2):42-4. Russian.Khokhlova EA.
The paper presents the results of determination of the basic sources of micronutrients in the nutrition of the rural population of the Chuvash Republic. The importance of foodstuffs, the sources of nutrients, was determined by factor mathematical analysis, by estimating the weight factors. All the products used in the daily ration were studied, which permitted elucidation of the importance of individual Russia-specific products. By reason of the uniform pattern of nutrition in Chuvashia, virtually all study micronutrients were found to come with baked goods, milk, and potatoes. The quantity of fresh vegetables and fruits in the actual diets of the examinees is so low that it exerts no significant effect on the intake of vitamins and minerals. In addition, all vegetables and fruits used in the daily ration are generally used in the personal subsidiary plots. Berries that commonly grow in Chuvashia, such as cranberry, bilberry, sea-buckthorn, and red whortleberry, were also observed to be virtually unused in nutrition, although it is just the berries that are gold mines of vitamins and minerals.
Study on the role of polysaccharide and flavone in Chinese herbs in protecting DNA with fluorescence probe.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2007 Feb;27(2):346-9. Chinese.Zhang HR, Wu XY.Lab of Biochemical Analysis, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000, China. email@example.com
The aim of the present work is to study the role of polyaccharide and flavone compounds of Flos lonicerae, Ganoderma lucidum etc. in protecting DNA with EB as a probe to determine the fluorescence integration intensity of DNA and EB mixture. D is defined as the interaction constant between different extracts from traditional Chinese herbs and DNA. The bigger the D, the stronger the interaction of drugs and DNA. According to the definition of D, the impact of polysaccharide and flavone compounds on the protection of DNA is discussed. The results show that all the extracts from traditional Chinese herbs can interact with DNA, but the degree of interaction is different. The order is as follows: folium hippophae rhamnosides > rhizoma anemarrhenae > radix acanthopanacis senticosi > Ganoderma lucidum > radix achyranthis bidentatae > fructus lycii > Flos lonicerae > rhizoma atractylodis > Astragalus membranaceus > Flos chrysanthemi in the presence of polysaccharide compounds, while folium hippophae rhamnosides > Flos lonicerae > fructus lycii > rhizoma atractylodis > Astragalus membranaceus > rhizoma anemarrhenae > radix acanthopanacis senticosi > Ganoderma lucidum > radix achyranthis bidentatae (Flos chrysanthemi, with no signals) in the presence of flavone compounds.
Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides (TFH).:PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2007 Mar-Apr;61(2):110-20.Wang D, Zhao P, Cuia F, Li X.Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shengyang, Liaoning, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides (TFH) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization (HPH), by both hot HPH and cold HPH. The influence of process parameters (lipid matrix, lipid concentration, carbohydrate type and its concentration) on the SLN size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, crystal form, and in vitro release profile was investigated. The highest entrapment efficiency for TFH, at around 93%, was found for SLNs composed of TFH/Compritol 888 ATO in a 1:30 molar ratio and made by cold HPH. The advantages of TFH SLNs are the improved oral bioavailability of TFH and the prolonged mean retention time and drug release time.
Radioprotective and antioxidant activity of fractionated extracts of berries of Hippophae rhamnoides.:J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):101-9.Chawla R, Arora R, Singh S, Sagar RK, Sharma RK, Kumar R, Sharma A, Gupta ML, Singh S, Prasad J, Khan HA, Swaroop A, Sinha AK, Gupta AK, Tripathi RP, Ahuja PS.Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, Delhi, India.
Plants are an abundant source of medicinal compounds, some of which are useful in combating free radical-mediated oxidative stress. In the present study, initially two fractions designated REC-1001 (flavonoid-rich fraction) and REC-1002 (flavonoid-poor fraction) of Hippophae rhamnoides were screened on the basis of their reducing power in the aqueous phase. REC-1001 was selected for further study, since it exhibited 27.38 times higher antioxidant activity than REC-1002. REC-1001 also showed significant (P < .05) membrane protection potential at 50 microg/mL, which was attributed to its ability to scavenge peroxyl radicals (64.82 +/- 1.25% scavenging within 1,440 min). A significant (P < .05) difference of 67.02% in free radical scavenging activity at 1,000 ng/mL between REC-1001 and vitamin E demonstrated the extract fraction's worth in radiation protection. Such activities were attributed to the presence of quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol in this fraction. Further, REC-1001 was found to be nontoxic up to 200 mg/kg of body weight. This research suggests that the REC-1001 fraction of H. rhamnoides extract is a safe and effective antioxidant nutraceutical product.
Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFkappaB by edible berry juice.:Anticancer Res. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):937-48.Boivin D, Blanchette M, Barrette S, Moghrabi A, Béliveau R.Laboratoire de Médecine Moléculaire, H?pital Ste-Justine-UQAM, Centre de Cancérologie Charles-Bruneau, Centre de Recherche de l'H?pital Sainte-Justine, 3175, Chemin C?te-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
BACKGROUND: Berries contain several phytochemicals, such as phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids. There has been growing interest in a variety of potential chemopreventive activities of edible berries. The potential chemopreventive activity of a variety of small berries cultivated or collected in the province of Québec, Canada were evaluated here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Strawberry, raspberry, black currant, red currant, white currant, gooseberry, high-bush blueberry, low-bush blueberry, velvet leaf blueberry, serviceberry, blackberry, black chokeberry, sea buckthorn and cranberry were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, anti-proliferative activity, anti-inflammatory activity, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. RESULTS: The growth of various cancer cell lines, including those of stomach, prostate, intestine and breast, was strongly inhibited by raspberry, black currant, white currant, gooseberry, velvet leaf blueberry, low-bush blueberry, sea buckthorn and cranberry juice, but not (or only slightly) by strawberry, high-bush blueberry, serviceberry, red currant, or blackberry juice. No correlation was found between the anti-proliferative activity of berry juices and their antioxidant capacity (p > 0.05). The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by berry juices did not involve caspase-dependent apoptosis, but appeared to involve cell-cycle arrest, as evidenced by down-regulation of the expression of cdk4, cdk6, cyclin D1 and cyclin D3. Of the 13 berries tested, juice of 6 significantly inhibited the TNF-induced activation of COX-2 expression and activation of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. CONCLUSION: These results illustrate that berry juices have striking differences in their potential chemopreventive activity and that the inclusion of a variety of berries in the diet might be useful for preventing the development of tumors.
High-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint analysis for different origins of sea buckthorn berries.:J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jun 22;1154(1-2):250-9. Epub 2007 Mar 30.Chen C, Zhang H, Xiao W, Yong ZP, Bai N.West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a chemical fingerprint method was developed for investigating and demonstrating the variance of flavonoids among different origins of sea buckthorn berries. Thirty-four samples were analyzed including 15 RS (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) samples, 7 RY (H. rhamnoindes ssp. yunnanensis) samples, 5 RW (H. rhamnoides ssp. wolongensis) samples, 4 NS (H. neurocarpa ssp. stellatopilosa) samples and 3 TI (H. tibetana) samples. In the HPLC chromatograms, 12 compounds were identified as flavonoids, including quercetin 3-O-sophoroside-7-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol 7-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Both correlation coefficient of similarity in chromatograms and relative peak areas of characteristic compounds were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. Our results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint combining similarity evaluation could efficiently identify and distinguish sea buckthorn berries from different species. However, no obvious difference between RS and RY suggested that the two subspecies might have very close relationship in terms of chemotaxonomy. The established method was considered to be suitable for fingerprint analysis to check the genuine origin and control the quality of sea buckthorn berries and extracts.
Effects of processing and of storage on the stability of pantothenic acid in sea buckthorn products (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides) assessed by stable isotope dilution assay.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):3978-84. Epub 2007 Apr 21.Gutzeit D, Klaubert B, Rychlik M, Winterhalter P, Jerz G.Central Institute of the Bundeswehr Medical Service Munich, Ingolst?dter Landstrasse 102, 85748 Garching, Hochbrück, Germany
A stable isotope dilution assay for quantification of pantothenic acid in sea buckthorn berries, juice, and concentrate using a four-fold labeled isotopologue of vitamin B5 as the internal standard was adopted using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Because of a rapid sample clean up procedure without the necessity of external calibration, this methodology permits the accurate analysis of a high number of samples within a short time. Sea buckthorn juice was stored at 25 and 40 degrees C for up to 7 days to determine the effects of storage temperature on the stability of pantothenic acid. Analysis of kinetic data suggested that the degradation follows a first-order model. The results of the experiments showed that storage of sea buckthorn juice for 7 days at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) already resulted in a significant degradation of pantothenic acid of about 18%. The processing effects of juice production and subsequent concentration revealed a decrease of about 6-7% in the juice and of 23% in the juice concentrate.
Species diversity and interspecific association in development sequence of Hippophae rhamnoides plantations in Loess hilly region.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2007 Jan;18(1):9-15. Chinese.Guo LJ, Zhang WH, Liu GB.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. email@example.com
Based on field investigation, this paper analyzed the characteristics of species diversity and interspecific association at different development stages of Hippophcze rhamnoides plantations. The results showed that the species diversities of shrub layer, grass layer, and whole community of H. rharnnoides plantations were all fluctuated in "S" shape. At different development stages, the species richness and diversity were higher in grass layer than in shruh layer. The shrub species diversity was lower on hare land, but increased gradually with development stage. Shrub evenness index was higher in 13-year forest stand, while grass diversity index was higher in 3-year plantation, lower in 8-year plantation, and higher in 25-year plantation. The positive and negative absolute values of interspecific association between H. rharnnoides and other principal species changed in parabola shape, and the notable degree and the interspecific association intensity were weaker in 13-year plantation, showing that the species substitution rate was slower, competition was less, and community composition and its structure were relatively stable. To improve ecological environment, the H. rhamnoides plantations younger than 13 years old should he given priority to protection, while for those of 25 years old, moderate thinning should be made to promote the regeneration.
Effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach.:Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:234-8.Xu X, Xie B, Pan S, Liu L, Wang Y, Chen C.College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 1 Shizishan Street, South-lake, Wuhan, China 430070.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) on healing of acetic acid-induced lesions in the rat stomach and its possible mechanism. The sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPC) were extracted with 60% alcohol/H2O from sea buckthorn bark and purified by macropore adsorption resin column, with a purity of >96%. The chemical character of SBPC was analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Chronic gastric ulceration was induced by injecting acetic acid into the subserosa of stomach. Different concentrations of SBPC were orally administrated to gastric ulcers rats. After treatment 7d and 14d, rats were sacrificed respectively. The healing of the acetic acid induced ulcerations was measured by ulcer index (UI). The level of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in plasma was determined; the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) around ulcer was detected by immunohistochemical method. SBPC was found to reduce the size of the ulcers at day 7 and 14 in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control, the UI of SBPC group was significantly lower (p< 0.01) and the level of EGF in the plasma of SBPC group increased significantly (p< 0.01), meanwhile the expression of EGFR and PCNA around ulcer in high-dose SBPC stomach were enhanced (p< 0.05). The results implied that SBPC plays an important role in healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions possibly by the acceleration of the mucosal repair.
Enhanced cAMP/PKA pathway by seabuckthorn fatty acids in aged rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 4;111(2):248-54. Epub 2006 Dec 2.Hu R, Yuan B, Wei X, Zhao L, Tang J, Chen D.Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
Seabuckthorn fatty acids were extracted by crushing and centrifuging from china seabuckthorn fruit. We detected cyclic nucleotides concentration in serum of different stages in aged rats (from 16 to 21 months), cyclic nucleotides concentration, PKA activity and PDE activity in hepatic tissue in aged rats by seabuckthorn fatty acids. Our data showed that the serum cAMP concentration decreased, accompany with the cGMP concentration increased and the imbalance of the cAMP/cGMP ratio in aged process. This kind of change equally in the hepatic tissue, the cAMP concentration decreased, PKA activity also decreased, but no change of the cAMP particularity PDE activity. And the SBFAs raised serum cAMP level in different stages, and raised the cAMP concentration and PKA activity of hepatic tissue, but did not effect the cAMP particularity PDE activity. Our study demonstrated that it is imbalance of the cAMP/cGMP ratio in aged process. SBFAs enhanced the cAMP/PKA pathway, regulated cAMP/cGMP ratio in aged rats.
The of gamma-radiation for induction of apomixis in sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).:Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006 Nov-Dec;46(6):687-90. Russian.Todya VA, Chankseliani ZZh, Mchedlishvili MV.
The results of studying of the induced apomixis in pollen of sea-buckthorn irradiated by the 60Co gamma-Radiation are considered. Was established that the most effective dose for pollination of the experimental plants is 50 k Gy. In total, from 46 seedlings 19 cases of apomictic origin were revealed, 7 individuals were found to be haploid (n = = 12) and 19 ones were diploid (2n = 24) of maternal origin. Was supposed that apomictic plants (19 seedlings) have parthenogenetic origin. The reason for such conclusion is that the irradiated anomalous pollen tubes despite not having spermia, are entering embryo sac and stimulate the development of apomictic embryo from non-fertilized female gametes. Apparently, pollen tubes cause the induction of DNA replication in the ovules and the development of parthenogenetic plants. Consequently, the described method can be used for the regulation of parthenogenesis in sea-buckthorn to change natural ratio (1 : 1) of male to female plants in desirable quantity.
Contents of anthocyanins and ellagitannins in selected foods consumed in Finland.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 21;55(4):1612-9. Epub 2007 Jan 30.Koponen JM, Happonen AM, Mattila PH, T?rr?nen AR.Food and Health Research Centre, Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Jani.Koponen@uku.fi
Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that dietary anthocyanins and ellagitannins or ellagic acid might have beneficial health effects. Epidemiological evidence on the disease-preventing potential of these polyphenols is lacking, due to the absence of reliable data on their contents in foods. In this study was analyzed the content of anthocyanins and ellagitannins (as ellagic acid equivalents after acid hydrolysis) in foods consumed in Finland, including berries, fruits, vegetables, and processed products, using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods. Anthocyanins were detected in 41 of 54 selected food items. The total anthocyanin content varied in berries from 1 to 611 mg/100 g, in fruits from 2 to 66 mg/100 g, and in vegetables from 3 to 75 mg/100 g of fresh weight as the weight of the aglycone. Ellagitannins were screened in 33 food items, but were detected only in 5 species of berries, that is, in cloudberry, raspberry, rose hip, strawberry, and sea buckthorn, the content ranging from 1 to 330 mg/100 g. The results underscore the superiority of berries, especially dark blue or red berries, as excellent sources of anthocyanins and certain berries of the Rosaceae family as the major source of ellagitannins in the Finnish diet.
Sex-related differences in leaf morphological and physiological responses in Hippophae rhamnoides along an altitudinal gradient.:Tree Physiol. 2007 Mar;27(3):399-406.Li C, Xu G, Zang R, Korpelainen H, Berninger F.Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 416, Chengdu 610041, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
In most woody plants, leaf morphological and physiological characteristics are extremely variable across environmental gradients, particularly across altitudinal gradients. Hippophae rhamnoides L., a dioecious and deciduous shrub species, occupies a wide range of habitats in the Wolong Nature Reserve, southwest China. We measured growth, sex ratio and morphological and physiological characteristics of leaves in male and female H. rhamnoides individuals along an altitudinal gradient. Shoot height (HT), leaf N concentration per unit dry mass (N(mass)), leaf N concentration per unit area (N(area)) and leaf carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) were higher in males than in females, whereas females had higher specific leaf area (SLA), stomatal length (SL) and stomatal index (SI) (i.e., total stomatal length per unit leaf area) than males along the altitudinal gradient. Females also had higher values of stomatal density (SD) at all altitudes except 2800 m. The male:female ratio (MFR) was biased toward males at all altitudes except at 2800 m. Changes in HT, MFR, SLA, SD, SL, SI, N(mass), N(area) and delta(13)C along the altitudinal gradient were nonlinear. Below 2800 m, HT, SLA, SD, SL and SI increased with increasing altitude, but above 2800 m they decreased with increasing altitude. In contrast, MFR, N(mass), N(area) and delta(13)C showed the opposite patterns with altitude. Consequently, we confirmed our hypotheses: (1) stressful environments have a more negative impact on females than on males in a variety of ways; (2) under optimal growth conditions the sex ratio is even, but becomes male-biased as resources become limited; and (3) there is an optimum altitudinal range at around 2800 m for the growth of H. rhamnoides in the Wolong Nature Reserve.
Triterpenoids from Hippophae rhamnoides L. and their nitric oxide production-inhibitory and DPPH radical-scavenging activities.:Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007 Jan;55(1):15-8.Yang ZG, Li HR, Wang LY, Li YH, Lu SG, Wen XF, Wang J, Daikonya A, Kitanaka S.China National Administration Center for Seabuckthorn Development, Ministry of Water Resources, Haidian District, Beijing 100038, P. R. China.
In our investigation on the chemical constituents of Hippophae rhamnoides L., the chloroform-soluble fraction of the 80% acetone extract of branch bark was observed to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide and recombinant mouse interferon-gamma-activated murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. Two new triterpenoids, 2-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (1) and 2-O-caffeoyl maslinic acid (2), and three known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (4), and 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (5), and 6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran (6) and beta-sitosterol (7) were isolated from the branch bark extract. Their inhibitory activities on the production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells and radical-scavenging activities were examined.
Adaptogenic and safety evaluation of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaf extract: a dose dependent study.:Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Apr;45(4):609-17. Epub 2006 Oct 24.Saggu S, Divekar HM, Gupta V, Sawhney RC, Banerjee PK, Kumar R.Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India.
The effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae), leaf aqueous extract were examined in rats for its adaptogenic activity and toxicity. Dose dependent adaptogenic study of extract was carried out at different doses administered orally, 30min prior to cold (5 degrees C)-hypoxia (428mmHg)-restraint (C-H-R) exposure. After sub-acute toxicity studies on 10 and 20 times doses of maximal effective dose administered for 14 days (single oral dose of 1g/kg and 2g/kg once daily) and maximal effective dose administered for 30 days (single oral dose of 100mg/kg once daily), biochemical and hematological parameters were studied in the serum and blood. The maximal effective adaptogenic dose of the extract was 100mg/kg body weight. No significant changes were observed in organ weight/body weight ratios, of any vital organ studied (except liver and kidney in 1g/kg and 2g/kg body weight doses, respectively), and biochemical and hematological parameters of the sub-acute drug treated animals in comparison to control rats. In acute toxicity study LD(50) of the extract was observed to be >10g/kg when given orally. These results indicate that seabuckthorn leaf aqueous extract possess potent adaptogenic activity with no toxicity even after sub-acute (30 days) maximal effective dose administration.
Protective effect of ethanolic and water extracts of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against the toxic effects of mustard gas.:Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Oct;44(10):821-31.Vijayaraghavan R, Gautam A, Kumar O, Pant SC, Sharma M, Singh S, Kumar HT, Singh AK, Nivsarkar M, Kaushik MP, Sawhney RC, Chaurasia OP, Prasad GB.Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior 474 002, India. email@example.com
Ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides L. leaf (HL-EOH), water and ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides fruit (HF-W and HF-EOH), and H. rhamnoides flavone from fruit (HR-flavone) were evaluated against percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent. The animals administered with SM (9.7, 19.3 and 38.7 mg/kg) died at various days depending upon the dose and there was a significant reduction in the body weight. The H. rhamnoides extracts (1 g/kg; 3 doses; po) significantly protected the lethality, with a protective index of 2.4, 1.7, 1.7 and 2.2 for HL-EOH, HF-W, HF-EOH and HR-flavone respectively. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutalthione (GSSG) levels were reduced, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was elevated after percutaneous administration of SM. Oral administration of HL-EOH and HR-flavone significantly protected the body weight loss. Recovery in the levels of GSH, GSSG and MDA were also observed following oral administration of HL-EOH and HR-flavone. All the extracts were non-toxic and the LD50 was more than 5 g/kg. The present study shows that percutaneous administration of SM induces oxidative stress and ethanolic extract of leaf of H. rhamnoides and H. rhamnoides flavone from fruit can significantly protect it.
Protection of spermatogenesis in mice against gamma ray induced damage by Hippophae rhamnoides.:Andrologia. 2006 Dec;38(6):199-207.Goel HC, Samanta N, Kannan K, Kumar IP, Bala M.Department of Microbiology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, UP, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The radioprotective action of a preparation from Hippophae rhamnoides berries RH-3, already reported to render >80% survival against whole body 10 Gy gamma irradiation, was further investigated with respect to the testicular system. RH-3 was administered to mice 30 min before gamma irradiation (5 and 10 Gy) and histological parameters such as testis weight, sperm count, frequency of abnormal sperm, repopulation index, stem cell survival index and seminiferous tubular diameter were assessed on the 35th day. RH-3 administration partially countered radiation induced reduction in testis weight, sperm count, repopulation index and stem cell survival index (p < 0.01). The increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm (15.17 +/- 1.046%) caused by irradiation (5 Gy) was counteracted by pre-irradiation treatment with RH-3, which significantly decreased the level of abnormal spermatozoa to 7.99 +/- 0.918% (p < 0.001), i.e. 52% abnormalities in comparison with 5 Gy irradiated group. RH-3 treatment alone did not elicit any toxic or adverse effect on the process of spermatogenesis. The present study suggests that RH-3 treatment protected spermatogenesis by enhancing the spermatogonial proliferation, enhancing the stem cell survival and reducing sperm abnormalities. The presence of polyphenolic flavonoids and tannins in the extract and the radical scavenging activity might be responsible for the radioprotective action of RH-3.
Experimental study on the effect of tiangui gengnian capsule on the aged female rats ostepoprosis.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Aug;29(8):803-6. Chinese.Liu B, Yuan BX, Guo X, Wei XZ, Zhao LM, Chen D, Kang J.Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the therapeutic action of Seabuckthorn Fatty Acid on the aged female rats osteoporosis, and explore the corresponding mechanism related in hormone and cytokine. METHODS: The change of bone density (BMD), biomechanics and bone morphology were measured and E2, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 level in plasma were determined respectively for the young female rats, aged female rats (Seabuckthorn Fatty Acid 0.72, 1.8, 4.5 g/kg, E2 0.02 g/kg) after they were administrated corresponding drugs for 45 days. RESULTS: The bone density (BMD), bone biomechanics, bone morphology for female rats aged 22-months all decreased. The BMD, bone biomechanics, the number of bone trabeculas and cortical thickness in Seabuckthorn Fatty Acid treated groups (1.8 g/kg, 4.5 g/kg) were upgraded (P < 0.05). The TGF-beta1, IGF-1 level in plasma were increased, too (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Seabuckthorn Fatty Acid can meliorate bone metabolism in post-menopause and heighten the bone density. The adjustment mechanism may be based on the function of estrogen and cell cytokine.
Quantification of 3R,3'R-zeaxanthin in plant derived food by a diastereomeric dilution assay applying chiral high-performance liquid chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2006 Dec 29;1137(2):216-22. Epub 2006 Oct 30.Schlatterer J, Maurer S, Breithaupt DE.University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.
For quantification of 3R,3'R-zeaxanthin in plant derived food, a new diastereomeric dilution assay (DIDA) was developed using chiral high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD). As diastereomeric internal standard (I.S.), 3R,3'S-(meso)-zeaxanthin was applied. DIDA showed sufficient sensitivity with low limits of detection and quantification (18 microg100 g(-1) and 45 microg 100 g(-1)), a good inter-assay coefficient of variation (2.4%), determined by analysis of a certified BCR reference material, and a good recovery (94.7%). To prove the applicability of DIDA, various plant materials were analyzed, showing that DIDA is highly advisable if saponification is applied during work-up to hydrolyze xanthophyll esters.
Late Quaternary history of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae) inferred from chalcone synthase intron (Chsi) sequences and chloroplast DNA variation.:Mol Ecol. 2006 Nov;15(13):4065-83.Bartish IV, Kadereit JW, Comes HP.Department of Phanerogamic Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, PO Box 50007, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden. email@example.com
Fossil pollen records indicate that Hippopha? rhamnoides (Sea Buckthorn) was widespread on late- and early postglacial raw soils throughout much of central and northern Europe, but that Early Holocene reforestation restricted populations to northern coastal habitats, or along mountain streams in the Alps, Pyrenees, and Carpathians. We used sequence variation at the nuclear chalcone synthase intron (Chsi), in conjunction with chloroplast DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism data, to investigate the intraspecific phylogeny, phylogeographic structure, and expansion demographic history of this dioecious and wind-pollinated shrub at its range-wide scale in Europe and Asia Minor. Four major Chsi phylogroups of unresolved relationships were identified with estimated divergences approximately 172,000 years ago. Large-scale phylogeographic structures of nuclear and cytoplasmic markers were congruent in identifying (i) southeastern Europe as the most likely source of colonization into central Europe and Scandinavia, and (ii) the area just north of the Alps as a contact zone between populations from the Alps and the east/central European-Scandinavian lineage. Coalescence-based analyses (i.e. nested clade analysis and mismatch distributions) of Chsi variation were able to detect at least four major episodes of population growth, all within about the last 40,000 years. In particular, these analyses identified a nearly synchronized timing of population expansions in various parts of the species' range in central-eastern Europe/Asia Minor, most likely correlating with the Younger Dryas Stadial ( approximately 13,000-11,600 years ago). It remains to be established whether the phylogeographic history of H. rhamnoides, and particularly its rapid response to the rapid environmental changes of the Younger Dryas cold snap, is unique to the species, or whether it is shared with other cold-tolerant shrub (or grassland) species known from late-glacial raw soils in Europe.
Effect of flavonoids from Hippophae rhamniodes residues on blood lipoid metabolism and antioxidative activity in climacteric rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;31(13):1109-12. Chinese.Yang XY, Qu WJ, Xu ZL, Miu-Qian , Zhu LX, Xu ZM.School of Life Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of flavonoids from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides (FH) on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative activity in climacteric rats. METHOD: Menopausal rats with aging were used in this experiment. The rats were fed with FH by gastrogavage for 13 weeks. The effect of drug on the lipid metabolism and the antioxidative activity were observed after the rats were killed. RESULT: Serum total cholesterol was decreased significantly in rats fed with FH, T-AOC and SOD in serum and liver were significantly higher than those in rats fed with water, and at the same time MDA was lower than that in rats fed with water. CONCLUSION: FH can improve the climacteric rats' lipid metabolism, and enhance the antioxidation in climacteric rats.
Effects and comparison of seed oil and sarcocarp oil of Hippophae rhamnoides on rats with experimental hepatocirrhosis.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;31(13):1100-2. Chinese.Liu C, Xu J, Ye CQ, Huang C.Department of Life Science, Nanjing University, China.
OBJECTIVE: A study was carried out to investigate the effects of seed oil and sarcocarp oil of Hippophae rhamnoides on rats with experimental hepatocirrhosis, and comparison between the two. METHOD: A rat model of experimental hepatocirrhosis was set up by feeding CCl4. Different concentration of seed oil and sarcocarp oil of H. rhamnoides were feed to those rats for 45 d, then the changes of activity of ALT in serum and SOD in liver were measured. RESULT: Both of seed oil and sarcocarp oil can control the increase of ALT in serum and the decrease of SOD evidently, and the effect of seed oil was turn out to be a little better than sarcocarp oil. CONCLUSION: Seed oil was more effective than sarcocarp oil of H. rhamnoides in alleviating liver injury caused by CCl4.
Secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries of different subspecies and harvesting times.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Oct 18;54(21):8065-70.Yang B, Linko AM, Adlercreutz H, Kallio H.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
Sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides) seeds, berries, and berry fractions are often used as sources of bioactive ingredients for health products. The aim of the present study was to analyze lignans in these fractions of sea buckthorn. Secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in seeds, fruit pulp/peel, and whole berries of sea buckthorn of three subspecies were analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of the two lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol varied widely from 8 to 139 microg/100 g in fresh berries and from 51 to 319 microg/100 g in dry berries. The content of secoisolariciresinol varied in the range of 34-313 microg/100 g of dry mass in the fruit pulp/peel and 93-355 microg/100 g in dry seeds. The content of matairesinol fell within the range of 3-25 microg/100 g in dry pulp/peel and 1-13 microg/kg in dry seeds. Wild H. rhamnoides ssp. sinensis contained a significantly higher total level of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in dry seeds, dry berries, and fresh berries compared with wild ssp. rhamnoides (253 vs 135 microg/100 g, P < 0.01, in seeds; 224 vs 153 microg/100 g, P < 0.05, in dry berries; 71 vs 29 g/100 g, P < 0.01, in fresh berries) and the cultivar of ssp. mongolica (253 vs 112 microg/100 g in seeds, 71 vs 9 microg/100 g in fresh berries). Harvesting dates had a significant influence on the content of the two lignans in seeds, fruit pulp/peel, and whole berries. This is the first report of lignans in sea buckthorn.
Effects of different organic farming methods on the concentration of phenolic compounds in sea buckthorn leaves.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Oct 4;54(20):7678-85.Hein?aho M, Pusenius J, Julkunen-Tiitto R.Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
The effects of different cultivation methods on the amount of phenolic compounds in leaves of 1-year-old seedlings of two Finnish sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides) cultivars 'Terhi' and 'Tytti' were studied in a field experiment established at coastal area in Merikarvia, western Finland. The cultivation methods included different fertilizers (suitable for organic cultivation), mulches (organic and plastic), and land contours (flat vs low hill surface). Two experiments were conducted. The first allowed the estimation of the effects of cultivar, fertilizer, surface contour, and all their interactions, while the other allowed the estimation of the effects of mulches, land contours, and their interactions for the cultivar 'Tytti'. Eleven different hydrolyzable tannins, pentagalloylglucose, and 14 other phenolic compounds were detected by chemical analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The amount of phenolic compounds varied between different land contours and mulches. The concentrations of gallic acid, pentagalloylglucose, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, monocoumaroyl astragalin A, total hydrolyzable tannins, and condensed tannins were significantly higher on the flat surface than on the low hill surface. The plastic mulch decreased the concentration of gallic acid, hydrolyzable tannins, and condensed tannins compared to the other mulches used. These results suggest ways to cultivate sea buckthorn to produce large amounts of valuable chemicals, especially tannins in the leaves.
Absorption of flavonols derived from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and their effect on emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7364-9.Suomela JP, Ahotupa M, Yang B, Vasankari T, Kallio H.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. email@example.com
Sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) is a rich source of flavonols, especially isorhamnetin. Most prospective cohort studies have indicated some degree of inverse association between flavonoid intake and coronary heart disease. Animal and human studies suggest that sea buckthorn flavonoids may scavenge free radicals, lower blood viscosity, and enhance cardiac function. The effects of flavonol aglycones derived from sea buckthorn on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease as well as their absorption were studied in humans. The flavonols, ingested with oatmeal porridge, did not have a significant effect on the levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine, on the plasma antioxidant potential, or on the paraoxonase activity. Flavonols at two dosages in oatmeal porridge were rapidly absorbed, and a relatively small amount of sea buckthorn oil added to the porridge seemed to have increased the bioavailability of sea buckthorn flavonols consumed at the higher dose.
Genetic variation in Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis (Elaeagnaceae) revealed by RAPD markers.:Biochem Genet. 2006 Jun;44(5-6):186-97. Epub 2006 Sep 7.Sun K, Chen W, Ma R, Chen X, Li A, Ge S.Institute of Botany, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, PR China.
Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is endemic to China, and it is a dioecious, outcrossing plant. Although many studies have been undertaken mainly on its agricultural, nutritional, medical, and ornamental value, little is known about its population genetics. This study uses random amplified polymorphic DNA to investigate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 13 natural populations of the subspecies sinensis. Fifteen primers amplified 107 reproducible bands, with 95 (88.79%) being polymorphic. The gene diversity within population was 0.168, considerably lower than that of tree species and most perennial, outcrossing species, but higher than that of annual or short-lived, selfing species. The Gst value showed that 18.3% of the total genetic variation resided among populations, a little lower than that of outcrossing species. The present results are quite similar to those previously reported in another subspecies, H ssp. . rhamnoides rhamnoides. The low genetic differentiation among populations in ssp. sinensis may be attributed to the long-distance dispersal of seeds facilitated by birds, in addition to its characteristics of outcrossing, wind pollination, and widespread distribution. No association between genetic distance and geographical distribution was found. The population relationships revealed by the UPGMA dendrogram parallel this result, in that genetic distance did not increase with geographic separation. This pattern of population differentiation may imply the adaptation of ssp. s populations to the local environment, given that its habitats vary greatly across its distribution.
Protection from radiation-induced mitochondrial and genomic DNA damage by an extract of Hippophae rhamnoides.:Environ Mol Mutagen. 2006 Dec;47(9):647-56.Shukla SK, Chaudhary P, Kumar IP, Samanta N, Afrin F, Gupta ML, Sharma UK, Sinha AK, Sharma YK, Sharma RK.Division of Radioimaging, Bioinformatics, and Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India.
Hippophae rhamnoides or seabuckthorn is used extensively in Indian and Tibetan traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, ischemic heart disease, hepatic injury, and neoplasia. In the present study, we have evaluated the radioprotective potential of REC-1001, a fraction isolated from the berries of H. rhamnoides. Chemical analysis of the extract indicated that REC-1001 was approximately 68% by weight polyphenols, and contained kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and quercetin. The effect of REC-1001 on modulating radiation-induced DNA damage was determined in murine thymocytes by measuring nonspecific nuclear DNA damage at the whole genome level using the alkaline halo assay and by measuring sequence/gene-specific DNA damage both in nuclear DNA (beta-globin gene) and in mitochondrial DNA using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with 10 Gy resulted in a significant amount of DNA damage in the halo assay and reductions in the amplification of both the beta-globin gene and mitochondrial DNA. REC-1001 dose-dependently reduced the amount of damage detected in each assay, with the maximum protective effects observed at the highest REC-1001 dose evaluated (250 micro g/ml). Studies measuring the nicking of naked plasmid DNA further established the radioprotective effect of REC-1001. To elucidate possible mechanisms of action, the antioxidant properties and the free-radical scavenging activities of REC-1001 were evaluated. REC-1001 dose-dependently scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals, chemically-generated superoxide anions, stabilized DPPH radicals, and reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). The results of the study indicate that the REC-1001 extract of H. rhamnoides protects mitochondrial and genomic DNA from radiation-induced damage. The polyphenols/flavonoids present in the extract might be responsible for the free radical scavenging and DNA protection afforded by REC-1001.
Comprehensive treatment of generalized parodontitis.:Georgian Med News. 2006 Jun;(135):60-3.Mdinaradze N.University Sakartvelo, Tbilisi, Georgia.
The complexity of pathogenesis of periodontitis makes the use of comprehensive treatment necessary. We observed 60 patients, 20 women and 40 men among them aged from 20 to 50. In the course of parodontitis, we determined the intensity of inflammatory-destructive changes (Pi) in the course of periodontitis, the degree of fang denudation, the depth of gum and parodontal recesses, degree of the teeth becoming loose; we conducted the microbiological study of the oral cavity microflora and drew up an antibiotic graph. We included laser therapy in the comprehensive treatment course of generalized parodontitis. We divided the patients into two groups. The patients of the first group were treated in two stages. We used peridex, composed of chlorhexidine for antiseptic treatment of oral cavity. We used a combined solution of sage, eucalyptus, camomile and calendula to irrigate the oral cavity. At the second stage we used ointment applications with the composition of 3% indometacin, heparin, vitamins, sea-buckthorn oil and antibiotics. In the course of comprehensive treatment of the patients of the II group we included laser therapy. Our interest in the laser beam, as in the means of parodontitis treatment was stimulated by a number of properties of the laser beam and namely, its anti-inflammatory, desensitizing and antibacterial action promotes intensifying the reparation processes and does not entail any complications. The mentioned method has produced the best therapeutic results and has resulted in the reduced treatment period.
Flavonoids from seabuckthorn protect endothelial cells (EA.hy926) from oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced injuries via regulation of LOX-1 and eNOS expression.:J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;48(1):834-41.Bao M, Lou Y.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310031, China.
The present investigation was undertaken to determine the protective effects of flavonoids from seabuckthorn (FSBT), a traditional Chinese medicine, on endothelial cell line EA.hy926 injury induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Possible mechanisms were then explored. The effects of quercetin and isorhamnetin, 2 major components of FSBT, were examined as well. Indices such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase, and superoxide were measured. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry were employed to determine the endothelial constitutive NO synthase (eNOS) and lectinlike low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression. Cell viability decreased significantly after 24 hours treatment with ox-LDL, accompanied with apparent secretion disorders such as NO reduction and lactate dehydrogenase increase. FSBT pretreatment could remarkably prevent both cell death and secretion disorders in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, it was observed that ox-LDL triggered superoxide production and suppressed the superoxide dismutase activity, both of which could be prevented by FSBT pretreatment. Moreover, ox-LDL inhibited eNOS expression and increased LOX-1 expression, whereas FSBT pretreatment partly abolished these effects. Similar effects were obtained with quercetin and isorhamnetin, implying that they may contribute, at least in part, to the protective effects of FSBT. The data indicate that the protective effects of FSBT against ox-LDL induced endothelial cell injuries might derive from its antioxidant activity and its capability in modulating the expression of eNOS and LOX-1. And quercetin and isorhamnetin may contribute to these effects of FSBT.
Protective effects of fruit extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. against arsenic toxicity in Swiss albino mice.:Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Jun;25(6):285-95.Gupta R, Flora SJ.Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defense Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474 002, India.
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry has a long history of applications as a food and medicinal ingredient in eastern countries. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of different fruit extracts of H. rhamnoides on altered biochemical parameters indicative of haematological alterations, tissue oxidative stress, and arsenic concentration in arsenic-exposed mice (2.5 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Two aqueous extracts (at room temperature and under reflux condition) and an ethanolic extract of H. rhamnoides at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight were co-administered daily during arsenic exposure in mice for 3 weeks. Exposure to arsenic led to a significant inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, suggesting disturbed haem synthesis pathway. Arsenic also caused significant depletion of reduced hepatic glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, while it increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), suggesting liver oxidative stress. Most of the altered biochemical variables responded favorably to the co-supplementation of H. rhamnoides, particularly the aqueous fruit extract, extracted at room temperature (HF-WRT). However, arsenic concentration in blood and tissues remained unchanged, suggesting the lack of chelating property of fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. The present study, thus, led us to conclude that the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides has a significant protective role against arsenic-induced oxidative injury. However, it lacks the ability to remove arsenic from the binding sites, suggesting that the herbal extract could be co-administered with a chelating agent of known efficacy during treatment of arsenic to achieve the optimum effect of chelation treatment.
Studying the anti-ulcer activity of gastrobiol.:Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006 Mar-Apr;69(2):37-9. Russian.Sergienko AV.
Gastrobiol--a new preparation comprising a mixture of lyophilized sea-buckthorn oil, vitamin U, and magnesium oxide, produces a pronounced antiulcerous action on the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum. The regenerative effect of gastrobiol is more pronounced than that of pure sea-buckthorn oil and methyluracil.
Analysis of triacylglycerols of seeds and berries of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) of different origins by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.:Lipids. 2006 Apr;41(4):381-92.Yang B, Kallio H.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
TAG of seeds, berries, and fruit pulp/peel of different subspecies of sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides) were analyzed by MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The seeds contained mainly TAG with acyl carbon number (ACN) of 52 with 2-6 double bonds (DB) (20-30%), and TAG of ACN 54 with 3-9 DB (70-80%). In the pulp/peel fraction, the major TAG were species with ACN:DB of 48:1 to 48:3 (19-49%), 50:1 to 50:4 (31-41%), and 52:1 to 52:6 (9-19%). The molecular weight species of whole berries largely resembled those of fruit pulp/peel with additional species of ACN 54 from the seeds (5-24%). Subspecies (ssp.) sinensis differed from ssp. mongolica and rhamnoides by having a higher proportion of TAG of ACN 52 (27% vs. 21% and 22%, P< 0.05) and a lower proportion of ACN 54 (71% vs. 79% and 78%, P < 0.01) in seed TAG. Seed TAG of ssp. mongolica contained a higher proportion of more unsaturated species compared with those of the two other subspecies. Berry TAG of ssp. mongolica had the highest proportion of molecular species of ACN 48 due to the higher proportion of palmitic and palmitoleic acids and the lower seed content of the berries. Overall, palmitic acid favored the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. The order of preference of unsaturated FA for the sn-2 position depended at least partially on the FA combination of TAG. Seed TAG of ssp. mongolica contained a higher proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in the sn-2 position than those of ssp. sinensis. In berry TAG, ssp. mongolica had the highest proportions of palmitoleic and linoleic acids in the sn-2 position, and the lowest proportion of oleic/cis-vaccenic acid in the sn-2 position, among the three subspecies.
Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens.:Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):18-32.Nohynek LJ, Alakomi HL, K?hk?nen MP, Heinonen M, Helander IM, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Puupponen-Pimi? RH.VTT Biotechnology, Tietotie 2, VTT, Finland. email@example.com
Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of phenolic extracts of 12 Nordic berries were studied against selected human pathogenic microbes. The most sensitive bacteria on berry phenolics were Helicobacter pylori and Bacillus cereus. Campylobacter jejuni and Candida albicans were inhibited only with phenolic extracts of cloudberry, raspberry, and strawberry, which all were rich in ellagitannins. Cloudberry extract gave strong microbicidic effects on the basis of plate count with all studied strains. However, fluorescence staining of liquid cultures of virulent Salmonella showed viable cells not detectable by plate count adhering to cloudberry extract, whereas Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered to berry extracts were dead on the basis of their fluorescence and plate count. Phenolic extracts of cloudberry and raspberry disintegrated the outer membrane of examined Salmonella strains as indicated by 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) uptake increase and analysis of liberation of [14C]galactose- lipopolysaccharide. Gallic acid effectively permeabilized the tested Salmonella strains, and significant increase in the NPN uptake was recorded. The stability of berry phenolics and their antimicrobial activity in berries stored frozen for a year were examined using Escherichia coli and nonvirulent Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. The amount of phenolic compounds decreased in all berries, but their antimicrobial activity was not influenced accordingly. Cloudberry, in particular, showed constantly strong antimicrobial activity during the storage.
Quality standard for Xindi soft capsule.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Apr;31(7):552-4, 597. Chinese.Wang YJ, Zhang Y, Gu R, Lai XR, Wang P, Zhang ZJ.College of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese medicine, Chengdu 611731, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To establish the quality control standard of Xindi soft capsule. METHOD: Quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were isolated by TLC with chloroform-ethyl formate-formic acid (5:4:1). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). Acetonitrile-water-phosphoric (30:70:0.1) as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL x min(-1) and column temperature was set at 40 degrees C. The UV detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. RESULT: Quercetin, Kaempferol and Isorhamnetin could be identified by TLC. Quercetin showed a good linear relationship at a range of 0.412-1.648 microg, r = 0.999 9, the average recovery was 96.8%, and RSD was 0.9% (n = 6). Kaempferol showed a good linear relationship at a range of 0.021-0.083 microg, r = 0.999 8, the average recovery was 96.9%, and RSD was 2.0% (n = 6). Isorhamnetin showed a good linear relationship at a range of 0.183-0.732 microg, r = 0.999 9, the average recovery was 97.1%, and RSD was 1.6% (n = 6). CONCLUSION: The method is accurate with the good reproducibility and can be used for the quality control of Xindi soft capsule.
In vitro anti-tumor activity of isorhamnetin isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides L. against BEL-7402 cells.:Pharmacol Res. 2006 Sep;54(3):186-94. Epub 2006 Apr 30.Teng BS, Lu YH, Wang ZT, Tao XY, Wei DZ.State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, New World Institute of Biotechnology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China.
Isorhamnetin, a flavonol aglycone, isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Hippophae rhamnoides L., was investigated in its cytotoxicity and its influence on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (BEL-7402). The cytotoxic effects of isorhamnetin showed dose- and time-dependency against BEL-7402 cells, with IC(50) equal to 74.4+/-1.13 microg ml(-1) after treatment with isorhamnetin for 72 h. Cytotoxicity of the flavonols on tumor cells depends on cellular accumulation of the drugs. The amount of isorhamnetin accumulated in BEL-7402 cells was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and showed that isorhamnetin could permeate the cell membrane into the cell. Staining with Hoechst 33258 showed fragmentation and condensation of chromatin in the cell treated with 50 microg ml(-1) isorhamnetin for 48 h. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine hypodiploid cells. The results of flow cytometry assay indicated that the percentage of hypodiploid BEL-7402 cells were 13.77+/-1.05% after 48 h treatment with 50 microg ml(-1) isorhamnetin. The treatment resulted in the appearance of a hypodiploid peak (sub-G(0)/G(1) peak), probably due to the presence of cells in apoptosis and apoptotic bodies with DNA content less than 2n. To our knowledge, this is the first report against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (BEL-7402) of isorhamnetin.
Influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) flavone on dermal wound healing in rats.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Oct;290(1-2):193-8. Epub 2006 Apr 22Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Singh V, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC.Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India. email@example.com
The present investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy of topical administration of flavone of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on cutaneous wound healing in rats. Four full-thickness excision wounds were created on the back of rat and 1.0% w/v flavone prepared in propylene glycol was applied topically. Control animals received the vehicle alone in an identical manner. The healing of the wound was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, hydroxyproline, hexosamine, antioxidants estimation and histopathology of the granulation tissue. The sea buckthorn flavone promoted the wound healing activity as indicated by improved rate of wound contraction, decreased time taken for epithelialization (16.3 days versus 24.8 days in controls) and significant increase in hydroxyproline (26.0%) and hexosamine (30.0%) content. These findings were also confirmed by histopathological examinations. In addition, it was observed that sea buckthorn flavone possesses potent antioxidant properties as evidenced by significant increase in reduced glutathione (55.0%), vitamin C (70.0%) and catalase (20.0%) activities in wound granulation tissue. The flavone treatment also resulted in significant decrease in lipid peroxide levels (39.0%). The results suggest that the sea buckthorn flavone promotes wound healing activity.
Anticarcinogenic potential of lipids from Hippophae--evidence from the recent literature.:Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006 Jan-Mar;7(1):32-5. Review.Zeb A.Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, N-W.F.P, Pakistan. Alamzeb01@yahoo.com
Hippophae (Sea buckthorn) is a deciduous species, widely distributed throughout the world. Its important products are whole berries, leaves, juice and oil. The last two give this plant a shining name and position in medicinal plants. They contain different kinds of nutrients and bioactive substances such as vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, free amino acids and elemental components. The clinical trials and scientific studies during the 20th century confirm medicinal and nutritional value of sea buckthorn, and the most important of them is its anti-carcinogenic properties. This mini-review is focused on the anti-carcinogenic potential of lipids from this plant, in order to open up a clear understanding for further detailed study in this regard.
Modulatory effects of several herbal extracts on avian peripheral blood cell immune responses.:Phytother Res. 2006 May;20(5):352-8.Dorhoi A, Dobrean V, Z?han M, Virag P.Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. firstname.lastname@example.org
Standardized ethanol extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Plantago major (plantain) and Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn) were assessed for their effects on cellular immunity in laying hens. Birds (n = 25) had blood samples taken and both specific and non-specific immune cell responsiveness were evaluated by a leukocyte proliferation assay, carbon clearance test and SRBC phagocytosis in monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. Licorice and sea buckthorn (50 microg/mL) clearly enhanced the macrophage membrane function (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Dual effects on circulating phagocytes were revealed for plantain and sea buckthorn, while garlic at 200 microg/mL impaired the phagocytic capacity of blood cells. None of the tested extracts showed mitogenic properties, but high concentrations of sea buckthorn (400 microg/mL) inhibited leukocyte proliferation. Small concentrations (20 microg/mL) of licorice proved the co-mitogenic potential for both T and B avian lymphocytes (p < 0.05). Certain extracts definitely enhanced the fowl innate and/or specific cell immunity and may therefore improve host resistance in poultry. Considering the chicken as an important non-mammalian model that also serves as an available laboratory approach for some human diseases, herbs exerting immunomodulatory properties may find relevant clinical applications.
Study on the purification and scavenging free radical activity of water soluble polysaccharide of leave in Hippohae rhamnoides L.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Feb;29(2):151-4. Chinese.Liu CL, Liu HQ, Deng YH, Liu ML.College of Life and Environmental Science, Central University for Nationalitites, Beijing 100081, China. Liuchunlan@cun.edu.cn
The crude polysaccharide was extracted from Leave in Hippohae rhamnoides L. with hot water, and precipitated by ethanol. The crude polysaccharide has been fractionated by acidic ethanol. Three fractions (SJ1, SJ2, SJ3) were got respectively. SJ2 deproteinizationed by the combined methods of enzyme and Seveage, purified by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 gel filtration. PC analysis indicated that SJ22 is composed of Xyl,Ara,Glc,Gal,GaL A. The identification of purify by Sepharose CL-4B, paper chromatography and cellulous acetate electrophoresis showed it was homogeneous. Typical absorption of polysaccharides was shown in its IR spectrum. It contained a-glucosidic bonds by IR analysis. It had typical absorption of protein by UV scaning. SJ22 is first isolated from Leave in Hippohae rhamnoides L Scavenging free radical experiment showed that SJ22 was effective in scavenging superoxideradical and hydroxylradical, but only a little effective in scavenging lipid radical.
Fast analysis of sugars, fruit acids, and vitamin C in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) varieties.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 5;54(7):2508-13.Tiitinen KM, Yang B, Haraldsson GG, Jonsdottir S, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry and Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. email@example.com
A fast, one-step gas chromatographic method was developed to analyze trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of sugars, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippoha? rhamnoides L.) berries. The method was applied to berry press juice of sea buckthorn of different origins grown in Finland during the 2003 and 2004 seasons. The method gave reliable results for D-fructose, D-glucose, ethyl-D-glucose, and malic, quinic, and ascorbic acids, which are the major sugars and acids in sea buckthorn juice. For the first time in sea buckthorn and evidently in any berry, the presence of ethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside is reported. The structure of ethyl glucose was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), MS, and NMR analyses of both the isolated and the synthesized compounds. In the GC method, vitamin C was analyzed as ascorbic acid only, and dehydroascorbic acid was thus not taken into account.
Monitoring monohydroperoxides in docosahexaenoic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography.:Lipids. 2006 Jan;41(1):67-76.Lyberg AM, Adlercreutz P.Department of Biotechnology, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
The oxidation of free DHA has been investigated with respect to monohydroperoxides and polyhydroperoxides, which were analyzed with a novel HPLC method. The temperature and physical system, i.e., bulk and liposome, were varied. We have also studied the effects of antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and juice from sea buckthorn on DHA. The HPLC method, which was performed isocratically, eluted eight peaks, each containing one or two isomers of monohydroperoxy-DHA. This method showed that the double bond farthest from the carboxyl group was easily oxidized, as shown by the rapid increase in the amount of C20-monohydroperoxy-DHA, which always provided the largest contribution to the total amount of monohydroperoxides. The monohydroperoxy-DHA containing the hydroperoxy group located on the double bond nearest the carboxyl group also was shown to increase considerably during an increase in the total amount of monohydroperoxides. This demonstrates that the double bonds located nearest and farthest from the carboxyl group were the most prone to hydroperoxide formation. DHA was more stable when stored in liposomes than as bulk. Addition of alpha-tocopherol to the DHA-containing liposomes reduced the oxidation of these double bonds. The antioxidant effect of alpha-tocopherol was prolonged when combined with ascorbic acid, since alpha-tocopherol was regenerated.
Application of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in separation of bioactive flavonoids by capillary zone electrophoresis.:J Sep Sci. 2006 Feb;29(2):272-6.Yue ME, Shi YP.Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, P. R. China.
Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids that are constituted entirely of ions and can provide a solvent environment quite unlike any other available at room temperature. They continue to attract considerable interest in the chemistry research community as they are good solvents for a wide range of both inorganic and organic materials. In this study, a CZE method has been established for resolving natural flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the Chinese herbal extract from Hippophae rhamnoides and its medicinal preparation (Sindacon Tablet). In this method, 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium-based ILs are used as the additive, and the effects of the alkyl group, imidazolium counterion (anionic part), along with the concentration of IL are investigated and discussed. Baseline separation, high efficiencies and symmetrical peaks of the three flavonoids were obtained. The separation mechanism seems to be the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the imidazolium cations of IL and the flavonoids.
Simultaneous determination of catechin, rutin, quercetin kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves by RP-HPLC with DAD.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Jun 7;41(3):714-9. Epub 2006 Mar 7.Zu Y, Li C, Fu Y, Zhao C.Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, PR China. email@example.com
A rapid and specific reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) at room temperature was used and validated for the simultaneous determination of five flavonoids (catechin, CA; rutin, RU; quercetin, QU; kaempferol, KA; isorhamnetin, IS) in the extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves. The sample pretreatment process involved ultrasonic extraction with 85% ethanol under the frequency of 80 kHz, at a temperature of 45 degrees C for 30 min and with the ratio of liquor to material of 15 mL g-1, followed by separation on HIQ SIL C18V column with methanol-acetonitrile-water (40:15:45, v/v/v) containing 1.0% acetic acid as a mobile phase. The extract was detected by DAD at the wavelength of 279 nm for CA, 257 nm for RU, 368 nm for QU, KA and IS. Calibration curves were found to be linear with the ranges of 0.011-0.520 mg ml-1 (CA), 0.007-0.500 mg ml-1 (RU), 0.019-0.280 mg ml-1 (QU), 0.010-0.440 mg ml-1 (KA) and 0.008-0.400 mg ml-1 (IS). The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis and detection limits were between 0.9963-0.9999 and 0.00079-0.00290 mg ml-1. The contents of CA, RU, QU, KA and IS in sea buckthorn leaves were successfully determined with 3.8, 5.2, 7.3, 10.9 and 11.9 min with satisfactory reproducibility and recovery. Recoveries of the five flavonoids were between 97.27 and 99.98%. The method was applied to the determination of flavonoids in sea buckthorn leaves and was found to be simple, rapid and efficient.
Management of burn wounds with Hippophae rhamnoides oil.:Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Jan;26(1):124-5. Chinese.Wang ZY, Luo XL, He CP.Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shenzhen Buji Peoples' Hospital, Shenzhen 518112, China.
OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effects of Hippophae rhamnoides oil, a preparation of traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the fruits of sea buckthorn, on the wounds in burn patients. METHODS: Hippophae rhamnoides oil dressing was applied on the burn wounds as an inner dressing and covered by disinfecting dressing. The oil dressing was changed every other day until wound healing. RESULTS: Totally 151 burned patients received the treatment with Hippophae rhamnoides oil dressing, which obviously alleviated the swelling and effusion of the wounds and relieved the pains. Compared with the control patients (treated with vaseline gauze), patients receiving the dressing showed more obvious exudation reduction, pain relief, and faster epithelial cell growth and wound healing, with statistically significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: As a valuable plant oil with wide uses in medicine, Hippophae rhamnoides oil for external application has definite effects on the healing of burn wounds.
Effects of total flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on intracellular free calcium in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats.:Chin J Integr Med. 2005 Dec;11(4):287-92.Zhu F, Huang B, Hu CY, Jiang QY, Lu ZG, Lu M, Wang MH, Gong M, Qiao CP, Chen W, Huang PH.Cardiovascular Department, Nanhui District Central Hospital, Shanghai 201300. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of total flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH), quercetin (Que) and isorhamnetin (Isor) on the intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). METHODS: Fluo 3-acetoxymethylester (Fluo-3/AM) was used to observe the effects of TFH (100 mg/L) and its essential monomers, namely Que (10(-4) mol/L) and Isor (10(-4) mol/L) on changes of [Ca(2+)](i) in cultured SHR and WKY VSMC (abbr. to Ca-SHR & Ca-WKY) following exposure to high K(+), norepinephrine (NE) and angiotensin II (Ang II), and to compare with the effects of verapamil (Ver). RESULTS: (1) TFH, Que and Isor had inhibitory effects on resting Ca-SHR (P < 0.05), but had no significant effects on Ca-WKY (P > 0.05). (2) High K(+) could increase Ca-SHR more significantly than Ca-WKY (P < 0.05); TFH, Que and Isor could inhibit the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by high K(+)-depolarization, with the effects similar to that of Ver, and the effect on Ca-SHR was more significant than that on Ca-WKY (P < 0.05). (3) NE and Ang II could increase Ca-SHR more significantly than Ca-WKY (P < 0.05), TFH, Que and Isor had remarkably inhibitory effect on the elevation of Ca-SHR and Ca-WKY induced by NE or Ang II. (4) In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), TFH, Que and Isor also had certain inhibitory effect on Ca-SHR and Ca-WKY induced by NE, and the effect on the former was more significant than that on the latter (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: TFH, Que and Isor might decrease the levels of [Ca(2+)](i) in VSMCs by blocking both voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDC) and receptor-operated calcium channels (ROC) in physiological or pathological state, which may be one of the important mechanisms of their hypotensive and protective effects on target organs in patients with hypertension.
Cutin composition of five finnish berries.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jan 25;54(2):457-62.Kallio H, Nieminen R, Tuomasjukka S, Hakala M.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. email@example.com
The raw cutin (i.e., extractive-free isolated cuticular membrane) fraction from Finnish berries, sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides), black currant (Ribes nigrum), cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), was depolymerized by NaOMe-catalyzed methanolysis. The composition of cutin monomers was determined by GC-(EI)MS analysis either as methyl esters or as TMSi esters, with OH groups derivatized to TMSi ethers. There was a notable difference in the degree of depolymerization, ranging from 6 to 47%. The extractive-free berry cuticle, that is, raw cutin, thus contains <50% polyester polymer cutin. The predominant cutin monomers were C(16) and C(18) omega-hydroxy acids with midchain functionalities, mainly epoxy and hydroxyl groups. Typically, the major compounds were 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid, 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid. The amount of epoxyacids was rather high in sea buckthorn ( approximately 70%) and cranberry ( approximately 60%), compared with the other berries. The black currant cutin differed from that of the other berries with a significant portion of hydroxyoxohexadecanoic acid ( approximately 12% of total monomers). This investigation of the cuticular hydroxy acids of five Finnish berries is part of the exploitation of the northern natural resources related to the chemical composition, nutritional value, and sensory properties.
Elemental and nutritional analysis of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) Berries of Pakistani origin.:J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):518-22.Sabir SM, Maqsood H, Hayat I, Khan MQ, Khaliq A.University College of Agriculture, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. turkestanica) is a very important medicinal plant in northern areas of Pakistan. The fruit of sea buckthorn is rich in nutrients and medicinal compounds such as vitamins, carotene, flavonoids, essential oil, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and minerals. In order to compare various populations of sea buckthorn for chemical composition, eight populations from different areas of northern Pakistan were compared using fruit characteristics. Phytochemical analysis of berries showed vitamin C (250-333 mg/100 g), seed oil (7.69-13.7%), oil in softer pulp (19.2-29.1%), phytosterol content of seed oil (3.3-5.5%), and anthocyanin (0.5-25 mg/L), while the mineral element composition analysis revealed high contents of potassium (140-360 ppm), sodium (20-80 ppm), calcium (70-98 ppm), magnesium (150-240 ppm), iron (40-150 ppm), and phosphorus (110-133 ppm). This study established sea buckthorn berries as a good source of biochemical and mineral elements. The high variation between different populations shows the potential of selecting and breeding of the raw material for various defined purposes.
Effect of leaf extract of Seabuckthorn on lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Jan;6(1):46-52. Epub 2005 Aug 26.Padwad Y, Ganju L, Jain M, Chanda S, Karan D, Kumar Banerjee P, Chand Sawhney R.Immunomodulation Laboratory, Defence Institute of physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054, India.
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized in large quantities by activated inflammatory cells and has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. Seabuckthorn (SBT) has been used in traditional medicine systems for the treatment of various diseases like cardiovascular, pain relief, oral inflammation and promotion of tissue regeneration. The present study focuses on the effects of SBT leaf extract on NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. In addition, cell viability, free radical-scavenging activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were also evaluated. Seabuckthorn leaf extract significantly inhibited the enhanced production of NO induced by LPS in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with SBT did not reduce cell viability at any dose used. The extract showed significant scavenging of NO radicals released by the NO donor. Treatment of macrophages with SBT leaf extract also caused a significant inhibition of iNOS activation. These observations suggest that the inhibition of net NO production by SBT leaf extract may be due to its scavenging activity and/or its inhibitory effects on iNOS activation. The study suggests that SBT leaf extract has significant anti-inflammatory activity and has potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Immunomodulatory effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against chromium (VI) induced immunosuppression.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Oct;278(1-2):101-9.Geetha S, Singh V, Ram MS, Ilavazhagan G, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC.Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India.
The present study reports the immunomodulatory effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract on cellular and humoral immune response by studying delayed-type hypersensitivity response, IL-2, IL-4 and gamma-IFN levels and antibody titres in chromium-induced immunosuppressed animals. Oral feeding of chromium (30 mg/kg bw) significantly inhibited antibody production and S-RBC induced delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Administration of leaf extract (100 mg/kg bw) along with chromium significantly inhibited chromium-induced immunosuppression. To understand the immunomodulatory mechanism of leaf extract, in vitro studies were carried out using rat lymphocytes. Addition of chromium resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte size and increased ROS generation. The leaf extract of seabuckthorn significantly inhibited chromium-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and maintained the cell size identical to that of control cells. Chromium treatment markedly inhibited the mitochondrial transmembrane potential by larger lymphocytes in particular, while the leaf extract restored the same significantly. Chromium also inhibited significantly concanavalin A (ConA) induced IL-2, IL-4 and gamma-IFN production in rat lymphocytes. The leaf extract (100 microg/ml) alone stimulated IL-2 and gamma-IFN production even in the absence of ConA and also inhibited chromium-induced decline in IL-2 and gamma-IFN production but it did not change IL-4 production. These observations suggest that the leaf extract of seabuckthorn has significant immunomodulatory activity and specifically activates the cell-mediated immune response.
Antioxidant activities of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) during hypoxia induced oxidative stress in glial cells.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Oct;278(1-2):9-14.Narayanan S, Ruma D, Gitika B, Sharma SK, Pauline T, Ram MS, Ilavazhagan G, Sawhney RC, Kumar D, Banerjee PK.Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Delhi, India.
The present study reports the cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of alcoholic leaf extract of seabuckthorn (SBT) against hypoxia induced oxidative stress in C-6 glioma cells. Exposure of cells to hypoxia for 12 h resulted in a significant increase in cytotoxicity and decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential compared to the controls. Further an appreciable increase in nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was noted which in turn was responsible for fall in intracellular antioxidant levels and GSH/GSSG ratio. There was a significant increase in DNA damage during hypoxia as revealed by comet assay. Pretreatment of cells with alcoholic leaf extract of SBT at 200 mug/ml significantly inhibited cytotoxicity, ROS production and maintained antioxidant levels similar to that of control cells. Further, the leaf extract restored the mitochondrial integrity and prevented the DNA damage induced by hypoxia. These results indicate that the leaf extract of SBT has strong antioxidant and cytoprotective activity against hypoxia induced oxidative injury.
Therapeutic value of Hippophae rhamnoides L. against subchronic arsenic toxicity in mice.:J Med Food. 2005 Fall;8(3):353-61.Gupta R, Flora SJ.Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defense Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
The present study was planned to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Hippophae rhamnoides L. against the toxic effects of arsenic in mice. H. rhamnoides L. is used as an herbal remedy for gastric ulcers, burns, and some skin and allergic diseases. Twenty-five Swiss albino mice were exposed to arsenic (25 ppm) in drinking water for 3 months. After 3 months different fruit extracts of H. rhamnoides L. (500 mg/kg for 10 days) were administered, the animals were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were assayed for various biochemical indicators of oxidative stress and whether arsenic was removed from tissues. Treatment with different fruit extracts of H. rhamnoides L. showed significant protection from arsenic inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and restored blood reduced glutathione levels. Other hematologic variables like white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were partially protected by supplementation with a water extract of H. rhamnoides L. (HF-WRT). Significant protection was also observed in altered hepatic, renal, and brain reduced/ oxidized glutathione ratio and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. The aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides L. (HF-WRT) also provided protection against parameters indicative of liver injury such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. There was also no effect on blood and tissue arsenic concentrations observed except some moderate depletion of blood arsenic concentrations, suggesting that the drug has no ability to chelate intracellular arsenic. It can be concluded from these results that post-treatment with an aqueous extract of H. rhamnoides L. (HF-WRT) significantly protects against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but does not chelate arsenic, suggesting it may have a beneficial role as a supplementing agent during chelation of arsenic by other means.
Application of wastewater land treatment technique to the construction of ecological engineering in sand l.:Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2005 May;26(3):73-7. Chinese.Li PJ, Wang ZJ, Sun TH, Tai PD, Chang SJ, Xiong XZ, Li YM.Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.
In this paper studies on the feasibility of harmlessness and resource of wastewater, which was discharged from a thermal power plant, by using slow rate filtration of land treatment technique for the fast recovery of vegetation in the Kubuqi sand land were carried out. The selected arbor, shrub and herbage in the land treatment system were poplar (Populus alba Var. Pyramidalis bunge), seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and sweet clover (Melilotus suaveolens) respectively. Three levels of wastewater hydraulic loading were designed in the field pilot experiment. They were high plot with 3000 mm/a irrigation (H), medium plot with 1500 mm/a irrigation (M) and low plot (L) with small volume of irrigation only used in the period of transplant seedlings. The performance indicate that the purification function of power plant wastewater by pre-treatment through combination of precipitation pool with storage ponds is effective and therefore the effluent after pretreatment can be used to irrigation vegetation. The experiment results show that the volume of tree crown for poplar in H plot and M plot was up to 1.07 and 2.21 times comparing with L plot respectively. The annual yield (dry weight) of sweet clover in H plot and M plot was up to 2.33 and 3.0 times comparing with L plot respectively. The height of seabuckthorn in H zone and M plot was up to 1.08 and 1.32 times comparing with L plot respectively. There is direct proportion between growth status of vegetation and hydraulic loading of irrigation. The contents of heavy metals for sweet clover (Cd 0.021 mg/kg, Pb<0.001 mg/kg, Cr <0.01 mg/kg, As 0.043 mg/kg) are much lower than the food standards of grain and vegetables, therefore the sweet clover for raising livestock is safe. Wastewater in this area is valuable source. Its reasonable utilization can contribute important benefits in economy and ecology in the ecological construction and developing effective agriculture and animal husbandry.
Simultaneous determination of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin in phytopharmaceuticals of Hippophae rhamnoides L. by high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.:J Sep Sci. 2005 Jul;28(11):1171-8.Zhang Q, Cui H.Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, PR China.
A novel method based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by flavonols of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in sulfuric acid medium. The effects of several parameters on the HPLC resolution and CL emission were studied systematically. Good separation was achieved with isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and aqueous 1.0% acetic acid (37:63, v/v) within 25 min. Under optimized conditions, the linear working range covers 3 orders of magnitude with relative standard deviations below 4.5% for 11 replicate injected flavonol samples, and detection limits (S/N= 3) were 1.6 x 10(-8), 3.5 x 10(-9), and 6.5 x 10(-9) g mL(-1) for quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of three active flavonols in phytopharmaceuticals of Hippophae rhamnoides L. After a simple extraction procedure, the repeatability and recovery were satisfactory.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) leaves.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Nov;5(12):1675-84. Epub 2005 Apr 26.Ganju L, Padwad Y, Singh R, Karan D, Chanda S, Chopra MK, Bhatnagar P, Kashyap R, Sawhney RC.Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Immunomodulatory activity of Seabuckthorn (SBT) leaf extract was evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model. Inflammation was induced by injecting Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of rats. SBT extract was administered intraperitoneally to treat the inflammation. The extent of inflammation and treatment response was evaluated by clinical analysis, scintigraphic visualization using technitium-99m-glutathione (Tc99m-GSH) and lymphocyte proliferation. Serial evaluation was carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after creation of inflammation. The Tc99m-GSH uptake in the inflamed leg was compared with the normal contralateral leg of the same animal. The measurements were done by obtaining scintigraphic images using gamma camera and an online computer. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of radiotracer accumulation was considered to evaluate the anti-inflammatory response. The lymphocyte proliferation study revealed cellular immunosuppression during the early phase of the disease. Administration of SBT extract on the same day or 5 days prior to inflammatory insult into the joint, significantly reduced the inflammation as compared to the untreated animals in a dose dependent manner. These observations suggest that the SBT leaf extract has a significant anti-inflammatory activity and has the potential for the treatment of arthritis.
Modification of gamma radiation induced response of peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes by Hippophae rhamnoides (RH-3) in mice.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;57(8):1065-72.Prakash H, Bala M, Ali A, Goel HC.Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig S.K. Mazumdar Marg, Delhi-110054, India.
Alcoholic extract of Hippophae rhamnoides, RH-3, reported to render >80% survival against lethal whole body Co-60-gamma irradiation (10 Gy) in mice, was investigated for its immunostimulatory effects. In comparison with un-irradiated control, whole body irradiation did not reduce peritoneal macrophage counts at 24 h post-irradiation. RH-3 treatment (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) alone or 30 min before whole-body irradiation enhanced viable counts of macrophages significantly (P< or =0.05) compared with both un-irradiated control and irradiated groups. Whole-body irradiation reduced the number of viable splenocytes significantly (P<0.05) compared with un-irradiated control at 24 h post-irradiation. RH-3 treatment alone or before whole-body irradiation appreciably countered radiation-induced decrease in splenocyte count. 3H-thymidine uptake method revealed that whole-body irradiation reduced splenocyte proliferation significantly (159 +/- 45 counts min(-1)/10(6) cells; P< or =0.05) in comparison with control (607 +/- 142 counts min(-1)) at 24 h after irradiation but RH3 treatment before irradiation reduced the steep decrease and maintained it as 444+/-153 counts min(-1). After whole-body irradiation, the ratio of spleen weight/mouse weight decreased to 1.5 +/- 04 compared with 2.9 +/- 0.32 in un-irradiated control at 24 h post-irradiation. Similarly, total protein content in splenocytes also decreased to 48 +/- 6 microg/10(6) cells in comparison with 368 +/- 16 microg/10(6) cells of un-irradiated control. RH-3 treatment before irradiation countered radiation-induced decrease in both spleen weight/mouse weight ratio (4.0 +/- 0.35) and total protein content (360 +/- 13 mug/10(6) splenocytes). In the supernatant of peritoneal macrophage cultures exposed to 2 Gy Co-60-gamma radiation ex-vivo, the total nitrite content was enhanced significantly (P<0.05) to 5.72 +/- 0.09 microM in comparison with un-irradiated control (1.64 +/- 0.09 microM). RH-3 treatment (30 microg mL(-1)) before irradiation reduced total nitrite significantly (0.93 +/- 0.3; P< or =0.05) in comparison with irradiated control group. At 24 h after whole body irradiation, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio reduced to 1.5 in comparison with un-irradiated control (1.9) but RH-3 treatment before irradiation restored the ratio to 2.1. These findings explicitly reveal the immunostimulatory activity of RH-3, which may play an important role in the manifestation of its radioprotective efficacy.
Isolation and characterization of 1,3-dicapryloyl-2-linoleoylglycerol: a novel triglyceride from berries of Hippophae rhamnoides.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2005 Aug;53(8):1021-4.Swaroop A, Sinha AK, Chawla R, Arora R, Sharma RK, Kumar JK.Natural Plant Products Division, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, H.P.-176061, India.
1,3-Dicapryloyl-2-linoleoylglycerol (1), a novel triglyceride, was isolated from berries of Hippophae rhamnoides. The structure was elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments including HMQC and HMBC. The metal chelating, free radical scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibiting properties of the compound were also estimated with particular reference to radiation protection. In case of metal chelation and superoxide ion scavenging, 1 showed maximum inhibition at 50 microg/ml (11%) and 100 microg/ml (55%), respectively, whereas in lipid peroxidation, 1 showed maximum inhibition (57%) at 2 mg/ml as compared to quercetin as a control.
Chromatographic analysis of carotenol fatty acid esters in Physalis alkekengi and Hippophae rhamnoides.:Phytochem Anal. 2005 May-Jun;16(3):188-95.Pintea A, Varga A, Stepnowski P, Socaciu C, Culea M, Diehl HA.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, M?n??tur 3-5, RO-3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. email@example.com
The carotenol fatty acid esters of two potentially valuable sources of plant carotenoids, sepals of Physalis alkekengi (Chinese lantern) and fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn), were separated by column chromatography and identified by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. A chemical and an enzymatic hydrolysis were employed to identify the parent carotenoids and to remove the lipid components. Zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin esters represented the main fraction in P. alkekengi sepals and an important one in H. rhamnoides fruits. Beta-Cryptoxanthin palmitate and zeaxanthin dipalmitate were identified as major compounds in both plants. In P. alkekengi, the carotenoids were mainly (> 90%) esterified with palmitic acid, and a high proportion (> 80%) of saturated medium chain fatty acids was found (by GC-MS) in the total lipid extract. Although the total lipid extract of H. rhamnoides contained significant amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic and palmitoleic acids, the xanthophylls were mainly esterified with saturated fatty acids. The oleoresins of both species represent potential sources of carotenoid esters and can be used as food additives, cosmetic ingredients or nutraceuticals.
A preclinical study of the effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract on cutaneous wound healing in albino rats.:Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2005 Jun;4(2):88-92.Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC.Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Hippophae rhamnoides L. (family Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as seabuckthorn, is a wild shrub growing at high altitude (1200-4500 meters) in adverse climatic conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate healing potential of seabuckthorn leaves in a preclinical study on rats using a cutaneous excision-punch wound model. Four full-thickness excision-type wounds of 8.0 mm diameter were created on the dorsal surface of rats under aseptic conditions. The aqueous lyophilized extract of seabuckthorn leaves, at doses of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v prepared in propylene glycol, were applied topically twice daily for 7 days. Control animals received the vehicle alone in an identical manner. Wound granulation tissues were excised on eighth day postwounding, and the hydroxyproline, hexosamine, total protein content, and antioxidant levels were determined. Wound surface area was also measured on the eighth day before wound excision to determine wound contraction. Topical application of 1.0% seabuckthorn leaf extract statistically significantly augmented the healing process, as evidenced by increases in the content of hydroxyproline and protein as well as the reduction in wound area when compared with similar effects in response to treatment using povidone-iodine ointment (standard care). The reduced glutathione, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed significant increases in seabuckthorn leaf extract-treated wounds as compared to controls. The lipid peroxide levels were significantly decreased in leaf extract-treated wounds. The results suggest that aqueous leaf extract of seabuckthorn promotes wound healing, which may be due to increased antioxidant levels in the granulation tissue.
Quantitative determination of total flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by three wavelength spectrophotometry.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2005 Feb;25(2):266-9. Chinese.Hui RH, Hou DY, Guan CX, Liu XY.Department of Chemistry, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005, China.
Numerous studies dealing with the quantitative determination of total flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by spectrophotometry are presented. The flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice and aluminate produce stable complex whose absorption occurred at longer wavelength. To determine the total flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by traditional spectrophotometry method, baseline shift and asymmetric absorption peak occurred on the absorption curve. Quantitative determination of flavonoids in sea-buckthorn fruit juice by three wavelength spectrophotometry method can eliminate the absorbance error caused interfering components in turbid solution and the scattering effect. Background changing with the concentration change and asymmetric absorption peak problems can also be solved. The regression equation of concentration vs deltaA was obtained: deltaA = - 0.00703 + 0.00048c with a relation coefficient gamma = 0.9991. The experimental results demostrate the total flavonoids concentrations in 0-800 microg x mL(-1) with deltaA obeying linear relation when the absorbance was measured at wavelength lambda1 = 495 nm, lambda2 = 415 nm and lambda3 = 368 nm. The recovery is 97.0%-101.0% and the coefficient of variation is 0.058% (n = 9). The method is more advantageous than tranditional spectrophotometry method.
The prevalence of cis-9-hexadecenoic acid is a specific feature of the fatty acid profile of zygomycetes from the order Kickxellales.:Mikrobiologiia. 2005 Jan-Feb;74(1):99-103. Russian.Konova IV, Kochkina GA, Galanina LA.
The fatty acid profiles of zygomycetes from the family Kickxellaceae of the order Kickxellales were studied with reference to the species Kicksella alabastrina of the key genus Kicksella of the family and the species Linderina pennispora. When synthesized de novo, the lipids of these species show the prevalence of cis-9-hexadecenoic acid. This trait is stable, does not depend on cultivation conditions, and can, therefore, be considered as a specific chemotaxonomic characteristic of fungi from the order Kickxellales. The fatty acid profiles of the two fungi under study are similar to that of sea buckthorn oil.
Determination of ascorbic acid and its stability of fructus hippophae fruit by the method of high-valence iron reduction.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1998 Aug;18(4):481-4. Chinese.Wu D, Wang S.Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou.
The high-valence iron reduction method was used to determine the ascorbic acid of fructus hippophae fruit. The reduction method had simple, high sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with fluorospectrophotometry or indophenol titration method. Its limit of detection was 0.01 microg/mL, the relative standard deviation and the average recovery was 0.83% (n = 8) and 95.6% (n = 6) respectively. We also researched the influence of the environment factors (temperature, storage period and condition, pH value) on the stability of ascorbic acid in fructus hippophae fruit. The ascorbic acid in fructus hippophae fruit was more stable than thepure ascorbic acid on the same condition of heating (80 C,1 hour), in pH neutral or storing in the refrigerator.
Total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides promotes early restoration of ultimate stress of healing patellar tendon in a rat model.:Med Eng Phys. 2005 May;27(4):313-21.Fu SC, Hui CW, Li LC, Cheuk YC, Qin L, Gao J, Chan KM.Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has long been used for treatment of tendon injuries. Comparing to the modern way of treatments, Traditional Chinese medicine also stresses on strategies to promote the inherent healing capacity of tendons. Hippophae rhamnoides, known as Shaji, is one of Chinese herbal drugs that are traditionally used to promote tendon and ligament injuries. The total flavones of H. rhamnoides (TFH), with major constituents including quercetin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol, have been demonstrated with most of the bioactive properties of Shaji. In the present study, we evaluated the potential effect of TFH in the restoration of ultimate stress of healing patellar tendon in a well-established gap wound model in rats. A 0.1 mg TFH was injected to wound 1 day after the injury, and the ultimate stress of the healing tendon was measured at day 14 post-injury. The results showed that the ultimate stress of the healing tendon was significantly promoted by injection of TFH, increasing from 30 to 50% as compared to saline control. Excessive fibrotic response was not found in TFH-treated animals, but an enhanced collagen deposition and a better fibre alignment were observed. The results suggest that TFH may improve the ultimate stress of healing tendons at early stages, which implies possible earlier rehabilitation programme and better recovery.
Changes in apoptosis-related genes expression profile in human breast carcinoma cell line Bcap-37 induced by flavonoids from seed residues of Hippophae Rhamnoides L.:Ai Zheng. 2005 Apr;24(4):454-60. Chinese.Zhang P, Mao YC, Sun B, Qian M, Qu WJ.School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, P. R. China.
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Hippophae rhamnoides L. possesses functions of antioxidation and radioprotection. This study was designed to investigate changes in apoptosis-related genes expression profile in human breast carcinoma cell line Bcap-37 induced by flavonoids from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (FHR) with cDNA microarray, and to explore possible mechanism of signal transduction on apoptosis. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from Bcap-37 cells before and after treatment of FHR. Two cDNA probes, labeled by Cy3-dUTP or Cy5-dUTP fluorescent dyes, were synthesized via reverse transcription, and hybridized with a microarray contained 13 824 human 14K cDNA. Differential gene expression profiles of FHR group and control group were analyzed by Genespring software. RESULTS: After treatment of FHR, 305 genes were up-regulated, and 361 were down-regulated; 32 apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed, and accounted for 0.23% of the total genes in cDNA microarray. Of the 32 apoptosis-related genes, 25 were up-regulated (average Ratio: 3.071), and 7 were down-regulated (average Ratio: 0.418). Bioinformatic analyses showed that the 32 genes, including CTNNB1, TSSC3, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, GADD34, TNFRSF10B, Caspase-9, and PCNA, related with apoptosis of Bcap-37 cells when treated with FHR. CONCLUSION: Apoptosis of Bcap-37 cells induced by FHR relates with various genes through co-regulating of intracellular and extracellular signal transduction pathways.
Isolation of five types of flavonol from seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and induction of apoptosis by some of the flavonols in human promyelotic leukemia HL-60 cells.:Int J Mol Med. 2005 May;15(5):805-9.
Five types of flavonol were isolated from seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and identified by mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The proliferations of human promyelotic leukemia HL-60 cells were inhibited as the concentrations of these flavonols were increased. The order of the extent of growth inhibition by the flavonols at a concentration of 20 microM is as follows: pentamethylquercetin > syringetin > isorhamnetin > quercetin > kaempherol > myricetin. Apoptotic morphological changes of the nucleus, including chromatin condensation were induced in the HL-60 cells treated with quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin, respectively, but not in the cells treated with the other flavonols. The fragmentations of DNA by quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin, respectively, to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments, a characteristic of apoptosis, were observed to be dose-dependent in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin, respectively, results from the induction of apoptosis by these flavonols. The other flavonols (pentamethylquercetin, syringetin and isorhamnetin) having methoxy (-OCH3) group inhibited more strongly than the above 3 flavonols without induction of apoptosis in the HL-60 cells. These findings suggest that mechanisms of growth inhibition by pentamethylquercetin, syringetin and isorhamnetin are different from the apoptosis caused by quercetin, kaempherol and myricetin.
Berry phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogens.:J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98(4):991-1000.Puupponen-Pimi? R, Nohynek L, Hartmann-Schmidlin S, K?hk?nen M, Heinonen M, M??tt?-Riihinen K, Oksman-Caldentey KM.VTT Biotechnology, Espoo, Finland.
AIMS: To investigate the effects of berries and berry phenolics on pathogenic intestinal bacteria and to identify single phenolic compounds being responsible for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of eight Nordic berries and their phenolic extracts and purified phenolic fractions were measured against eight selected human pathogens. Pathogenic bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by bioactive berry compounds. Cloudberry and raspberry were the best inhibitors, and Staphylococcus and Salmonella the most sensitive bacteria. Phenolic compounds, especially ellagitannins, were strong inhibitory compounds against Staphylococcus bacteria. Salmonella bacteria were only partly inhibited by the berry phenolics, and most of the inhibition seemed to originate from other compounds, such as organic acids. Listeria strains were not affected by berry compounds, with the exception of cranberry. Phenolic compounds affect the bacteria in different mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Berries and their phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of human pathogenic bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Antimicrobial properties of berries could be utilized in functional foods. Furthermore these compounds would be of high interest for further evaluation of their properties as natural antimicrobial agents for food and pharmaceutical industry.
Chemoprevention by Hippophae rhamnoides: effects on tumorigenesis, phase II and antioxidant enzymes, and IRF-1 transcription factor.:Nutr Cancer. 2005;51(1):59-67.Padmavathi B, Upreti M, Singh V, Rao AR, Singh RP, Rath PC.Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.
Fruits or berries of Hippophae rhamnoides (sea buckthorn), a rich source of vitamins A, C, and E, carotenes, flavonoids, and microelements such as sulfur, selenium, zinc, and copper, are edible and have been shown to protect from atopic dermatitis, hepatic injury, cardiac disease, ulcer, and atherosclerosis. However, its mechanism of action is not clear. We show that Hippophae inhibits benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach and DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis in mouse. This decrease in carcinogenesis may be attributed to the concomitant induction of phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the mouse liver. This was accompanied by a remarkable induction of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 in the Hippophae-treated liver. Our results strongly suggest that Hippophae fruit is able to decrease carcinogen-induced forestomach and skin tumorigenesis, which might involve up-regulation of phase II and antioxidant enzymes as well as DNA-binding activity of IRF-1, a known antioncogenic transcription factor causing growth suppression and apoptosis induction for its anticancer effect.
Protective effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. juice on lead-induced neurotoxicity in mice.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Mar;28(3):490-4.Xu Y, Li G, Han C, Sun L, Zhao R, Cui S.Department of Preventive Medicine, Hygiene, Yanbian University Medicine College, Yanji City, Jilin Province, China. email@example.com
We examined the effect of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HRL) juice on lead-induced memory impairment and neuronal damage in the brains of adult mice. Kunming mice were exposed to lead acetate 10 mg/kg body weight for 20 d. Twenty percent and 40% HRL prevented the lead-induced decrease in step-through latency. In the water maze test, the swimming time was lengthened in mice treated with lead acetate, but this time was decreased in mice that received 20% and 40% HRL. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in lead-treated mice, which were reduced by 20% and 40% HRL in dose-dependent manner. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and monoamine oxidase-A and -B were significantly increased in the lead-treated group, which were decreased by 40% HRL but not by 20% HRL. The levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid were decreased significantly in the lead-treated mice, and the decreases were antagonized by 40% HRL, except for than in dopamine, but 20% HRL had no effect on this change. These data suggest that the different doses of the HRL juice protect against the lead acetate-induced deficits in learning and memory and changes in neurobiochemical parameters.
Quality components of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) varieties.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1692-9.Tiitinen KM, Hakala MA, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
The sensory quality and chemical constituents of juices from seven sea buckthorn (Hippophaerhamnoides L.) varieties were studied in two consecutive seasons. The juices were generally described as sour and astringent, with low sweetness and fruity flavor. The differences in sensory quality as well as in chemical composition between samples and years were significant (p < 0.05) in most parameters studied. The Chuiskaya variety was described as the sweetest, with the strongest fruity flavor, whereas the varieties Avgustinka, Botanicheskaya, Trofimovskaya, and Raisa were the sourest and most astringent. Total sugar (fructose and glucose) varied from 1.9 to 7.1 g/100 mL in juice, total acid (malic and quinic acids) from 3.1 to 5.1 g/100 mL, vitamin C from 29 to 176 mg/100 mL, and pulp oil from 0.7 to 3.6%. The soluble solids were between 7.4 and 12.6, the pH between 2.7 and 2.9, and the titrable acidity between 2.0 and 3.7. The redness was highest on Avgustinka and Raisa, but there were no differences in yellowness. Total sugar and the sugar/acid ratio correlated positively with sweetness and negatively with sourness and astringency, whereas total acid and titrable acidity correlated positively with sourness and astringency and negatively with sweetness.
On-column capillary electrophoretic monitoring of rapid reaction kinetics for determination of the antioxidative potential of various bioactive phenols.:Electrophoresis. 2005 Feb;26(4-5):990-1000.Vaher M, Ehala S, Kaljurand M.Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
An on-column capillary electrophoretic procedure for the determination of the antioxidative potential of various bioactive phenols, found in plant, fruit, and vegetable extracts, is described. The assay is based on a rapid mixing of phenols or phenolic extracts before the capillary, followed by pressurized injection of the reaction mixture into the capillary. After incubation of the reaction mixture inside the capillary, high voltage is switched on and separation of reactants and products is performed. Using hydrogen peroxide as a stressor, the kinetics of the oxidation of various bioactive phenols was studied (rutin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and combinations of these) and compared with the oxidation rate of L-ascorbic acid as a reference. The concept was demonstrated for the determination of the antioxidative potential of various polyphenol mixtures and of the methanol extract of the sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). In most cases quercetin has the highest rate constant of oxidation among the tested phenolic compounds. However, in the mixture L-ascorbic acid/quercetin, the oxidation rate of L-ascorbic acid was enhanced and oxidation of quercetin was strongly inhibited compared with the other combinations of tested polyphenols.
A comparative study on water use characteristics and eco-adaptability of Hippophae rhamnoides and Caragana korshinskii in semi-arid loess hilly-gully region.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Nov;15(11):2025-8. Chinese.Xu B, Shan L.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China. Bcxu@163.com
This study compared the seasonal dynamics of soil water content, biomass productivity, and leaf photosynthetic physiology and water potential between about ten years old Hippophae rhamnoides and Caragana korshinskii planted on the hilly slope land of semi-arid loess hilly-gully region. The results showed that there existed dry soil layer in the stands. The seasonal compensation depth of soil water in Hippophae rhamnoides stand was deeper and its water use capability was better than those of C. korshinskii. The yearly productivity of Hippophae rhamnoides was about 2.56 times of C. korshinskii. Hippophae rhamnoides leaf had an increased water use efficiency under improved soil water condition. C. korshinskii had higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates, but its leaf WUE was smaller than Hippophae rhamnoides. These two forests all had drought resistance and tolerance characteristics, but Hippophae rhamnoides was more active than C. korshinskii adapting to drought.
Study on purification of total flavonoids from seed residue of Hippophae rhamnoides with macroporous resin.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;29(3):225-8. Chinese.Cao QH, Qu WJ, Li JG, Deng YX.Life Sciences School of East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the conditions and parameters of purifying total flavonoids from seed residue of H. rhamnoides. METHOD: Absorption capacity of three resins for total flavonoids was compared. With the yield and purity as indexes, the process of absorbing and purifying total flavonoids from seed residue with D101 macroporous resin absorbent was selected by orthogonal design. RESULT: The D101 resin was the best of the three resins and its absorption capacity was determined to be 63.00 mg x g(-1) wet resin. The optimum process condition was 30% ethanol as eluting solvent, wet resin vs crude herbs: 2:1, diameter vs height: 1:10, eluting solvent vs crude herbs: 10:1, absorbing time for 3 h. The yield of total flavonoids from seeds residue of H. rhamnoides by this process was 2.39%, and the purity reached 64.81%. CONCLUSION: The process is simple and convenient and the regeneration of resin is easy. So this method of purification is advisable.
Accuracy analysis of vegetation mapping for Meili Snow Mountain area, northwest Yunnan, China.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Sep;15(9):1517-22. Chinese.Zhang Z, Ou X, Wang C, Wu Y.Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China. email@example.com
The Meili Snow Mountain (28 degrees 20'-28 degrees 33'N, 98 degrees 30'-8 degrees 52'E) is a very famous mountain in Northwest Yunnan of China by its rich and well protected biodiversity and Tibetan cultural diversity. By applying 3S (RS-Remote Sensing, GIS-Geography Information System, GPS-Global Position System) technology, the 1:50000 vegetation map of Meili Snow Mountain area (total about 332 km2) was drawn out. The vegetation in this area was classified into 18 vegetation types except for stone, glacier and river system. The vegetation map was rectified by applying the GPS points got from the fields. The numbers of GPS points were calculated by the formula of numbers of samples in statistics. 313 GPS points were used to rectify the vegetation map. The numbers were fit for the formula of numbers of samples in Statistics. The accuracy and verify of vegetation types distribution in the map was analyzed by building a Probability Error Matrix (PEM) and through the variance analysis. The results indicated that the overall accuracy (OA) of the vegetation map was 84.7%. The accuracy of vegetation map finished by 3S technology was lied on the area of the region and the grade of vegetation class first, but the grade of vegetation class classified by remote sensing technology disaccord with the traditional vegetation class system. The other factos deciding the accuracy of vegetation were the distinguish ability of Remote Sensing image, the accuracy of distinguish, and the numbers of the samples, including vegetation class experts knowledge.
Protection of mitochondrial system by Hippophae rhamnoides L. against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;57(1):135-43.Goel HC, Gupta D, Gupta S, Garg AP, Bala M.Radiation Biology Division, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, Delhi-110 054, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The whole extract of the fresh berries of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (RH-3), which has been reported to provide protection to whole mice, various tissues, cells and cell organelles against lethal irradiation, was further investigated for its effects on mitochondria isolated from mouse liver. Superoxide anion, reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), NADH-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex I/II), succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex II/III), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), lipid peroxidation (LPx) and protein oxidation (PO) were determined for RH-3-mediated radioprotective manifestation. Pre-irradiation treatment of mice with RH-3 (30 mg kg(-1,) i. p.; single dose; -30 min) significantly inhibited the radiation-induced increase in superoxide anions, GSSG, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), complex I, complex I/III activity and MMP maximally at 4 h (P < 0.05). This treatment inhibited the oxidation of proteins (P < 0.05) at all the time periods studied here. This study suggests that pre-irradiation treatment of mice with RH-3 protects the functional integrity of mitochondria from radiation-induced oxidative stress.
Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro by fruit and berry extracts and correlations with antioxidant levels.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 1;52(24):7264-71.Olsson ME, Gustavsson KE, Andersson S, Nilsson A, Duan RD.Department of Crop Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 44, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden. Marie.Olsson@vv.slu.se
The effects of 10 different extracts of fruits and berries on cell proliferation of colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7 were investigated. The fruits and berries used were rosehips, blueberries, black currant, black chokeberries, apple, sea buckthorn, plum, lingonberries, cherries, and raspberries. The extracts decreased the proliferation of both colon cancer cells HT29 and breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the effect was concentration dependent. The inhibition effect for the highest concentration of the extracts varied 2-3-fold among the species, and it was in the ranges of 46-74% (average = 62%) for the HT29 cells and 24-68% (average = 52%) for the MCF-7 cells. There were great differences in the content of the analyzed antioxidants in the extracts. The level of the vitamin C content varied almost 100-fold, and the content of total carotenoids varied almost 150-fold among the species. Also in the composition and content of flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and phenolics were found great differences among the 10 species. The inhibition of cancer cell proliferation seen in these experiments correlated with levels of some carotenoids and with vitamin C levels, present at levels that can be found in human tissues. The same inhibition of cell proliferation could not be found by ascorbate standard alone. This correlation might indicate a synergistic effect of vitamin C and other substances. In MCF-7 cells, the anthocyanins may contribute to the inhibition of proliferation.
Hippophae rhamnoides L.: chromatographic methods to determine chemical composition, use in traditional medicine and pharmacological effects.:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Dec 5;812(1-2):291-307. Review.Guliyev VB, Gul M, Yildirim A.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. email@example.com
There is an increasing interest in the usage of chromatographic methods on the analysis of chemical compounds present in Hippophae rhamnoides L. In this paper, the chromatographic techniques applied for the determination, separation and identification of chemical compounds of H. rhamnoides L. are reviewed. We examined the existing chromatographic methods based on separations by paper and thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and also methods of detection by ultraviolet absorption, fluorescence, refractive index, electrochemical and mass spectrometry. Biological properties of the plant and its pharmacological effects and use in traditional medicine have also been reviewed.
Effects of dietary supplementation with sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seed and pulp oils on atopic dermatitis.:J Nutr Biochem. 1999 Nov;10(11):622-30. Yang B, Kalimo KO, Mattila LM, Kallio SE, Katajisto JK, Peltola OJ, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to investigate the effects of seed and pulp oils of sea buckthorn (Hipphophae rhamnoides) on atopic dermatitis. Linoleic (34%), alpha-linolenic (25%), and oleic (19%) acids were the major fatty acids in the seed oil, whereas palmitic (33%), oleic (26%), and palmitoleic (25%) acids were the major fatty acids in the pulp oil. The study group included 49 atopic dermatitis patients who took 5 g (10 capsules) of seed oil, pulp oil, or paraffin oil daily for 4 months. During follow-up dermatitis improved significantly in the pulp oil (P < 0.01) and paraffin oil (P < 0.001) groups, but improvement in the seed oil group was not significant (P = 0.11). Supplementation of seed oil increased the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma neutral lipids (P < 0.01), and increases of linoleic, alpha-linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids in plasma phospholipids were close to significant (0.05 < P < 0.1). Pulp oil treatment increased the proportion of palmitoleic acid (P < 0.05) and lowered the percentage of pentadecanoic acid (P < 0.01) in both plasma phospholipids and neutral lipids. In the seed oil group, after 1 month of supplementation, positive correlations were found between symptom improvement and the increase in proportions of alpha-linolenic acid in plasma phospholipids (Rs = 0.84; P = 0.001) and neutral lipids (Rs = 0.68; P = 0.02). No changes in the levels of triacylglycerols, serum total, or specific immunoglobulin E were detected. In the pulp oil group, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, from 1.38 to 1.53 mmol/L was observed.
Antioxidant oligomeric proanthocyanidins from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Pomace.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Nov 3;52(22):6712-8.R?sch D, Mügge C, Fogliano V, Kroh LW.Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universit?t Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, D-13355 Berlin, Germany.
After flavonol glycosides, monomeric flavan-3-ols, and dimeric and trimeric proanthocyanidins were fractionated from an extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography, oligomeric proanthocyanidins were eluted. The oligomeric fraction accounted for 84% of the total proanthocyanidins and 75% of the total antioxidant activity of the sea buckthorn pomace extract. To elucidate the structure of the oligomeric fraction, it was depolymerized by acid catalysis in the presence of phloroglucinol. The structure of the resulting flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ol-phloroglucinol adducts was determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography investigations demonstrated (+)-gallocatechin as the predominating subunit in the oligomeric fraction. This observation was confirmed by ESI-MS, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that the majority of the flavan-3-ol subunits possessed a 2,3-trans configuration. The oligomers consisted mainly of prodelphinidin subunits whereas procyanidins were present in smaller amounts, indicating a very uncommon composition of the sea buckthorn proanthocyanidins. The mean degree of polymerization of the oligomeric proanthocyanidins was between 6 and 9.
Molecular genetic variation in Chinese populations of three subspecies of Hippophae rhamnoides.:Biochem Genet. 2004 Aug;42(7-8):259-67.Tian C, Nan P, Shi S, Chen J, Zhong Y.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
To provide a population-level genetic profile for investigation and conservation of genetic diversity of the sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), 300 individuals of fifteen natural populations of sea buckthorn in China were analyzed by using ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeats) markers. On the basis of Shannon's index and Nei's genetic diversity, the mean genetic diversity detected in the natural populations of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. yunnanensis, ssp. sinensis, and ssp. gyantsensis was 0.1944, 0.2169, and 0.1372, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) of seven ssp. yunnanensis populations is 0.2790, and that of seven ssp. sinensis populations is 0.4184. This means that 28% of the total molecular variance of seven ssp. yunnanensis populations existed among populations, and 42% for seven ssp. sinensis populations, suggesting that the subspecies have different genetic structures. No significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances of the populations was found using ISSR markers.
Sex ratio of some long-lived dioecious plants in a sand dune area.:Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2004 Sep;6(5):616-20.de Jong TJ, van der Meijden E.Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
In dioecious plants the fraction of males among flowering plants in the field (the secondary sex ratio) is the result of the fraction of males in the seeds (the primary sex ratio) and the subsequent survival and age at first reproduction of the two genders. It has been assumed that survival and age at first reproduction are the main determinants of biased secondary sex ratio but, especially for long-lived perennials, few data are available. We address this issue for natural populations of four long-lived perennials in a dune area. In Asparagus officinale and Bryonia dioica, the secondary sex ratio was unbiased. In Salix repens the secondary sex ratio was female-biased (0.337). Hippophae rhamnoides populations were male-biased; the average sex ratio of flowering plants was 0.658, while the fraction of males varied between 0.39 near the sea to 0.84 at the inland side of the dunes. The primary sex ratio was estimated by germinating seeds and growing plants under favourable conditions with minimal mortality. In S. repens the primary sex ratio in seeds was variable among mother plants and was, on average, female-biased (0.289). This is close to the secondary sex ratio, suggesting that the female bias already originates in the seed stage. In Hippophae rhamnoides the primary sex ratio was slightly male-biased (0.564). We argue that in this species, apart from the primary sex ratio, higher mortality and a later age at first reproduction for females contribute to the strong male bias among flowering plants in the field.
Influence of sea buckthorn oil production technology on its antioxidant activity.:Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40(8):753-7. Lithuanian.Kasparaviciene G, Briedis V, Ivanauskas L.Department of Drug Technology and Pharmaceutical Management, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania. email@example.com
The aim of the study was to determine quality and quantity of the main components of sea buckthorn oils, which were produced by different technological procedures, and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. An influence of thermal shock to antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn oils was also evaluated. Two kinds of sea buckthorn oils were chosen. Oil of pulp was produced by separating oil from soft part of the berries. The other oil was produced using berries extracted with fatty oils. The content of carotenoids (by spectrophotometry at 450 nm) and relative content of fatty acids (gas chromatography) were determined in sea buckthorn oils. Antioxidant activity was evaluated for the first moment and after storing in a thermostat at +60+/-2 degrees C temperature for 1, 2 and 8 hours. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethilbenzthiazolin-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS*+) methods were used. The results have demonstrated that extracted oil has 2.4 times more carotenoids. Analysis of sea buckthorn oils proved a difference of content of the fatty acids. Extracted oil is more potent antioxidant, showed by both methods. After storing samples at +60+/-2 degrees C temperature, antioxidant activity decreased. The results proved that the oils obtained by different production procedures have different content and different antioxidant activity.
Sea-buckthorn juice protects mice against genotoxic action of cisplatin.:Exp Oncol. 2004 Jun;26(2):153-5.Nersesyan A, Muradyan R.Cancer Research Centre, Yerevan, Armenia. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM: To study the influence of sea-buckthorn (SB) juice on the micronucleus (MN) frequency in bone marrow cells and sperm abnormality induced by cisplatin (CP, cis-dichlordiammineplatinum-II). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were performed with male Swiss albino mice. SB juice (0.3 ml) prepared ex tempore was given to mice by gavage during 5 or 10 days. 3 h after the last gavage, mice received CP at doses either 1.2 mg/kg or 2.4 mg/kg i.p. MN frequency was studied in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes 24 h after the injection of the drug. The abnormality of sperm heads was studied by microscopy. RESULTS: The SB juice decreased significantly the number of MN in bone marrow cells induced by CP at dose of 1.2 mg/kg by 36.5% and 47.9% (when it was given 5 and 10 days, consequently), and by 19.0% (p > 0.05) at dose of 2.4 mg/kg. The SB juice decreased significantly also the damaging effect of CP on sperm head at low dose and not significantly at the higher one. Antigenotoxic effect of juice was 45.0% and 16.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: SB juice decreased significantly the genotoxic effect of CP at dose of 1.2 mg/kg on somatic (bone marrow) and germ (sperm) cells of mice. At higher dose of the drug the effects was not statistically significant.
Structural investigations of flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS(n).:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 30;52(13):4039-46.R?sch D, Krumbein A, Mügge C, Kroh LW.Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologie und Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universit?t Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, D-13355 Berlin, Germany.
Four flavonol glycosides were isolated from an extract of sea buckthorn pomace (Hippopha? rhamnoides) by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by hydrolysis studies, ESI-MS(n), UV, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The occurrence of the major flavonol glycoside kaempferol 3-O-beta-sophoroside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside in sea buckthorn is described here for the first time. A further 21 flavonol glycosides of Sephadex LH-20 fractions of sea buckthorn pomace were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The characteristic MS-MS and MS(3) fragmentation pattern of flavonol glycosides previously identified in sea buckthorn juice and of flavonol glycosides identified by NMR spectroscopy gave valuable indications for their identification. The results demonstrate that loss of the sugar moiety from C-7 of the aglycon is more favored than fission of the glycosidic linkage at the C-3 position. Thus, most of the compounds identified were 7-rhamnosides of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, which exhibit different substitution patterns at the C-3 position, mainly glucosides, rutinosides, and sophorosides. In addition, numerous flavonol glycosides were detected lacking a sugar moiety at C-7. Finally, eight flavonol derivatives were identified that are acylated by hydroxybenzoic or hydoxycinnamic acids.
Induction of apoptosis in thymocytes by Hippophae rhamnoides: implications in radioprotection.:J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2004;23(2):123-37.Goel HC, Indraghanti P, Samanta N, Ranaz SV.Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India. email@example.com
Hippophae rhamnoides (RH-3), which has been recently reported to elicit dose-dependent pro- and antioxidant properties in vitro, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes. In a concentration-dependent manner, RH-3 induced apoptosis in thymocytes in ex vivo conditions. The maximum effect was observed with 100 microg/mL of RH-3. Beyond this dose, the induction of apoptosis was inhibited, as seen on the ladder formation. However, apoptotic body formation, another indicator of apoptosis, was not manifested when various doses of RH-3 (20-200 microg/mL) were administered. RH-3 (>100 microg/mL) compacted chromatin in the form of densely stained masses, and subsequent treatment with proteinase-K loosened them and developed a halo around each mass. RH-3 treatment of cells that had already undergone apoptosis induced chromatin compaction, which made the ladder invisible. During in vivo experiments in mice, the radioprotective dose of RH-3 (30 mg/kg b.w.) induced significant DNA fragmentation in thymocytes studied spectrofluorimetrically. RH-3 treatment before irradiation in vivo enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. These results were confirmed by hypodiploid population studied flow-cytometrically and also by ladder formation. RH-3 treatment was prooxidative in nature because it depleted thiols and enhanced lipids peroxidation after 8 hours of treatment. The paradox between the prooxidant and the antioxidant effects of RH-3 in the context of its overall radioprotective efficacy has been explained.
Relationships between water and productivity of seabuckthorn (Hippophae) in different habitats of the Loess Plateau, China.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Feb;15(2):195-200. Chinese.Wei Y, Liang Z, Cui L, Han R.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China.
This paper deals with the relationships between water and productivity of seabuckthorn in different habitats of the Loess Plateau in north Shaanxi. The typical habitats were classified with hilltop, sunny, shady, semi-shady and semi-sunny hillside. The results showed that values of transpiration of five kinds of habitats were different, and transpiration of semi-shady was relatively stronger in the morning while others were weaker. With the variation of directions of sunshine, transpiration of shady and sunny was declining and meanwhile transpiration of hill-top was steady. transpiration of semi-shady reached the peak in 12:00. In the afternoon, these values of transpiration all reduced in different extents except seabuckthorn of shady, especially semi-shady. The mean transpiration of 5 habitats was ordered in semi-shade > shade > semi-sunny > hilltop > sunny. There were remarkable difference between diffuse resistance and transpiration, and same relationship was found between relative humidity and transpiration. But this relationship was not found between light intensity and transpiration. Different habitats had different productivities, and productivity of seabuckthorn in shade habitat was higher than those in other habitats.
Study on effect of flavonoids from oil-removed seeds of Hippophae rhamnoides on inducing apoptosis of human hepatoma cell.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Dec;26(12):875-7. Chinese.Sun B, Zhang P, Qu W, Zhang X, Zhuang X, Yang H.Life Science School of East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of flavonoids from oil-removed seeds of Hippophae rhamnoides (FSH) on liver cancer cell line BEL-7402. METHODS: SRB, Wright staining, electron microscope and flow cytometry are used to study the effects of STT on BEL-7402 cell line. RESULTS: FSH has potent inhibitive effect on BEL-7402 cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. BEL-7402 cells exhibit typical morphological alteration of apoptosis when sub-Gl peak can be seen. CONCLUSION: FSH exerts its inhibitive effect on BEL-7402 cells by inducing apoptosis.
The protection of seed oil of Hippophae rharmnoides on ischemic cerebral infarction in rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Jun;28(6):548-50. Chinese.Cheng TJ, Wang YB, Gao LP, Sun YF, Zhang J.Lanzhou Medical College, Lanzhou 730000, Ganshu, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To study the protection of seed oil of Hippophae rhamnoides on ischemic cerebral infarction in rats and the mechanism of the action. METHOD: Focal cerebral ischemia model was made by middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) in rats. Behavior obstacles of rats were observed. Cerebral infarction volume was determined by Megnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI). RESULT: Seed oil of Hippophae rhamnides 0.7 and 0.35 g.kg-1 could markedly reduce infarction volume after occlusion of middle cerebral artery in rats and also could ameliorate the behavior obstacles of rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that seed oil of Hippophae rhamnoides had distinct protection to ischemic cerebral infarction in rats.
Effect of flavonoids from the seed and fruit residue of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on glycometabolism in mice.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Oct;26(10):735-7. Chinese.Cao Q, Qu W, Deng Y, Zhang Z, Niu W, Pan Y.School of Life Science, Normal University of East China, Shanghai 200062.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of flavonoids from the seed residue and fruit residue of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (FSH and FFH) on glycometabolism in mice. METHOD: The healthy male mice were randomly divided into control group, three FSH treatment groups and three FFH treatment groups. FSH(50, 100, 150 mg/kg) and FFH (50, 100, 150 mg/kg) were given intragastorically(i.g.). At the same time, the mice of control group were given physiological saline. The levels of serum glucose, serum cholesterol were determined when it lasted 7 and 14 days. After 16 days glyconeogenesis test was made and liver glycogen was analyzed. RESULT: The levels of serum glucose, serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride were significantly reduced by high dose FSH and FFH. The glyconegenesis was also obviously inhibited by FSH and FFH. CONCLUSION: FSH and FFH can decrease the levels of blood glucose and lipid in normal mice, and the effect of FSH and FFH on glycometabolism may be related to the control of glyconeogenesis.
Determination of alpha-tocopherol in the Traditional Chinese Medicinal preparation Sea buckthorn oil capsule by non-aqueous reversed phase-HPLC.:Chem Pharm Bull. 2004 Jan;52(1):150-2.Luhua Z, Ying T, Zhengyu Z, Guangji W.Analytic Center, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. email@example.com
A non-aqueous reversed phase HPLC was developed for determining alpha-tocopherol in Sea buckthorn oil capsule without the need for saponification. A reversed phase column (Alltima C(18), 4.6 x 250 mm, 5 microm) was used with a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile (95 : 5, v/v) and flow rate of 1 ml/min. The contents in capsule were extracted with n-hexane. Detection wavelength was set at 292 nm. Each analysis requires no longer than 20 min. The linearity range for alpha-tocopherol was 9.4-47.0 microg/ml. The detection limit was 0.94 microg/ml. The mean recovery was 95.82 (RSD 2.3%). This method is suitable for quantitative analysis of alpha-tocopherol in Sea buckthorn oil or its Traditional Chinese Medicinal preparation.
Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on the glutathione redox system in mice and protective role of sea buckthorn seed oil.:Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003 Oct;45(3):423-8.Wu D, Meng Z.Institute of Environmental Medicine and Toxicology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006, PR China.
This study investigated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) inhalation and protection by sea buckthorn seed oil from oxidative damage caused by SO2 in male Kunming-strain mice. One approach was set up to study the effects of SO2 inhalation on changes of the mice antioxidant defense system. SO2 at different concentrations (22 +/- 2, 64 +/- 3, and 148 +/- 23 mg/m3) was administered to animals in treatment groups for 7 days, 6 h per day, while control groups were exposed to filtered air under the same condition. The activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain, lung, heart, liver, and kidney of mice were measured. In the case of inhalation of a SO2 concentration of 148 +/- 23 mg/m3, the activities of GST and G6PD and contents of GSH in the brain, lung, heart, liver, and kidney were significantly decreased. Dose-dependent relations were found between various SO2-exposed concentrations and the activities of GST and G6PD and the content of GSH. Meanwhile another approach was taken to determine whether sea buckthorn seed oil could maintain the glutathione redox system and prevent the oxidative damage of lung induced by SO2. In groups given a high dosage (6 or 8 ml/kg) intraperitoneally, the level of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by the injection of sea buckthorn seed oil, and the activity of GST was increased significantly (p < 0.05). Overall GST activity and TBARS level exhibited a significant negative correlation (r = 0.891, p < 0.05). The observations showed that SO2 inhalation resulted in a significant change in the glutathione redox system and indicated that sea buckthorn seed oil could contribute to the antioxidant effects in the case of SO2 exposure.
The study on the effects of the oil from Hippophae rhamnoides in hematopoiesis.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Aug;26(8):572-5. Chinese.Chen Y, Zhong X, Liu T, Ge Z.First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of the oil from Hippophae rhamnoides (OHR) in supporting the hematopoitic reconstitution after high dose chemotherapy. METHOD: The mice were fed with OHR and variation of blood cell counts of the mice was recorded. Animal models of myelosuppression were built by 5-Fu intra-peritoneal infusion. The effects of OHR in the hematopoietic reconstitution were observed. RESULTS: The counts of erythrocytes of OHR group were significantly elevated. The blood cell counts in myelosuppression mice fed with OHR exceeded those in control group, and the mortality was decreased. CONCLUSION: OHR can improve the hematopoiesis of erythroid linage. Like G-CSF, OHR can stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis after chemotherapy.
Identification and quantification of zeaxanthin esters in plants using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Nov 19;51(24):7044-9.Weller P, Breithaupt DE.Universit?t Hohenheim, Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.
It has been suggested that lutein and zeaxanthin may decrease the risk for age-related macular degeneration. Surprisingly, oleoresins rich in zeaxanthin are not yet available on the market. Several authors have reported enhanced stability of esterified xanthophylls, so plants containing zeaxanthin esters were investigated to establish valuable sources for the production of durable oleoresins. Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(APCI)MS] was used to unequivocally identify zeaxanthin esters of a standard mixture and in several plant extracts. Zeaxanthin esters were quantified on the basis of their respective molecular masses using zeaxanthin for calibration; total zeaxanthin was determined after saponification of aliquots of the extracts. Thus, dried wolfberries (Lycium barbarum), Chinese lanterns (Physalis alkekengi), orange pepper (Capsicum annuum), and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) proved to be valuable zeaxanthin ester sources. The present LC-MS method allows for an even more detailed analysis of zeaxanthin esters than reported previously.
The inhibitory effect of total flavonoids of hippophae on the activation of NF-kappa B by stretching cultured cardiac myocytes.:Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2003 Apr;34(2):283-5. Chinese.Xiao Z, Peng W, Zhu B, Wang Z.Biomedical Engineering Department, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of total flavonoids of hippophae (TFH) on the improvement in myocardial hypertrophy. METHODS: Immunohistochemical method was used to assess the inhibitory effect of TFH on the activation of NF-kappa B by stretching cultured cardiac myocytes. RESULTS: It was found that NF-kappa B was activated by stretching cardiac myocytes in 10 hours; that TFH at the concentration of 1:400 partly inhibited the activation of NF-kappa B by stretching in cardiac myocytes; that TFH at the concentration of 1:200 and 1:100 completely inhibited the activation of NF-kappa B by stretching in cardiac myocytes. CONCLUSION: The results supported that the blockade of activation of NF-kappa B might be a potential access to the improvement in myocardial function with the use of TFH for treatment of hypertension and chronic cardiac insufficiency.
Protective effects of seabuckthorn seed oil on mouse injury induced by sulfur dioxide inhalation.:Inhal Toxicol. 2003 Sep;15(10):1053-8.Ruan A, Min H, Meng Z, Lü Z.College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common but important air pollutant. Micronuclei (MN) in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow and the ratio between organ and body weight of treatment mouse were determined and analyzed in vivo in order to study injury of sulfur dioxide inhalation on organs and germ plasm of mouse as well as protective effect of seabuckthorn seed oil against this injury. It was showed that SO2 inhalation induced the change of the ratio between organ and body of mouse organs, such as liver, lung, kidney, and spleen, and a significant increase of number of MNPCE, while seabuckthorn seed oil offered a protection against such injury.
To the problem of remote control of physiological function of organism.:Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(3):169-73. Russian.Shaov MT, Pshikova OV.Kabardino-Balkarian University, Nalchick, Russia.
We studied the influence of the synchronized signals of action (SSA) that were formed in human organism by natural biological antioxidants from sea-buckthorn (Prielbrusie) on indices of the blood and cardiovascular system. We have shown that the use of the natural biological antioxidants during 10 days normalized SaO2 fluctuation, pulse waves and blood distribution in tissues. SSA that they formed influence in the same way on recipients that were at the large distance from donor, influences were registered through the short time--6 min. We suggested a hypothesis about the distant control of physiological functions and organism adaptation processes through SSA, that were formed at the cell energetic and informational level by natural factors (biological antioxidants, adaptation to high mountains). We suppose that successes in this direction of science will have not fundamental importance only but social and practical as well.
Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on chromium(VI) induced oxidative stress in albino rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Aug;87(2-3):247-51.
Effect of sea buckthorn on liver fibrosis: a clinical study.:World J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jul;9(7):1615-7.Gao ZL, Gu XH, Cheng FT, Jiang FH.Department of Gastroenterology, Baogang Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 201900, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIM: To appraise the effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Fifty cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh grade A and B were randomly divided into two groups: Group A as the treated group (n=30), taking orally the sea buckthorn extract, 15 g 3 times a day for 6 months. Group B as the control group (n=18), taking vitamin B complex one tablet, 3 times a day for 6 months. The following tests were performed before and after the treatment in both groups to determine LN, HA, collagens types III and IV, cytokines IL-6 and TNFalpha, liver serum albumin, total bile acid, ALT, AST and prothrombin time. RESULTS: The serum levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, laminin and type IV collagen in group A were significantly higher than those in the control group. After a course of sea buckthorn treatment, the serum levels of LN, HA, collagen types III and IV, total bile acid (TBA) decreased significantly as compared with those before and after treatment in the control group. The sea buckthorn notably shortened the duration for normalization of aminotransferases. CONCLUSION: Sea buckthorn may be a hopeful drug for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.
Structure-antioxidant efficiency relationships of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn juice.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jul 16;51(15):4233-9.R?sch D, Bergmann M, Knorr D, Kroh LW.Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Technische Universit?t Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, D-13355 Berlin, Germany.
The phenolic composition of juice derived from fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array and electrochemical detection. Flavonols were found to be the predominating polyphenols while phenolic acids and catechins represent minor components. Of the seven flavonols identified, isorhamnetin 3-O-glycosides were the most important representatives quantitatively. However, because of their structural properties, they were poor radical scavengers as shown by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Phenolic compounds such as quercetin 3-O-glycosides, catechins, and hydroxybenzoic acids with a catechol structure exhibited good antioxidant capacities, but their concentration in sea buckthorn juice was small. These phenolic compounds, determined by HPLC, accounted for less than 5% of the total antioxidant activity of the filtered juice. Ascorbic acid was shown to be the major antioxidant in sea buckthorn juice. Because of its high concentration of 1.22 g/L, it contributes approximately 75% to total antioxidant activity. The remaining difference can be attributed to higher molecular weight flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins), which were determined photometrically after acid depolymerization to colored anthocyanidins.
Induction of DNA-protein cross-links by Hippophae rhamnoides: implications in radioprotection and cytotoxicity.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Mar;245(1-2):57-67.Goel HC, Kumar IP, Samanta N, Rana SV.Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig S.K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi, India. email@example.com
Recently Hippophae rhamnoides has been reported to render chromatin compaction and significantly inhibit radiation induced DNA strand breaks. To investigate the mechanism of action of RH-3, a preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides, in this connection, present study was undertaken. Chromatin compaction induced by RH-3 (100 microg/ml or more) was maximum at alkaline pH but was completely negated by acidic pH (< 6) or presence of free radical scavengers like glycerol, DMSO etc. In a concentration dependent manner, RH-3 inhibited the intercalation of ethidium ions from Et Br into calf thymus DNA and also increased the precipitation of DNA-protein cross-links (DPC) in thymocytes. Chromatin compaction caused by RH-3 treatment did not permit the separation of proteins from DNA even after treatment with 2 M NaCl solution. SDS-PAGE profiles also revealed that RH-3 in a dose dependent manner compacted the chromatin organization, induced DPC and inhibited the extraction of both histone and non-histone matrix proteins from chromatin maximally at 80 microg/ml. More than 80 microg/ml of RH-3, though extracted low molecular weight histones but did not separate non-histone proteins. The RH-3 mediated DPCs were resistant even to 1% SDS, 4 M NaCl and 3.8 M hydroxyl amine hydrochloride but were prone to both urea (8 M) and guanidine hydrochloride (6 M) indicating covalent bonding between DNA and proteins (serine/threonine). RH-3 in a concentration dependent manner induced superoxide anions and the phenomenon was dependent upon nature of medium, presence of metal ions and pH. RH-3 at concentrations up to 100 microg/ml in presence of 50 microM copper sulfate inflicted significant damage to extraneously added 2-deoxyribose molecules and maximum TBARS were formed at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Higher concentrations of RH-3 more than 100 microg/ml quenched free radicals and inhibited 2-deoxyribose degradation. RH-3 also induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA at concentrations lower than 100 microg/ml but completely inhibited at concentrations higher than 250 microg/ml, indicating bimodal function. Strand breaks induced by lower concentrations of RH-3 (up to 100 microg/ml) were inhibited by antioxidants like GSH, DFR etc. RH-3, in a concentration dependent mode also inhibited the relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA (PBR322) by topoisomerase I. Present study indicated that RH-3 caused compaction of reversible (< 100 micrpg/ml) and irreversible (> 100 microg/ml) nature which was related to the magnitude of DNA-protein cross-links formed. Maintenance of chromatin organization, induction of hypoxia, hydrogen atom donation, free radical scavenging and blocking of cell cycle at G2-M phase by interfering with topoisomerase I activity seem to contribute towards the radioprotective efficacy of RH-3.
Separation of polyphenolic compounds extracted from plant matrices using capillary electrophoresis.:J Chromatogr A. 2003 Mar 21;990(1-2):225-30.Vaher M, Koel M.Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Sciences, Tallinn Technical University, Akadeemia 15, Tallinn 12618, Estonia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Phenolic compounds constitute a large group of secondary plant products whose chemical structure may range from quite simple compounds to highly polymerized substances. The polyphenols content have been investigated in the alcoholic extract of the fruits of three different plants: sweet gale, sea buckthorn, hiprose. The trans-resveratrol content we have studied in roots, stems, leaves and flowers of Japanese knotweed grown in Estonia. Plant material was pre-treated in two different ways: by infusing with methanol and by supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide modified with different alcohols. The relationship between variables (pressure, temperature, modifier amount) and yields are examined. The capillary zone electrophoresis methods were developed for the separation of polyphenolic anti-oxidative compounds. Using both water based borate buffer and acetonitrile based non-aqueous media it was possible to get reliable separation of several polyphenolic compounds. Based on that there has been identified such as flavone, trans-resveratrol, catechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and myricetin in plant extracts. Changes in the relative concentrations of trans-resveratrol in different parts of the knotweed have been established.
Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on chromium(VI) induced oxidative stress in albino rats.:Geetha S, Sai Ram M, Mongia SS, Singh V, Ilavazhagan G, Sawhney RC.Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054, India.
The present study reports the antioxidant activity of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), family Elaegnaceae, on chromium induced oxidative stress in male albino rats. Oxidative stress was induced in the rats by force-feeding of potassium dichromate equivalent to a dose of 30mg/kg body weight (BW) of chromium(VI) for 30 days. Administration of chromium decreased the body weight and increased organ to body weight ratio significantly. Chromium treatment significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels; further it also enhanced glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transferase (GPT) levels in the serum. Different doses of the alcoholic leaf extract of Seabuckthorn were evaluated for the protection against the chromium induced oxidative stress. The results show that the leaf extract at a concentration of 100 and 250mg/kg BW protected the animals from the chromium induced oxidative injury significantly.
Protection of jejunal crypts by RH-3 (a preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides) against lethal whole body gamma irradiation.:Phytother Res. 2003 Mar;17(3):222-6.Goel HC, Salin CA, Prakash H.Radiation Biology Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Science, Lucknow Marg, Delhi, India. email@example.com
RH-3, an alcoholic extract of whole berries of Hippopheae rhamnoides, has been demonstrated to provide radioprotective activity in terms of survival of mice against whole body lethal irradiation (10 Gy). It was, therefore, investigated for its mode of action by monitoring crypt survival, cellularity of crypts and villi and the magnitude of apoptosis in the GI tract.Administration of RH-3 before irradiation (-30 min) increased the number of surviving crypts in the jejunum by a factor of 2.02 (p < 0.05) and villi cellularity by 2.5 fold (p < 0.05) in comparison to the irradiated control. RH-3 administration before irradiation also reduced the incidence of apoptotic bodies in the crypts (p < 0.05) in a time dependent manner and increased cellularity in the crypts and villi (84 h post irradiation) as compared to control. Caspase-3 activity was also significantly lower in the mice administered RH-3 before irradiation as compared to irradiated control.This study indicates that reduction in the radiation induced loss of cellularity of crypts and villi and also decrease in frequency of apoptosis could have contributed towards protection of mice treated with RH-3 before irradiation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radioprotection by Rh-3 need to be investigated further in detail.
Inhibitory effects of total flavones of Hippophae Rhamnoides L on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation.:Life Sci. 2003 Apr 4;72(20):2263-71.
Total flavones of Hippophae Rhamnoides L (TFH) are extracted from Sea buckthorn, a Chinese herbal medicine. Sea buckthorn has antioxidant, anti-ulcerogenic and hepato-protective actions, and its berry oil is reported to suppress platelet aggregation. Though it is frequently used for patients with thrombosis, the likely mechanism(s) and effects of TFH on thrombogenesis remain unclear. Thus, we have investigated the effect in-vivo of TFH on thrombogenesis and in vitro on platelet aggregation, comparing them to those of aspirin.We measured thrombotic occlusion time in a mouse femoral artery thrombosis model by the photochemical reaction between intravenously injected rose bengal and green light irradiation. In vitro platelet aggregation in whole blood was measured by single platelet counting. Thrombotic occlusion time was 8.5 +/- 0.6 min in the control group. TFH at a dose of 300 micro g/kg, intravenously administered 15 min before the rose bengal injection, significantly prolonged it to 11.6 +/- 1.0 min (P < 0.05), a similar effect on in-vivo thrombogenesis to that of aspirin. TFH at a concentration of 3.0 micro g/ml significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation induced by collagen (2 micro g/ml) in a concentration dependent manner, in contrast TFH did not affect aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (80 micro M) and ADP (0.3 micro M).The results of the present study, in which TFH prevented in-vivo thrombogenesis, probably due to inhibition of platelet aggregation, suggest a possible clinical approach for the prevention of thrombosis.
Protective effect of RH-3 with special reference to radiation induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow.:Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 May;40(5):525-30.Agrawala PK, Goel HC.Radiation Biology Division, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Marg, Delhi 110 054, India.
Effect of pre-irradiation administration of different doses of RH-3, the herbal preparation of an Indian medicinal plant Hippophae rhamnoides, 30 min before 10 Gy whole body gamma irradiation was studied. Doses between 25 to 35 mg/kg body wt. were found to render > 80 % survival in mice. In order to investigate whether RH-3 protected against radiation induced genotoxicity, mice were administered different doses of RH-3, 30 min before 2 Gy dose and compared with untreated, RH-3 treated and irradiated controls. The bone marrow cells were collected at different time intervals following various treatments and processed for scoring micronuclei (MN). Administration of RH-3 alone did not enhance the MN frequency as compared to the control, and radiation dose of 2 Gy significantly enhanced the MN frequency (3.1 %, P < 0.01). Pre-irradiation treatment with RH-3, however, reduced the radiation induced MN frequency in a drug dose dependent manner suggesting its radioprotective efficacy. The protective effect of RH-3 on radiation induced perturbations in cell cycle progression was studied flowcytometrically in mouse bone marrow cells. RH-3 treatment (30 mg/kg body wt.) enhanced DNA synthesis (S-phase) in unirradiated controls and also countered radiation induced depression of S-phase to facilitate replenishment of cells lost due to radiation injury.
Changes in triacylglycerol composition during ripening of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds.:J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Feb 26;51(5):1278-83.Tsydendambaev VD, Vereshchagin AG.Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127276 Moscow, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Changes in the quantitative composition of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in maturing sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) seeds were determined by lipase hydrolysis. As a whole, the rate of synthesis of separate TAG classes increased in proportion to both their unsaturation and relative content (weight percent) in total TAGs. Up to the 80th day of maturation, the formation of triunsaturated TAGs was predominant. Subsequently, at the terminal stage of seed ripening, the absolute content (in nanomoles per seed) of a major group of these TAGs containing linolenic and linoleic acyls decreased by approximately 7%, and the increase in the total TAG content was mainly due to the synthesis of TAG molecules including stearic and palmitic acyls in the rac-1,3 positions, as well as those containing oleate in the sn-2 position. At each maturation stage, the composition of the TAGs formed was controlled both by the composition of fatty acids available for TAG synthesis and by the rate of incorporation of a particular fatty acid into the sn-2 position of the TAGs.
Community characteristics of Hippophae rhamnoides forest and water and nutrient condition of the woodland in Loess hilly region.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2002 Sep;13(9):1061-4. Chinese.Ruan C, Li D.Department of Marine Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224003. email@example.com
To improve the productivity of Hippophae rhamnoides forest and to manage the forest reasonably, the community characteristics of Hippophae rhamnoides and the water and nutrient condition of the woodland were analyzed. The results showed that Hippophae rhamnoides grew fast and its adaptability was strong. 4-5 years old Hippophae rhamnoides could form shrubs-grass community. The biomass 1-8 years old Hippophae rhamnoides increased rapidly, but that of 8-11 years old increased more slowly. Hippophae rhamnoides older than 11 years could keep reasonable community structure and higher primary productivity by natural thinning. The utilization of soil moisture by Hippophae rhamnoides could be classified into four layers as faint utilization layer of root system (0-20 cm), utilization of root system (20-300 cm), adjustment layer supplied by soil moisture (300-400 cm), and faint adjustment layer (400-500 cm). Due to the soil improvement by Hippophae rhamnoides and the water retaining by litter, the soil moisture of 1-1.5 m layer could be easy to restore. Hippophae rhamnoides could keep the balance of nutrition in the woodland through the fixation of nitrogen by root nodule and the decomposition of litter. In the 6-9 years old Hippophae rhamnoides plantation, the total nitrogen content of soil might be improved from 0.05-0.1% to 0.2%.
Effect of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on sympathetic activity in hypertension.:Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2001 Dec;32(4):547-50.Chinese.Zhang X, Zhang M, Gao Z, Wang J, Wang Z.Department of Gerontology, First Affiliated Hospital, WCUMS, Chengdu 610041, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of total flavones of hippophae rhamnoides L (TFH) on sympathetic nerve activity of essential hypertensive patients and to determine whether TFH possesses inhibitory effect on sympathetic activity after supine isometric exercise. METHODS: Heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines of the patients were measured before and after treatment. 88 patients were randomly divided into TFH group (n = 35), calcium antagonist nifedipine (n = 33) and verapamil ER (n = 20) group. RESULTS: It was shown after 8 weeks of treatment that TFH did not alter the rest heart rate and plasma catecholamine concentration in the patients (P > 0.05). In contrast, nifedipine produced an increase of noradrenaline and adrenaline level(P < 0.01). Isometric exercise may significantly increase the heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamine concentration in hypertensive patients. In TFH group, exercise did not increase the heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamine concentration after treatment. In nifedipine group, however, the same isometric exercise significantly increased the heart rate, blood pressure and noradrenaline concentration after treatment (P < 0.01). In verapamil group, the plasma catecholamine concentration did not change after treatment, but it was significantly increased after isometric exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that TFH does not alter the sympathetic activity in treatment of hypertension and the inhibitory effect of TFH on sympathetic activity after supine isometric exercise may provide clinical benefits.
Effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed and pulp oils on experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats.:Fitoterapia. 2002 Dec;73(7-8):644-50.Xing J, Yang B, Dong Y, Wang B, Wang J, Kallio HP.College of Pharmacy, Xi'an Medical University, 710061 Xi'an, PR China.
Oils from sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) seeds and berries have traditionally been used in the treatment of disorders of skin and mucosa in China. Compared with the negative control, oral administration of CO(2)-extracted seed and pulp oils, 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x day(-1) significantly reduced ulcer formation in water-immersion (P < 0.05) and reserpine-induced (P < 0.01) models in rats. In addition, administration of the two oils, 3.5 ml x kg(-1) x day(-1), significantly reduced the index of pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer (P < 0.05) and sped up the healing process of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer (P < 0.01). The results suggested that the CO(2)-extracted sea buckthorn seed and pulp oils have both preventive and curative effects against experimental gastric ulcers in rats.
Effect of seabuckthorn on sodium nitroprusside-induced cytotoxicity in murine macrophages.:Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Nov;56(9):463-7.Geetha S, Ram MS, Singh V, Ilavazhagan G, Sawhney RC.
The present study reports the anti-oxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of leaf and fruit of seabuckthorn (SBT) on nitric oxide (NO) induced cytotoxicity in J-774 macrophages. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which generates NO at the concentration of 500 microg/ml, induced cytotoxicity as revealed by decreased neutral red uptake by macrophages. The cytotoxicity of SNP was attributed to enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which in turn resulted in decrease in anti-oxidant levels. Alcoholic leaf and fruit extracts of SBT at the concentration of 500 microg/ml were found to have a significant cytoprotective effect against SNP-induced oxidative stress. These extracts inhibited SNP-induced cytotoxicity, free radical production and maintained the anti-oxidant status identical to that of control cells. The alcoholic fruit extract of SBT was found to have significantly higher anti-oxidant activity than leaf extract against SNP-induced cytotoxicity in murine macrophages.
Effects of different origins and harvesting time on vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 9;50(21):6136-42.Kallio H, Yang B, Peippo P.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in berries of wild and cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) of different origins and harvesting dates were determined with HPLC. Wild berries of subsp. sinensis, native to China, contained 5-10 times more vitamin C in the juice fraction than the berries of subsp. rhamnoides from Europe and subsp. mongolica from Russia (4-13 vs 0.02-2 g/L juice). Genetic background and berry-harvesting date were two primary factors determining the vitamin C content in the berries. Crossing different subspecies influenced the vitamin C content to some extent. For bushes cultivated in southwest Finland, the best berry-harvesting date for high vitamin C content was the end of August. The seeds of subsp. sinensis contained less tocopherols and tocotrienols (average 130 mg/kg) compared with seeds of subsp. rhamnoides (average 290 mg/kg) and mongolica (average 250 mg/kg). The fruit flesh of sinensis berries had contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols 2-3 times higher than those found in the other two subspecies (120 mg/kg vs 40 mg/kg in rhamnoides and 50 mg/kg in mongolica). The fresh whole berries of subsp. sinensis were clearly the best source of total tocopherols and tocotrienols. The total content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in the soft parts of the berries reached the maximum level around early- to mid-September, whereas the content in seeds continued to increase until the end of November. The excellent combination of the highest content of vitamin C and tocopherols and tocotrienols makes the berries of subsp. sinensis an optimal raw material for nutritional investigation as a candidate for functional foods with special antioxidative properties.
Modulation of chromatin organization by RH-3, a preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides, a possible role in radioprotection.:Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Sep;238(1-2):1-9.Kumar IP, Namita S, Goel HC.Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, INMAS, Delhi, India.
The present study was aimed to understand the mode of action of alcoholic extract of whole berries of Hippophae rhamnoides (RH-3) which has already been reported to render more than 80 % protection against radiation induced mortality in mice. Direct and indirect antioxidant action (free radical scavenging and metal chelating potential) were assayed using 2-deoxy ribose degradation and 2,2'-bipiridyl assays. Effect of RH-3 on radiation and chemical oxidant mediated DNA damage was evaluated using single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and alkaline halo assay. Ability of RH-3 to bind with calf thymus DNA was assayed through change in melting temperature (Tm) while toxicity was assayed in thymocytes by trypan blue exclusion. RH-3 inhibited 2-deoxy ribose degradation in a dose dependent manner (IC 50 approximately 500 microg/ml). 2,2'-bipiridyl assay revealed the inability of RH-3 to chelate Fe2+ ions. RH-3 inhibited radiation and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced DNA strand breaks in a dose dependent manner and at concentrations of 100 and 120 microg/ml the length of comet tail was considerably reduced and became almost similar to that of untreated control. RH-3 at a concentration of 120 pg/ml or more induced a strong compaction of chromatin as was evident from lack of tail and appearance of intensely stained circular bodies. This made the nuclei resistant even to a radiation dose of 1,000 Gy. The compaction of chromatin was not reversed even by relaxation buffer indicating that salt concentration had no role in RH-3 induced chromatin compaction. Alkaline halo assay also corroborated the results of comet assay. Lower DNA-RH-3 concentrations (1:0.5 and 1:1) induced a shift of Tm towards left by 2 and 5 degrees C respectively; however higher concentrations (1:8 and 1:16) shifted the Tm towards right increasing it by 10 and 21 degrees C correspondingly. RH-3, evinced only a mild free radical scavenging activity at concentrations used in the present study, therefore its ability to protect DNA could mainly be attributed to direct modulation of chromatin organization. Further work to unravel these facts would be necessary.
Beneficial effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on nicotine induced oxidative stress in rat blood compared with vitamin E.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Sep;25(9):1133-6.Suleyman H, Gumustekin K, Taysi S, Keles S, Oztasan N, Aktas O, Altinkaynak K, Timur H, Akcay F, Akar S, Dane S, Gul M.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. extract (HRe-1) and also vitamin E as a positive control on nicotine-induced oxidative stress in rat blood, specifically alterations in erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) level, activities of some erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes, and plasma vitamin E and A levels. The groups were: nicotine (0.5 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal, i.p.); nicotine+vitamin E (75 mg/kg/d, intragastric, i.g.); nicotine+HRe-1 (1 ml/kg/d, i.g.); and control group (receiving only vehicles). There were 8 rats per group and the supplementation period was 3 weeks. Nicotine-induced increase in erythrocyte MDA level was prevented by both HRe-1 and vitamin E. Nicotine-induced decrease in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was prevented by HRe-1, but not vitamin E. HRe-1 increased the erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity compared with nicotine and the vitamin E groups. Catalase activity was not affected. Vitamin E supplementation increased plasma vitamin E level. Plasma vitamin A level was higher in both vitamin E and HRe-1 supplemented groups compared with nicotine and control groups. The results suggest that HRe-1 extract can be used as a dietary supplement, especially by people who smoke, in order to prevent nicotine-induced oxidative stress.
Effect of total flavonoids of hippophae rhamnoides on contractile mechanics and calcium transfer in stretched myocyte.:Space Med Med Eng (Beijing). 2000 Feb;13(1):6-9.Wang ZR, Wang L, Yin HH, Yang FJ, Gao YQ, Zhang ZJ.School of Basic Medical Sciences, West China University of Medical Sciences, Chengdu.
Objective: To study the role of total flavonoids of hippophae rhamnoides in improving contractile [correction of contactile] function of stretched cardiac myocyte. Method: Flavonoids were given to stretched myocytes which were proved their contractile function decline and then myocyte contractile mechanics characteristics and calcium transfer were measured. Result: Flavonoids increased myocyte contractility, as indicated by myocyte shortening, velocity of shortening, peak +dL/dt and peak -dL/dt during shortening, in a concentration-dependent manner (r>0.9, P<0.001), and with no relation to the intracellular calcium transfer in the myocytes. Conclusion: Flavonoids of the traditional Chinese drug hippophae rhamnoides is effective in improving the contractile function of stretched cardiac myocyte in low dosage.
Effects of an antioxidant-rich juice (sea buckthorn) on risk factors for coronary heart disease in humans.:J Nutr Biochem. 2002 Jun;13(6):346-354. Eccleston C, Baoru Y, Tahvonen R, Kallio H, Rimbach GH, Minihane AM.Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK
There is increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that free radical-mediated oxidative processes contribute to atherogenesis. More recently the ability of antioxidant nutrients to affect cell response and gene expression has been reported in vitro, providing a novel mechanistic perspective for the biological activity of antioxidants. Sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) is a rich source of antioxidants both aqueous and lipophilic, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the study was to characterize the antioxidant profile of Sea buckthorn juice (SBJ) and to evaluate its effect on plasma lipids, LDL oxidation, platelet aggregation and plasma soluble cell adhesion protein concentration. Twenty healthy male volunteers were given either a placebo or SBJ for 8 weeks. Additional daily intakes of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and flavonoids through SBJ supplementation were 462, 3.2, 1.0 and 355 mg respectively. There were no significant changes in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, platelet aggregation or plasma intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels between treatment groups. Although not significant, a 20% and 17% increase in plasma HDL-C and triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were observed. SBJ supplementation also resulted in a moderate decrease in the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation.
Triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in berries and seeds of two subspecies (ssp. sinensis and mongolica) of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides).:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 8;50(10):3004-9.Kallio H, Yang B, Peippo P, Tahvonen R, Pan R.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. email@example.com
Berries and seeds of two subspecies (ssp. sinensis and mongolica) of sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) were compared in terms of triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The berries of ssp. mongolica contained less oleic acid (4.6 vs 20.2%, p < 0.001) and more palmitic (33.9 vs 27.4%, p < 0.01) and palmitoleic (32.8 vs 21.9%, p < 0.05) acids in triacylglycerols than those of ssp. sinensis. The proportions of linoleic acid (32.1 vs 22.2%, p < 0.01, in berries; 47.7 vs 42.7%, p < 0.05, in seeds) and palmitic acid (21.1 vs 16.4%, p < 0.001, in berries; 17.0 vs 14.1%, p < 0.05, in seeds) in glycerolphospholipids were higher in ssp. mongolica than in ssp. sinensis, and vice versa with oleic acid (4.3 vs 18.5% in berries, 10.0 vs 22.2% in seeds, p < 0.001). A higher proportion of alpha-linolenic acid was also found in the glycerophospholipids of ssp. sinensis berries (16.2 vs 10.1%, p < 0.001). alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols constituted 93-98% of total tocopherols and tocotrienols in seeds, and alpha-tocopherol alone constituted 76-89% in berries. The total contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols varied within the ranges of 84-318 and 56-140 mg kg(-1) in seeds and whole berries, respectively. The seeds of ssp. mongolica were a better source of tocopherols and tocotrienols than those of ssp. sinensis (287 vs 122 mg kg(-1), p < 0.001). The compositional differences between the two subspecies should be considered when the berries are bred and exploited for nutritional purposes.
Radioprotection by a herbal preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides, RH-3, against whole body lethal irradiation in mice.:Phytomedicine. 2002 Jan;9(1):15-25.Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Kumar IP, Sinha AK.Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: Hippophae rhamnoides L. has been well documented to have anti-oxidative, immunostimulative and regenerative properties and therefore a herbal preparation of H. rhamnoides coded as RH-3 was investigated for its radioprotective action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RH-3 was administered intraperitonially (i.p.) to mice 30 minutes before whole body irradiation and whole body survival, spleen Colony forming units (CFU) and haematological parameters were studied. To investigate free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential, Fenton reaction, radiation mediated OH radical scavenging and chemically generated superoxide anions scavenging were studied in vitro while inhibition of lipid peroxidation was studied in liver homogenate of mice. RESULTS: A dose of 30 mg/kg body weight of RH-3 rendered 82% survival as compared to no survival in irradiated control. The endogenous CFU counts in mouse spleen on 10th post-irradiation day with and without RH-3 demonstrated radioprotective effect. Various hematological parameters also corroborated the radioprotective effect of RH-3. In a dose dependent manner, RH-3 inhibited Fenton reaction and radiation mediated generation of hydroxyl radicals in vitro, superoxide anion mediated Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction and FeSO4 mediated lipid peroxidation in liver. CONCLUSION: Free radical scavenging, acceleration of stem cell proliferation and immunostimulation are the radioprotective attributes, which require further investigations.
Processing effects on the composition of sea buckthorn juice from Hippophae rhamnoides L. Cv. Indian Summer.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jan 2;50(1):113-6.Beveridge T, Harrison JE, Drover J.Food Research Program, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, British Columbia V0H 1Z0, Canada.
Sea buckthorn juice is one product that can be derived from the sea buckthorn berry, a new alternative crop for the Canadian western provinces. Fresh pressed juice separates into three phases when allowed to stand overnight in the refrigerator: an upper cream phase, juice in the middle portion, and a sediment at the bottom. Enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial, broad spectrum carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme preparations reduced the juice viscosity, assisted juice separation, and provided an opalescent juice. Soluble solids averaged 10.2 degrees Brix, pH averaged 3.13, ascorbic acid averaged 174.2 mg/100 mL, and titratable acidity averaged 1.97% as malic acid all determined on centrifuged (10 000 rpm, 15 min) juice. Soluble sugars included glucose, fructose, and an unidentified component that was not sucrose or other common soluble monomeric or dimeric sugar. Quinic acid was quantitatively most important, while malic was next, and oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids were minor components. Washing berries by dipping reduced soluble solids (degrees Brix) in juice suggesting uptake of wash water.
Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries: identification and effects of different origins and harvesting times.:J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Nov;49(11):5620-9.Yang B, Karlsson RM, Oksman PH, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. email@example.com
Sterols in seeds, pulp/peel fractions, and whole berries of sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) samples belonging to two major subspecies (sinensis and rhamnoides) from Finland and China were analyzed as TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after saponification of the oils. The total sterol contents in the seeds, the fresh pulp/peel, and the whole berries were 1200-1800, 240-400, and 340-520 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in the extracted oils were 12-23, 10-29, and 13-33 g/kg. Sitosterol constituted 57-76 and 61-83%, respectively, of the seed and pulp/peel sterols. The sterol content and composition showed little variation between subspecies and collection sites. Different harvesting dates showed significant effects on the levels of some sterols both in the seeds and in the pulp/peel. The sterol profiles obtained are useful for characterizing sea buckthorn and detecting adulterations of the valuable oils. The information provided by the present investigation is also important for further chemical investigation of sea buckthorn sterols and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw material of functional foods.
Polar lipid and fatty acid distribution in carotenolipoprotein complexes extracted from sea buckthorn fruits.:Phytochem Anal. 2001 Sep-Oct;12(5):293-8.Pintea A, Marpeau A, Faye M, Socaciu C, Gleizes M.Dept of Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, str. Manastur 3, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., fam. Elaeagnaceae) fruits are rich in pigments and lipoproteins located in membranes and the fleshy mesocarp. In spite of many reports concerning the neutral lipids in the mesocarp, no data about the polar lipids and their fatty acid composition are available even though they play important structural and physiological roles in cell membranes and may offer interesting applications as emulsifiers and nutrients in cosmetic preparations. Carotenolipoprotein complexes are located particularly in fruit membranes where polar lipids may function as bridge compounds between the polar (protein) and non-polar (carotenoid) moieties. The fatty acid compositions of total and individual polar lipids separated from carotenolipoprotein complexes were determined by HPTLC and GC. The polar lipids included 61% phospholipids and 39% galactolipids, which contained mainly 16:0, 16:1 (9c), 18:1 (9c), 18:1 (11c) and 18:2 (9c, 12c) fatty acids. Almost all polar lipids showed high ratios of 16:0/16:1 (11c) and 18:1 (9c)/18:1 (11c), and higher quantities of 18 carbon unsaturated fatty acids than of the saturated analogue. Galactolipids proved to be richest in 18:1 (9c) and 18:3 (9c, 12c, 15c) fatty acids, while phospholipids contained higher concentrations of 16:0 and 18:1 (9c).
Hepatoprotective effect of the sea buckthorn-and-pinks oil.:Lik Sprava. 2000 Sep;(6):96-9. Ukrainian.Lipkan GM, Oli?nyk OA.
Our objective in this study was to reveal hepatoprotective properties of the sea-buckthorn and sea-buckthorn-pink oils in the experiment in shinshilla rats exposed to tetrachloromethane. To assess the progression of hepatitis and recovery processes in hepatic cells we used the organ-specific enzyme sorbitoldegydrogenase (SDG). The results obtained showed that the sea-buckthorn and sea-buckthorn-pink oils promoted normalization of SDG level 5 and 8 days respectively earlier than in the control group, which fact is indicative of their apparent hepatoprotective properties.
Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries.:J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Apr;90(4):494-507.Puupponen-Pimi? R, Nohynek L, Meier C, K?hk?nen M, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Oksman-Caldentey KM.VTT Biotechnology, PO Box 1500 (Tietotie 2), FIN-02044 VTT, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS: To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including probiotic bacteria and the intestinal pathogen Salmonella. Antimicrobial activity was screened by an agar diffusion method and bacterial growth was measured in liquid culture as a more accurate assay. Myricetin inhibited the growth of all lactic acid bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract flora but it did not affect the Salmonella strain. In general, berry extracts inhibited the growth of Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria. These variations may reflect differences in cell surface structures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cloudberry, raspberry and strawberry extracts were strong inhibitors of Salmonella. Sea buckthorn berry and blackcurrant showed the least activity against Gram-negative bacteria. CONCLUSION: Different bacterial species exhibit different sensitivities towards phenolics. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These properties can be utilized in functional food development and in food preservative purposes.
Fatty acid composition of lipids in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries of different origins.:J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Apr;49(4):1939-47.Yang B, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN - 20014 Turku, Finland. email@example.com
The oil content and fatty acid composition of berries from two subspecies of sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides L.) were investigated. The berries of subsp. rhamnoides contained a higher proportion of oil in seeds (11.3% vs 7.3%, p < 0.01), berries (3.5% vs 2.1%, p < 0.001), and seedless parts (2.8% vs 1.7%, p < 0.01) than the berries of subsp. sinensis. Linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acids (18:3n-3) comprised about 70% of seed oil fatty acids. Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), practically absent in the seed oil, comprised 12.1--39.0% of oil in pulp/peel and 8.9--31.0% of that in the whole berries. More linoleic acid (40.9% vs 39.1%) and less alpha-linolenic acid (26.6% vs 30.6%) was found in the seed oil of subsp. sinensis than in the seed oil of subsp. rhamnoides (p < 0.05). The proportion of palmitoleic acid was higher in the oil of berries of subsp. rhamnoides than the berries of subsp. sinensis (26.0% vs 21.5%, 0.05 < p < 0.1), but was vice versa with alpha-linolenic acid (8.8% vs 11.2%, 0.05 < p < 0.1). The proportions of alpha-linolenic acid correlated inversely with oleic and linoleic acids in the seed oil. In the oil of whole berries, the proportion of palmitoleic acid correlated negatively with the proportions of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Sea buckthorn berry oil inhibits platelet aggregation.:J Nutr Biochem. 2000 Oct;11(10):491-5.Johansson AK, Korte H, Yang B, Stanley JC, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
A small-scale preliminary cross-over study was conducted to investigate the effects of supercritical CO(2)-extracted sea buckthorn berry oil (SBO) on some risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Special features of the oil are high proportions of palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n-9), palmitoleic (16:1n-7), linoleic (18:2n-6), and alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids as well as vitamin E, carotenoids, and sterols. Twelve healthy normolipidemic men were recruited and each volunteer consumed SBO and fractionated coconut oil (control) 5 g per day for a period of 4 weeks in a random order (wash-out 4-8 weeks). Phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, and glucose were unaffected by SBO supplementation. Instead, a clear decrease in the rate of adenosine-5'-diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation and maximum aggregation were found. This suggested the beneficial effects of SBO on blood clotting, but further studies on the dose-response effects are needed to assess the practical use of SBO supplements.
Correction by common sea buckthorn bark and sprout extracts of hormonal and metabolic disturbances during stress in rats.:Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2000 Jul-Aug;63(4):70-3. Russian.Krylova SG, Konovalova ON, Zueva EP.Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Scientific Center, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Russia.
Long-term administration of the common sea buckthorn bark and sprout extract improves the hormonal-metabolic organism status in rats disturbed by a stress factor (immobilization). The drug administration led to normalization of the altered functional activity indices of the neuro-endocrine system (disturbed adrenocorticotropin, 11-deoxycortisol, insulin, urea, and glucose levels) by affecting the production of glucocorticoids and increasing the hypothalamus sensitivity with respect to regulatory signals.
Effect of dietary supplementation with sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seed and pulp oils on the fatty acid composition of skin glycerophospholipids of patients with atopic dermatitis.:J Nutr Biochem. 2000 Jun;11(6):338-40.Yang B, Kalimo KO, Tahvonen RL, Mattila LM, Katajisto JK, Kallio HP.Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Sea buckthorn (Hippopha? rhamnoides) seed and pulp oils have traditionally been used for treating skin diseases in China and Russia, but are not widely used in other countries. A placebo-controlled, parallel study was carried out to investigate the effects of these oils on the fatty acid composition of skin glycerophospholipids of patients with atopic dermatitis. Sixteen patients ate 5 g of sea buckthorn seed oil, pulp oil, or paraffin oil daily for 4 months. Skin fatty acids were analyzed with gas chromatography before and after treatment. The seed oil slightly increased the proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) and decreased the proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in skin glycerophospholipids (0.05 < P < 0.1). The levels of the other fatty acids remained stable. The results show that the fatty acid composition of skin glycerophospholipids is well buffered against short-term dietary modification.
Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during maturation.:J Agric Food Chem. 2000 May;48(5):1485-90.Gao X, Ohlander M, Jeppsson N, Bj?rk L, Trajkovski V.Phytochemical Center, Balsgard, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Fjalkestadsv. 123-1, S-291 94 Kristianstad, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
Different fractions of sea buckthorn fruits were investigated for antioxidant activity and its relationship to different phytonutrients. Capacity to scavenge radicals of the crude extract, like the phenolic and ascorbate extracts, decreased significantly with increased maturation. The changes were strongly correlated with the content of total phenolics and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant capacity of the lipophilic extract increased significantly and corresponded to the increase in total carotenoids. The phenolic fractions made a major contribution to the total antioxidant capacity due to the high content of total phenolics. The lipophilic fractions were most effective if the comparison was based on the ratio between antioxidant capacity and content of antioxidants. The crude extract of fruits showed the highest inhibitory effect in both 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and ascorbate-iron induced lipid peroxidations. The aqueous and ascorbate-free extracts showed higher inhibition in the AMVN assay, but lower inhibition in ascorbate-iron induced peroxidation, than the lipophilic extract.
Content of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in 25 edible berries.:J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Jun;47(6):2274-9.H?kkinen SH, K?renlampi SO, Heinonen IM, Mykk?nen HM, T?rr?nen AR.Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Finland.
The amounts of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol aglycons in 25 edible berries were analyzed by an optimized RP-HPLC method with UV detection and identified with diode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection. Sixteen species of cultivated berries and nine species of wild berries were collected in Finland in 1997. Quercetin was found in all berries, the contents being highest in bog whortleberry (158 mg/kg, fresh weight), lingonberry (74 and 146 mg/kg), cranberry (83 and 121 mg/kg), chokeberry (89 mg/kg), sweet rowan (85 mg/kg), rowanberry (63 mg/kg), sea buckthorn berry (62 mg/kg), and crowberry (53 and 56 mg/kg). Amounts between 14 and 142 mg/kg of myricetin were detected in cranberry, black currant, crowberry, bog whortleberry, blueberries, and bilberry. Kaempferol was detected only in gooseberries (16 and 19 mg/kg) and strawberries (5 and 8 mg/kg). Total contents of these flavonols (100-263 mg/kg) in cranberry, bog whortleberry, lingonberry, black currant, and crowberry were higher than those in the commonly consumed fruits or vegetables, except for onion, kale, and broccoli.
Wood anatomy of Elaeagnaceae, with comments on vestured pits, helical thickenings, and systematic relationships.:Am J Bot. 2000 Jan;87(1):20-28.Jansen S, Piesschaert F, Smets E.Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Botanical Institute, K.U. Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 92, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.
The secondary xylem of Elaeagnus, Hippophae, and Shepherdia is described and illustrated in detail. Shrubs and small trees of Elaeagnaceae have ring-porous or semi-ring-porous wood with simple perforation plates, vascular tracheids, fiber-tracheids, diffuse or rarely paratracheal axial parenchyma, and uni- or biseriate rays in Hippophae and Shepherdia, but wider rays in ELAEAGNUS: Walls of vessel elements, especially narrow ones, tracheids, or fiber-tracheids sometimes show helical thickenings; in a few instances these intergrade with small bud-like protrusions associated with pits. Scanning electron microscopy illustrates that small to vestigial vestures are present in all species studied, although nonvestured pits are also common. The analogous nature of vestures and helical thickenings is considered. Comparative wood anatomy suggests a rather isolated position of the family Elaeagnaceae; affinities with Rhamnaceae, Proteaceae, and Thymelaeaceae are discussed.
Rheology of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) juice.:J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Sep;47(9):3546-50.Oomah BD, Séry G, Godfrey DV, Beveridge TH.Food Research Program, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia V0H 1Z0, Canada. Oomahd@em.agr.ca
Juice extracted from sea buckthorn fruits was subjected to dynamic rheological measurements in a controlled stress rheometer. Sea buckthorn juice exhibited wide variations in flow behavior from pseudoplastic to dilitant with increasing temperature. The power law model suitably (r >/= 0.975, P= 0.001) described the shear-stress versus shear-rate data of the juice. Changes in apparent viscosity of the juice with increasing temperature obeyed the Arrhenius law at shear stress above 1 Pa but deviated from it at low shear stress of 0.1 Pa. The rheological behavior of sea buckthorn serum obtained after centrifugation of the juice was similar to those of the juice and sucrose solution at high shear rate but differed from them at low shear rate. Addition of ethanol insoluble substances up to 7% (w/v) to the juice changed its rheological behavior to resemble that of a sea buckthorn juice concentrate at 48 degrees Brix, although frequency dependence was unaffected above 1 Hz. Sea buckthorn juice was found to be thermostable within the temperature range from 25 to 70 degrees C, although critical changes occurred in juice components above 70 degrees C.
Sea buckthorn products: manufacture and composition.:J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Sep;47(9):3480-8. Review.Beveridge T, Li TS, Oomah BD, Smith A.Food Research Program, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia V0H 1Z0, Canada. email@example.com
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a unique plant currently being domesticated. The fruit is the main component of value, although the leaves are occasionally made into sea buckthorn tea. The two main sources of valuable products are derived from the berries, juice from the fleshy tissue and seed as a single seed from each berry. The juice provides a nutritious beverage, high in suspended solids and very high in vitamin C and carotenes. The juice may contain an oil phase trapped within the suspended solids, or the oil may be removed as pulp oil and provided separately. The pulp remaining after juice removal provides for extraction of "sea buckthorn yellow", a pigment that has potential use as a food coloring material. The seed is a source of seed oil, which is very unsaturated and shows promise, because of its light absorption and emollient properties, as an ingredient in cosmetics, phytopharmaceuticals, or UV skin protectant preparations. It may be prepared by conventional extraction techniques or by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The manufacture of the main products derived from sea buckthorn is described, including several examples from the patent literature. The available compositional data for the main products are tabulated to form a comprehensive source of information on the manufacture and composition of sea buckthorn products.
Sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils--recent developments in China and central Asia.:Nahrung. 1999 Aug;43(4):228-32. Review. German.Aitzetmüller K, Xin Y.Bundesanstalt für Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Institut für Chemie und Physik der Fette, Münster, Deutschland.
Since several years, sea buckthorn and sea buckthorn oils are booming in China, Russia and Central Asia. The background of this development is described and the different species and varieties of sea buckthorn are mentioned. The two different oils obtained from sea buckthorn (pulp oil and seed oil) and their composition is discussed. The use of sea buckthorn and its oils for medical and pharmaceutical purposes has its roots in ancient Tibet. The various "health claims", particularly by Russian and Chinese medical authorities, could not be discussed here. However, a number of recent papers are quoted here without further comment.
The search for new anti-ulcer agents from plants in Siberia and the Far East.:Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1998 Nov-Dec;61(6):31-5. Russian.Amosova EN, Zueva EP, Razina TG, Turetskova VF, Azarova OV, Krylova SG, Gol'dberg ED.Institute of Pharmacology, Tomsk Research Center, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Russia.
Screening tests on mice with the use of a model of neurogenic damage to the stomach revealed antiulcerative activity in extracts of Amoor cork tree, Pacific Bergenia, Lespedeza dichromatic, Leuzea carthamoides, sea-buckthorn, common aspen, Manchurian nuts, Serratula coronarius, and Scutellaria baicalensis. It was proved that an extract of aspen cork produces a marked antiulcerative effect on being administered to animals with "acute" ulcers and in treatment of chronic peptic ulcer. The study of various drug forms of Serratula coronarius extracts (prepared from the bark and the bark and shoots) in experiments on mice (neurogenic ulcer) and rats (Aspirin ulcer) revealed the most marked gastroprotective effect of oil extracts of bark and shoots. A high antiulcerogenic activity of extracts prepared from grass and roots of Scutellaria baicalensis was demonstrated.
Study on the quality standard of Hippophae rhamnoides oil for pharmaceutical uses.:Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Mar;20(3):155-8. Chinese.Fu Q, Yang Q, Si J, Chen H, Chang C, Lu J, Wei X.Xian Medical University, Xian 710061.
The quality control methods of the seed oil and fruit oil of Hippophae rhamnoides are studied. The physical and chemical factors are determined and the identification and determination methods for the bioactive compnents a-tocopherol and carotenes are established.
Hearing loss and trace elements Fe2+ and Zn2+ in the perilymph.:ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec.1995 Sep-Oct;57(5):245-9. Xu M, Fan Y, Gao Z, Chen J, Li J.Department of Otolaryngology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Medical University, China.
Fe2+ and Zn2+ levels in perilymph of guinea pigs injected with gentamicin (GM) were examined and compared with the corresponding concentrations in CSF, serum and hairs. We observed a preventive and therapeutic action of sea buckthorn oil and injectio gastrodini to hearing loss. The results showed that: (1) the Fe2+ content in GM-injected guinea pigs was increased in perilymph and hairs; it was decreased after prevention and treatment, but there was no obvious change in CSF and serum; (2) the Zn2+ content in perilymph and CSF was increased in GM-injected guinea pigs. It rose further after prevention, but in serum and hairs it decreased. The results indicate that the ototoxic reaction to GM is related to the rise of the Fe2+ content in perilymph. The elevation of Zn2+ is a compensatory reaction. The changes in the chemical composition of perilymph are more important than those in CSF, serum and hairs for pathological changes of the cochlea. Sea buckthorn oil can prevent GM ototoxicity.
The effect of an extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) on the healing of experimental skin wounds in rats.:Khirurgiia (Sofiia). 1995;48(3):30-3. Bulgarian.Ianev E, Radev S, Balutsov M, Klouchek E, Popov A.
The effect exerted by Hippopha? rhamnoides L. extract on the healing of experimental wounds in rats is studied histomorphologically in dynamics. The animals are divided up in three groups, as follows: group one--controls, group two--controls treated with indifferent carrier (carbopol gel), and group three--experimental, treated with carbopol gel containing extract of Hippopha? rhamnoides L. The wounds induced are standard, oval to elliptic with diameter about 3 cm. In groups I and II they are subjected to daily daubing over a 10-day period. The study of cytologic smears at 8, 24 and 48 hours, and biopsy performed on the 10th day show that in group three the epithelization is more intensive and occurs earlier, and granulation tissue differentiation (mature collagen fibers, profuse vascularity) is quicker, by comparison with groups one and two. The markedly expressed stimulating effect on the healing process is explained with the rich content of vitamins (A, C, E etc.) and microelements (sulfur, selenium, zinc, copper etc.) in the extract used.
A comparative pharmacological evaluation of sea buckthorn, rose and plantain oils in experimental eye burns.:Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1992 Jul-Aug;55(4):64-6. Russian.Nikulin AA, Iakusheva EN, Zakharova NM.
Hippophae, Rosa and plantain oils have been shown to produce and essential therapeutic action on chemical burns of rabbit eye. The effect was attained in the phases of trophic disturbances and epithelialization.
Degree of lipid peroxidation and vitamin E level during the treatment of peptic ulcer.:Klin Med (Mosk). 1991 Jul;69(7):38-42. Russian.Degtiareva II, Toteva Ets , Litinskaia EV, Matvienko AV, Iurzhenko NN, Leonov LN, Khomenko EV, Nevstruev VP.
The study of 468 ulcer patients treated by laser irradiation plus choline blocking agents with adjuvant alpha-tocopherol antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol acetate, wild rose and sea-buckthorn oils) provided evidence in favour of the antioxidants addition. Combination of hyperbaric oxygenation (5-6 sessions) or riboxin with choline blocking agents made antioxidants unnecessary. Biochemical findings (vitamin E and malonic dialdehyde concentrations), electron microscopic, ++histo-enzyme and amino acids studies supported the clinical evidence.
The effect of millet oil on healing of purulent wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus and experimental animals.:Klin Khir. 1991;(1):8-10. Russian.Nuzov B.
In the studies on 64 rabbits with the model of a suppurating wound against the background of diabetes mellitus, and as well in treating 29 patients with diabetes mellitus and purulent-inflammatory soft tissue diseases, it was established that the millet oil had the antiinflammatory and stimulating tissue regeneration effect. The duration of wound treatment in rabbits with the use of millet oil was 16 days shorter than in use of the sea-buckthorn oil, and 21 day shorter--Wishnevsky's ointment. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the duration of wound treatment in use of the millet oil reduced by 16 days when compared to that in using the sea-buckthorn oil.
Prevention of tumour production in rats fed aminopyrine plus nitrite by sea buckthorn juice.:IARC Sci Publ. 1991;(105):568-70.Li Y, Liu H.Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Shanxi Medical College, Taiyuan, China.
Three groups of Wistar rats were fed a diet containing aminopyrine (0.2%) and NaNO2 (0.2%) and either tap-water (controls), sea buckthorn juice or ascorbic acid solution ad libitum for 38 weeks. All 17 rats given tap-water developed tumours in the liver, and six developed tumours in the lungs and four in the kidneys; in rats given sea buckthorn juice, 15 had tumours of the liver, 11 of the lungs and two of the kidneys; the incidences in rats given ascorbic acid were 18/18, 6/18 and 4/18, respectively. The average life span of the group given sea buckthorn juice was 270 days, which was significantly longer (p less than 0.01) than those of rats given tap-water (195 days) or ascorbic acid (220 days). Microscopic examination of the livers of rats receiving sea buckthorn juice showed fewer foci of carcinogenesis than those of the control and the ascorbic acid groups. The results suggest that sea buckthorn juice can block the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds more effectively than ascorbic acid and thereby prevent tumour production.
Application of "Aekol" preparation for combined treatment of open injuries.:Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1990 Dec;(12):42-7. Russian.Kostrikova EV, Goridova LD, Gusak IV.
Therapeutic effect of "Aekol" preparation (artificial sea-buckthorn oil) has been studied in the process of treatment of 41 victims and patients with open injuries of limb segments, pyo-necrotic complications of skeletal trauma, investing tissue necrosis following cavitary and cutaneoplastic operative interventions, tropic disturbances of investing tissue integrity. "Aeko" preparation efficiency has been compared with the efficiency of prototype preparation (natural sea-buckthorn oil) and with the efficiency of remedies, traditionally applied for the II phase of the wound process. On the basis of clinical observations, wound surface planimetry, investigation of wound surface bioptats and study of dynamics of some biochemical components in the blood serum in the process of wound healing the authors concluded that the clinical efficiency of "Aekol" preparation in open injure treatment is comparable with the efficiency of natural sea-buckthorn oil and considerably exceeds the efficiency of the traditional would healing remedies.
Antimutagenic properties of sea buckthorn oil.:Genetika. 1990 Feb;26(2):378-80. Russian.Nersesian AK, Zil'fian VN, Kumkumadzhian VA, Proshian NV.
The influence of sea-buckthorn oil on cyclophosphamide, farmorubicin and dioxadet mutagenicity was studied. The oil decreased significantly the cytogenetic action of cyclophosphamide and farmorubicin, but not of dioxadet action. Possible mechanisms of antimutagenic action of the oil are discussed.
Experimental study of wound-healing effect of the preparation "Aekol" (artificial sea buckthorn oil).:Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1989 Jan;(1):32-6. Russian.Kostrikova EV.
The author presents the data of her own experimental studies devoted to the investigation of specific wound-healing effect of the new medicinal preparation "Aekol". The author proves that like its prototype, native, sea-buckthorn oil, aekol is indicated for application at the second stage of the wound process as a stimulant of reparative processes. Besides, the drug possesses antiinflammatory effect. Objectivization of the principal points of the article was performed by means of numeral moterial obtained in immunological, biochemical and morphological experimental studies.
Rapid separation of flavonoids by analytical high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr. 1988 Jul 8;445(1):199-206.Zhang TY, Xiao R, Xiao ZY, Pannell LK, Ito Y.Laboratory of Technical Development, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.
A commercial model of the analytical high-speed counter-current chromatography instrument was used for separation of flavonoids from a crude ethanol extract of dried fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). Using a two-phase solvent system of chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2), a five-fold increase in flow-rate of the mobile phase from 60 to 300 ml/h resulted in a rapid separation of five components in less than 15 min without significant loss in peak resolution. Major flavonoid component, isorhamnetin, was identified in its pure state by mass spectrometric analysis.
Direct determination of tocopherols in plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography.:Vopr Pitan. 1987 Nov-Dec;(6):59-61. Russian.Iakushuina LM, Lykova NM, Ryndakova IA.
Isomeric tocopherols determine the oxidation stability of unsaturated lipids. Therefore, the stability of vegetable oils in the process of their treatment and storage could be evaluated by the tocopherol levels. High-performance liquid chromatography has been suggested for rapid (10-12 min) and selective assay of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols in various vegetable oils: soybean, cotton, sea buckthorn, sunflower and wheat germ oil, and in hydrogenated fat. The samples without preliminary saponification and extraction were dissolved in the eluent and introduced into the column. The assay was conducted both in imported ("Beckman" and "Kratos" firms) and in Soviet ("Milichrom") chromatographs which included a detector-spectrophotometer with wave-length 294 nm, a column with silica gel, an eluent--hexane with 1.5% isopropanol. The quantitative determination was conducted with the use of reference solutions of alpha-tocopherol. The tocopherol yield comprised 99.8%.
Hygienic significance of patulin in food. 2. Occurrence of patulin in fruit and vegetables.:Nahrung. 1979;23(2):131-4.German.Thurm V, Paul P, Koch CE.
The analyses of more than 200 samples of various foods of plant origin showed that patulin was contained in 36% of the fresh and canned fruits infested with mould, and in 7% of the vegetables. Besides apples, pears, plums, peaches and tomatoes contained also patulin. In organoleptically impeccable fruit juices, the contamination rates were 40% (for apple juice) and 16% (for the other juices, such as sour cherry, currant, sea buckthorn juices). The patulin content varied from 20 to 200 microgram/l, the mean value being 80 microgram/l. It ranged from 0.1 to 5 microgram/g in apples and sterile apple preserves. The authors discuss the hygienic-toxicologic significance of these findings, and suggest to include patulin in the examination of foods for mycotoxins, stipulating a permissible value.
Effect of sea buckthorn, dog rose and sperm oils, preparation "Spedian-2M" on several indices of carbohydrate metabolism and concentration of electrolytes in the tissues of rats and guinea pigs.:Farmakol Toksikol. 1977 Jan-Feb;40(1):61-6. Russian.Nikulin AA, Iavorski? AN, Petrov VK, Tishkin VS, Rachkov AK.
A specific lactate-reducing effect of fatty vegetable oils (sea-buckthorn and rose), of the sperm oil and the "Spedian-2M" preparation, of a permanent nature, or sporadically, in tests on rats, and markedly, as well as persistently--in experiments with guinea pigs was revealed. The phenomenon was most distinctly pronounced in the liver. The oils also produce a glycogen-mobilizing effect, since there could be noted a relative stability in the content of glucose in the tissues, and this despite an increased carbohydrate decomposition. The study oils, even in elevated doses, are not toxic, do not intensify the oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates, thus creating all the necessary conditions for stimulation and proteinic synthesis.
- 1.What is Sea Buckthorn,Hippophae rhamnoides L,Sea Buckthorn Berry,Argousier,Sanddorn,Finbar,Homokt?Seabuckthorn and its History?
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